If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Pyrimidine, purine, and pyridine nucleotide synthesis all require phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) as a precursor. PRPP is utilized by both the de novo pathways and the auxiliary or salvage pathways by which endogenously formed or exogenously added pyrimidine, purine, or pyridine bases are converted to the corresponding ribonucleoside monophosphates by phosphoribosyltransferases. PRPP is also used in the histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathways. PRPP thus may be regarded as a precursor for the synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and for the NAD(P) coenzymes.The formation of PRPP therefore is subjected to strict metabolic control. [HoveJensen86]
Subpathways: guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, 5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis II, inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis I, superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, L-histidine biosynthesis, superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, PRPP biosynthesis I, PRPP biosynthesis II, superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis, UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis, UMP biosynthesis
HoveJensen86: Hove-Jensen B, Harlow KW, King CJ, Switzer RL (1986). "Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli. Properties of the purified enzyme and primary structure of the prs gene." J Biol Chem 1986;261(15);6765-71. PMID: 3009477
: Iwahana H, Fujimura M, Ii S, Kondo M, Moritani M, Takahashi Y, Yamaoka T, Yoshimoto K, Itakura M (1996). "Molecular cloning of a human cDNA encoding a trifunctional enzyme of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase-aspartate transcarbamoylase-dihydroorotase in de Novo pyrimidine synthesis." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 219(1);249-55. PMID: 8619816
Abbott06: Abbott JL, Newell JM, Lightcap CM, Olanich ME, Loughlin DT, Weller MA, Lam G, Pollack S, Patton WA (2006). "The Effects of Removing the GAT Domain from E. coli GMP Synthetase." Protein J 25;483-491. PMID: 17103135
Aghajari94: Aghajari N, Jensen KF, Gajhede M (1994). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on the Apo form of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 241(2);292-4. PMID: 8057372
Ahmad69: Ahmad SI, Pritchard RH (1969). "A map of four genes specifying enzymes involved in catabolism of nucleosides and deoxynucleosides in Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 104(4);351-9. PMID: 4904508
Aiba89: Aiba A, Mizobuchi K (1989). "Nucleotide sequence analysis of genes purH and purD involved in the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1989;264(35);21239-46. PMID: 2687276
Aksimentiev04: Aksimentiev A, Balabin IA, Fillingame RH, Schulten K (2004). "Insights into the molecular mechanism of rotation in the Fo sector of ATP synthase." Biophys J 86(3);1332-44. PMID: 14990464
Alam04: Alam N, Stieglitz KA, Caban MD, Gourinath S, Tsuruta H, Kantrowitz ER (2004). "240s loop interactions stabilize the T state of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase." J Biol Chem 279(22);23302-10. PMID: 15014067
Allard92: Allard P, Kuprin S, Shen B, Ehrenberg A (1992). "Binding of the competitive inhibitor dCDP to ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli studied by 1H NMR. Different properties of the large protein subunit and the holoenzyme." Eur J Biochem 1992;208(3);635-42. PMID: 1396671
Anand04: Anand R, Hoskins AA, Stubbe J, Ealick SE (2004). "Domain organization of Salmonella typhimurium formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase revealed by X-ray crystallography." Biochemistry 43(32);10328-42. PMID: 15301531
Anderson75: Anderson PM, Carlson JD (1975). "Reversible reaction of cyanate with a reactive sulfhydryl group at the glutamine binding site of carbamyl phosphate synthetase." Biochemistry 1975;14(16);3688-94. PMID: 240389
Anderson83: Anderson PM (1983). "CTP synthetase from Escherichia coli: an improved purification procedure and characterization of hysteretic and enzyme concentration effects on kinetic properties." Biochemistry 22(13);3285-92. PMID: 6349684
Andersson99: Andersson ME, Hogbom M, Rinaldo-Matthis A, Andersson KK, Sjoberg BM, Nordlund P (1999). "The Crystal Structure of an Azide Complex of the Diferrous R2 Subunit of Ribonucleotide Reductase Displays a Novel Carboxylate Shift with Important Mechanistic Implications for Diiron-Catalyzed Oxygen Activation." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121: 2346-2352.
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