If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Alcohols Degradation → Glycerol Degradation|
In the Glp system, the glpQ gene encodes a periplasmic glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase (periplasmic GDP) which hydrolyzes deacylated phospholipids to an alcohol and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. The latter is then transported into the cell by the GlpT transporter. Periplasmic GDP is specific for the glycerophospho- moiety of the substrate, while the alcohol can be any one of several alcohols. This provides the cell with the capability of channeling a wide variety of glycerophosphodiesters into the glpQT-encoded dissimilatory system.
In the Ugp system the diesters are hydrolyzed during transport at the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and an alcohol by a cytoplasmic GDP, an enzyme encoded by the ugpQ gene. The Ugp system is induced when the cells are starved for inorganic phospate, which is generates phosphate by the system [Tommassen91].
In Escherichia coli sn-glycerol 3-phosphate can be further metabolized to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by either of two membrane-bound enzymes, depending on the growth conditions. The presumed role of this process is the salvage of glycerol and glycerol phosphates generated by the breakdown of phospholipids and triacylglycerol. Under aerobic conditions, a homodimeric aerobic glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (encoded by the glpD gene) is produced, which can accept either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor [Schryvers78]. Under anaerobic conditions, a different glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase is preferentially expressed. This tri-heteromeric protein complex, which is encoded by the glpACB operon, channels the electrons from sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to either fumarate or nitrate [Cole88].
Superpathways: glycerol and glycerophosphodiester degradation
Cole88: Cole ST, Eiglmeier K, Ahmed S, Honore N, Elmes L, Anderson WF, Weiner JH (1988). "Nucleotide sequence and gene-polypeptide relationships of the glpABC operon encoding the anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1988;170(6);2448-56. PMID: 3286606
Schryvers78: Schryvers A, Lohmeier E, Weiner JH (1978). "Chemical and functional properties of the native and reconstituted forms of the membrane-bound, aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 253(3);783-8. PMID: 340460
Tommassen91: Tommassen J, Eiglmeier K, Cole ST, Overduin P, Larson TJ, Boos W (1991). "Characterization of two genes, glpQ and ugpQ, encoding glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterases of Escherichia coli." Mol Gen Genet 1991;226(1-2);321-7. PMID: 1851953
Austin91: Austin D, Larson TJ (1991). "Nucleotide sequence of the glpD gene encoding aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1991;173(1);101-7. PMID: 1987111
Brzoska88: Brzoska P, Boos W (1988). "Characteristics of a ugp-encoded and phoB-dependent glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase which is physically dependent on the ugp transport system of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1988;170(9);4125-35. PMID: 2842304
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Ehrmann87: Ehrmann M, Boos W, Ormseth E, Schweizer H, Larson TJ (1987). "Divergent transcription of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate active transport (glpT) and anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpA glpC glpB) genes of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 169(2);526-32. PMID: 3027032
Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.
Iuchi90a: Iuchi S, Cole ST, Lin EC (1990). "Multiple regulatory elements for the glpA operon encoding anaerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and the glpD operon encoding aerobic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli: further characterization of respiratory control." J Bacteriol 1990;172(1);179-84. PMID: 2403539
Kuritzkes84: Kuritzkes DR, Zhang XY, Lin EC (1984). "Use of phi(glp-lac) in studies of respiratory regulation of the Escherichia coli anaerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (glpAB)." J Bacteriol 157(2);591-8. PMID: 6363389
Lan03: Lan J, Newman EB (2003). "A requirement for anaerobically induced redox functions during aerobic growth of Escherichia coli with serine, glycine and leucine as carbon source." Res Microbiol 154(3);191-7. PMID: 12706508
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