Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: glycogen biosynthesis I (from ADP-D-Glucose)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: glycogen biosynthesis I (from ADP-D-Glucose)

Note: a dashed line (without arrowheads) between two compound names is meant to imply that the two names are just different instantiations of the same compound -- i.e. one may be a specific name and the other a general name, or they may both represent the same compound in different stages of a polymerization-type pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for glycogen biosynthesis I (from ADP-D-Glucose)

Superclasses: BiosynthesisCarbohydrates BiosynthesisPolysaccharides BiosynthesisGlycogen and Starch Biosynthesis

Glycogen is a glucose-containing polysaccharide, comprised of approximately 95% α-1,4 linkages and 5% α-1,6 branch glucosyl linkages, with an average chain length of 12 to 14 glucose units. ADP-glucose is the glucosyl donor, which is transferred to either a maltodextrin or glycogen primer, forming a new α-1,4-glucosidic linkage. The first enzyme of the pathway, glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, is rate-limiting. After chain elongation, the formation of the branched α-1,6-glucosidic linkages from the growing polyglucose chain is catalyzed by the glycogen branching enzyme.

Reviews: Preiss, J., Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis, Chapter 67 in [Neidhardt96]

and Preiss, J., Glycogen: Biosynthesis and Regulation, Module 4.7.4 in [ECOSAL]

Created 04-Apr-1994 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory
Last-Curated 09-Mar-2009 by Keseler I, SRI International


ECOSAL: "Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology." Online edition.

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Abad02: Abad MC, Binderup K, Rios-Steiner J, Arni RK, Preiss J, Geiger JH (2002). "The X-ray crystallographic structure of Escherichia coli branching enzyme." J Biol Chem 277(44);42164-70. PMID: 12196524

Abad02a: Abad MC, Binderup K, Preiss J, Geiger JH (2002). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Escherichia coli branching enzyme." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 58(Pt 2);359-61. PMID: 11807277

Adhya71: Adhya S, Schwartz M (1971). "Phosphoglucomutase mutants of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 108(2);621-6. PMID: 4942754

Almagro15: Almagro G, Viale AM, Montero M, Rahimpour M, Munoz FJ, Baroja-Fernandez E, Bahaji A, Zuniga M, Gonzalez-Candelas F, Pozueta-Romero J (2015). "Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses of Gammaproteobacterial glg genes traced the origin of the Escherichia coli glycogen glgBXCAP operon to the last common ancestor of the sister orders Enterobacteriales and Pasteurellales." PLoS One 10(1);e0115516. PMID: 25607991

Baker02: Baker CS, Morozov I, Suzuki K, Romeo T, Babitzke P (2002). "CsrA regulates glycogen biosynthesis by preventing translation of glgC in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(6);1599-610. PMID: 12067347

Ball11: Ball S, Colleoni C, Cenci U, Raj JN, Tirtiaux C (2011). "The evolution of glycogen and starch metabolism in eukaryotes gives molecular clues to understand the establishment of plastid endosymbiosis." J Exp Bot 62(6);1775-801. PMID: 21220783

Ballicora02: Ballicora MA, Sesma JI, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2002). "Characterization of chimeric ADPglucose pyrophosphorylases of Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Importance of the C-terminus on the selectivity for allosteric regulators." Biochemistry 41(30);9431-7. PMID: 12135365

Ballicora03: Ballicora MA, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2003). "ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a regulatory enzyme for bacterial glycogen synthesis." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(2);213-25, table of contents. PMID: 12794190

Ballicora07: Ballicora MA, Erben ED, Yazaki T, Bertolo AL, Demonte AM, Schmidt JR, Aleanzi M, Bejar CM, Figueroa CM, Fusari CM, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2007). "Identification of regions critically affecting kinetics and allosteric regulation of the Escherichia coli ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by modeling and pentapeptide-scanning mutagenesis." J Bacteriol 189(14);5325-33. PMID: 17496097

BeckerHapak95: Becker-Hapak M, Eisenstark A (1995). "Role of rpoS in the regulation of glutathione oxidoreductase (gor) in Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 134(1);39-44. PMID: 8593953

Bejar04: Bejar CM, Ballicora MA, Gomez-Casati DF, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2004). "The ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli comprises two tightly bound distinct domains." FEBS Lett 573(1-3);99-104. PMID: 15327982

Bejar06: Bejar CM, Jin X, Ballicora MA, Preiss J (2006). "Molecular architecture of the glucose 1-phosphate site in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases." J Biol Chem 281(52);40473-84. PMID: 17079236

Bejar06a: Bejar CM, Ballicora MA, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2006). "ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase's N-terminus: structural role in allosteric regulation." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343(1);216-21. PMID: 16530732

Binderup00: Binderup K, Mikkelsen R, Preiss J (2000). "Limited proteolysis of branching enzyme from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 377(2);366-71. PMID: 10845715

Binderup02: Binderup K, Mikkelsen R, Preiss J (2002). "Truncation of the amino terminus of branching enzyme changes its chain transfer pattern." Arch Biochem Biophys 397(2);279-85. PMID: 11795883

Binderup98: Binderup K, Preiss J (1998). "Glutamate-459 is important for Escherichia coli branching enzyme activity." Biochemistry 37(25);9033-7. PMID: 9636047

BolanosGarcia06: Bolanos-Garcia VM, Davies OR (2006). "Structural analysis and classification of native proteins from E. coli commonly co-purified by immobilised metal affinity chromatography." Biochim Biophys Acta 1760(9);1304-13. PMID: 16814929

Boyer77: Boyer C, Preiss J (1977). "Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen. Purification and properties of the Escherichia coli b alpha-1,4,-glucan: alpha-1,4-glucan 6-glycosyltansferase." Biochemistry 16(16);3693-9. PMID: 407932

Brautaset98: Brautaset T, Petersen S, Valla S (1998). "An experimental study on carbon flow in Escherichia coli as a function of kinetic properties and expression levels of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase." Biotechnol Bioeng 58(2-3);299-302. PMID: 10191405

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Mon Nov 30, 2015, biocyc12.