Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis I (bacteria)
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis I (bacteria)

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for superpathway of phospholipid biosynthesis I (bacteria)

Superclasses: BiosynthesisFatty Acid and Lipid BiosynthesisPhospholipid Biosynthesis

Phospholipids are membrane components in E. coli. The major phospholipids of E. coli are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. All phospholipids contain sn-glycerol-3-phosphate esterified with fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions.

In addition to providing the membrane matrix, phospholipids are also involved in synthesizing several types of surface molecules. The phosphoethanolamine head groups of phosphatidylethanolamine are transferred and attached to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core sugars and to periplasmic membrane-derived oligosaccharides (MDO). The head group of phosphatidylglycerol is used for modifying various lipoproteins and MDO. The entire molecule is used in the synthesis of cardiolipin. [Raetz90, Neidhardt96]

Citations: [Ray87]

Subpathways: CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I, cardiolipin biosynthesis I, phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis I, CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II, cardiolipin biosynthesis III

Created 15-May-1996 by Riley M, Marine Biological Laboratory


Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Raetz90: Raetz CR, Dowhan W (1990). "Biosynthesis and function of phospholipids in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 265(3);1235-8. PMID: 2404013

Ray87: Ray TK, Cronan JE (1987). "Acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate is the sole pathway of de novo phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(6);2896-8. PMID: 3294813

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Babu11: Babu M, Diaz-Mejia JJ, Vlasblom J, Gagarinova A, Phanse S, Graham C, Yousif F, Ding H, Xiong X, Nazarians-Armavil A, Alamgir M, Ali M, Pogoutse O, Pe'er A, Arnold R, Michaut M, Parkinson J, Golshani A, Whitfield C, Wodak SJ, Moreno-Hagelsieb G, Greenblatt JF, Emili A (2011). "Genetic interaction maps in Escherichia coli reveal functional crosstalk among cell envelope biogenesis pathways." PLoS Genet 7(11);e1002377. PMID: 22125496

Bayan89: Bayan N, Therisod H (1989). "Evidence for interactions of acyl carrier protein with glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, an inner membrane protein of Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 1989;255(2);330-4. PMID: 2676605

Bell74: Bell RM (1974). "Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in membrane phospholipid synthesis: macromolecular synthesis in an sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase Km mutant." J Bacteriol 117(3);1065-76. PMID: 4591941

Bell75: Bell RM, Cronan JE (1975). "Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in membrane phospholipid synthesis. Phenotypic suppression of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase Km mutants by loss of feedback inhibition of the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 250(18);7153-8. PMID: 240817

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Carman12: Carman GM (2012). "An unusual phosphatidylethanolamine-utilizing cardiolipin synthase is discovered in bacteria." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(41);16402-3. PMID: 23012456

Carter68: Carter JR (1968). "Cytidine triphosphate: phosphatidic acid cytidyltransferase in Escherichia coli." J Lipid Res 9(6);748-54. PMID: 4879388

Chang67: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Pathways for the synthesis of glycerophosphatides in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 242(3);516-9. PMID: 5336962

Chang67a: Chang YY, Kennedy EP (1967). "Phosphatidyl glycerophosphate phosphatase." J Lipid Res 8(5);456-62. PMID: 4292860

Clark80: Clark D, Lightner V, Edgar R, Modrich P, Cronan JE, Bell RM (1980). "Regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. Cloning of the structural gene for the biosynthetic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Biol Chem 255(2);714-7. PMID: 6985897

Coleman90: Coleman J (1990). "Characterization of Escherichia coli cells deficient in 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3- phosphate acyltransferase activity." J Biol Chem 1990;265(28);17215-21. PMID: 2211622

Coleman92: Coleman J (1992). "Characterization of the Escherichia coli gene for 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsC)." Mol Gen Genet 1992;232(2);295-303. PMID: 1557036

Cooper87: Cooper CL, Jackowski S, Rock CO (1987). "Fatty acid metabolism in sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) mutants." J Bacteriol 169(2);605-11. PMID: 3542964

Cronan08: Cronan Jr. JE, Rock CO (2008). "Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids." EcoSal Module 6.3.4.

Cronan74: Cronan JE, Bell RM (1974). "Mutants of Escherichia coli defective in membrane phospholipid synthesis: mapping of the structural gene for L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 118(2);598-605. PMID: 4597451

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

Diaz91: Diaz E, Anton DL (1991). "Alkylation of an active-site cysteinyl residue during substrate-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase." Biochemistry 1991;30(16);4078-81. PMID: 2018773

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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