If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: D-glucuronate catabolism, D-glucuronate degradation, glucuronic acid degradation, glucuronate degradation, β-D-glucuronide degradation
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Carboxylates Degradation → Sugar Acids Degradation → D-Glucuronate Degradation|
|Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Secondary Metabolites Degradation → Sugar Derivatives Degradation → Sugar Acids Degradation → D-Glucuronate Degradation|
E. coli can use β-D-glucuronides and the hexuronates D-glucuronate and D-fructuronate and as the sole sources of carbon for growth. β-D-glucuronides are detoxification products that are excreted into the mammalian gut in the bile. D-glucuronate is found in animal mucus and at low levels in plant tissues. The enzymes of this pathway were first described in a series of publications by Ashwell et al. [Ashwell58, Ashwell60, Hickman60, Smiley60, Cynkin60].
The initial step in the degradation of β-glucuronides is hydrolysis by β-D-glucuronidase to yield D-glucuronate, which is subsequently isomerized to D-fructuronate by D-glucuronate isomerase, an enzyme which can carry out the analogous function in the D-galacturonate degradation I pathway. D-fructuronate then undergoes an NADH-dependent reduction to D-mannonate by D-mannonate oxidoreductase. D-mannonate dehydratase subsequently catalyzes dehydration to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. At this point, the superpathway of β-D-glucuronide and D-glucuronate degradation and D-galacturonate degradation I pathways converge, and a common enzyme, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, phosphorylates 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate to yield 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate-6-phosphate, which enters central metabolism via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway I.
Review: Mandrand-Berthelot, M.-A., Condemine, G., and Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N., EcoSal Module 3.4.2 [ECOSAL]
Superpathways: superpathway of hexuronide and hexuronate degradation
Ashwell60: Ashwell G, Wahba AJ, Hickman J (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. I. Purification and properties of uronic acid isomerase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1960;235(6):1559-1565. PMID: 13794771
Cynkin60: Cynkin MA, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. IV. Purification and properties of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconokinase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1576-9. PMID: 13813474
Hickman60: Hickman J, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1566-70. PMID: 14401695
Smiley60: Smiley JD, Ashwell G (1960). "Uronic acid metabolism in bacteria. III. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrases in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 235;1571-5. PMID: 13831814
Blanco82: Blanco C, Ritzenthaler P, Mata-Gilsinger M (1982). "Cloning and endonuclease restriction analysis of uidA and uidR genes in Escherichia coli K-12: determination of transcription direction for the uidA gene." J Bacteriol 149(2);587-94. PMID: 6276362
Chen07a: Chen KC, Cheng TL, Leu YL, Prijovich ZM, Chuang CH, Chen BM, Roffler SR (2007). "Membrane-localized activation of glucuronide prodrugs by beta-glucuronidase enzymes." Cancer Gene Ther 14(2);187-200. PMID: 16977328
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
DidierFichet68: Didier-Fichet ML, Stoeber F (1968). "[On the properties and the biosynthesis of beta-glucuronidase of Escherichia coli K 12]." C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D 266(19);2021-4. PMID: 4970455
Egan92: Egan SE, Fliege R, Tong S, Shibata A, Wolf RE, Conway T (1992). "Molecular characterization of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway in Escherichia coli: sequence analysis and localization of promoters for the edd-eda operon." J Bacteriol 1992;174(14);4638-46. PMID: 1624451
Geary11: Geary JR, Nijak GM, Larson SL, Talley JW (2011). "Hydrolysis of the soluble fluorescent molecule carboxyumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide by E. coli beta-glucuronidase as applied in a rugged, in situ optical sensor." Enzyme Microb Technol 49(1);6-10. PMID: 22112264
Hickman60a: Hickman, J., Ashwell, G. (1960). "Uronic Acid Metabolism in Bacteria: II. Purification and properties of D-altronic acid and D-mannonic acid dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli." J. Biol. Chem. 235:1566-1570.
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