Note: a dashed line (without arrowheads) between two compound names is meant to imply that the two names are just different instantiations of the same compound -- i.e. one may be a specific name and the other a general name, or they may both represent the same compound in different stages of a polymerization-type pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Carbohydrates Biosynthesis → Polysaccharides Biosynthesis → Glucogen and Starch Biosynthesis|
Glycogen is a glucose-containing polysaccharide, comprised of approximately 95% α-1,4 linkages and 5% α-1,6 branch glucosyl linkages, with an average chain length of 12 to 14 glucose units. ADP-glucose is the glucosyl donor, which is transferred to either a maltodextrin or glycogen primer, forming a new α-1,4-glucosidic linkage. The first enzyme of the pathway, glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, is rate-limiting. After chain elongation, the formation of the branched α-1,6-glucosidic linkages from the growing polyglucose chain is catalyzed by the glycogen branching enzyme.
Reviews: Preiss, J., Regulation of Glycogen Synthesis, Chapter 67 in [Neidhardt96]
and Preiss, J., Glycogen: Biosynthesis and Regulation, Module 4.7.4 in [ECOSAL]
Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.
Abad02: Abad MC, Binderup K, Rios-Steiner J, Arni RK, Preiss J, Geiger JH (2002). "The X-ray crystallographic structure of Escherichia coli branching enzyme." J Biol Chem 277(44);42164-70. PMID: 12196524
Baker02: Baker CS, Morozov I, Suzuki K, Romeo T, Babitzke P (2002). "CsrA regulates glycogen biosynthesis by preventing translation of glgC in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(6);1599-610. PMID: 12067347
Ballicora02: Ballicora MA, Sesma JI, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2002). "Characterization of chimeric ADPglucose pyrophosphorylases of Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Importance of the C-terminus on the selectivity for allosteric regulators." Biochemistry 41(30);9431-7. PMID: 12135365
Ballicora03: Ballicora MA, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2003). "ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a regulatory enzyme for bacterial glycogen synthesis." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(2);213-25, table of contents. PMID: 12794190
Ballicora07: Ballicora MA, Erben ED, Yazaki T, Bertolo AL, Demonte AM, Schmidt JR, Aleanzi M, Bejar CM, Figueroa CM, Fusari CM, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2007). "Identification of regions critically affecting kinetics and allosteric regulation of the Escherichia coli ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase by modeling and pentapeptide-scanning mutagenesis." J Bacteriol 189(14);5325-33. PMID: 17496097
Bejar04: Bejar CM, Ballicora MA, Gomez-Casati DF, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2004). "The ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Escherichia coli comprises two tightly bound distinct domains." FEBS Lett 573(1-3);99-104. PMID: 15327982
Bejar06: Bejar CM, Ballicora MA, Iglesias AA, Preiss J (2006). "ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase's N-terminus: structural role in allosteric regulation." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343(1);216-21. PMID: 16530732
BolanosGarcia06: Bolanos-Garcia VM, Davies OR (2006). "Structural analysis and classification of native proteins from E. coli commonly co-purified by immobilised metal affinity chromatography." Biochim Biophys Acta 1760(9);1304-13. PMID: 16814929
Boyer77: Boyer C, Preiss J (1977). "Biosynthesis of bacterial glycogen. Purification and properties of the Escherichia coli b alpha-1,4,-glucan: alpha-1,4-glucan 6-glycosyltansferase." Biochemistry 16(16);3693-9. PMID: 407932
Brautaset98: Brautaset T, Petersen S, Valla S (1998). "An experimental study on carbon flow in Escherichia coli as a function of kinetic properties and expression levels of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase." Biotechnol Bioeng 58(2-3);299-302. PMID: 10191405
Devillers03: Devillers CH, Piper ME, Ballicora MA, Preiss J (2003). "Characterization of the branching patterns of glycogen branching enzyme truncated on the N-terminus." Arch Biochem Biophys 418(1);34-8. PMID: 13679080
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
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