If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amines and Polyamines Biosynthesis|
Polyamines are important for cell growth and are believed to be involved in many processes including DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, as well as membrane integrity and resistance to stress, to name a few. Cadaverine and aminopropylcadaverine are alternative polyamines that can at least partially substitute for purtrescine and spermidine, the primary polyamines found in E. coli. Lysine is decarboxylated to form cadaverine which is then converted to aminopropylcadaverine by the aminopropyltransferase, SpeE.
Dion72: Dion AS, Cohen SS (1972). "Polyamine stimulation of nucleic acid synthesis in an uninfected and phage-infected polyamine auxotroph of Escherichia coli K12 (arginine-agmatine ureohydrolase-putrescine-spermidine-lysine-cadaverine)." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 69(1);213-7. PMID: 4550506
Igarashi86: Igarashi K, Kashiwagi K, Hamasaki H, Miura A, Kakegawa T, Hirose S, Matsuzaki S (1986). "Formation of a compensatory polyamine by Escherichia coli polyamine-requiring mutants during growth in the absence of polyamines." J Bacteriol 166(1);128-34. PMID: 3514574
Soksawatmaekhin04: Soksawatmaekhin W, Kuraishi A, Sakata K, Kashiwagi K, Igarashi K (2004). "Excretion and uptake of cadaverine by CadB and its physiological functions in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 51(5);1401-12. PMID: 14982633
Auger89: Auger EA, Redding KE, Plumb T, Childs LC, Meng SY, Bennett GN (1989). "Construction of lac fusions to the inducible arginine- and lysine decarboxylase genes of Escherichia coli K12." Mol Microbiol 3(5);609-20. PMID: 2527331
Beretskene80: Beretskene SIa, Bruzgulis PA, Ragavichus AB (1980). "[Conditions of the synthesis of lysine decarboxylase by Escherichia coli MRE 600]." Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 16(3);351-5. PMID: 7001435
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
Chattopadhyay09: Chattopadhyay MK, Tabor CW, Tabor H (2009). "Polyamines are not required for aerobic growth of Escherichia coli: preparation of a strain with deletions in all of the genes for polyamine biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 191(17);5549-52. PMID: 19542271
Day01: Day WA, Fernandez RE, Maurelli AT (2001). "Pathoadaptive mutations that enhance virulence: genetic organization of the cadA regions of Shigella spp." Infect Immun 69(12);7471-80. PMID: 11705922
Dell94: Dell CL, Neely MN, Olson ER (1994). "Altered pH and lysine signalling mutants of cadC, a gene encoding a membrane-bound transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli cadBA operon." Mol Microbiol 14(1);7-16. PMID: 7830562
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
El10: El Bakkouri M, Gutsche I, Kanjee U, Zhao B, Yu M, Goret G, Schoehn G, Burmeister WP, Houry WA (2010). "Structure of RavA MoxR AAA+ protein reveals the design principles of a molecular cage modulating the inducible lysine decarboxylase activity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(52);22499-504. PMID: 21148420
Kanjee11: Kanjee U, Gutsche I, Ramachandran S, Houry WA (2011). "The Enzymatic Activities of the Escherichia coli Basic Aliphatic Amino Acid Decarboxylases Exhibit a pH Zone of Inhibition." Biochemistry 50(43);9388-98. PMID: 21957966
Kanjee11a: Kanjee U, Gutsche I, Alexopoulos E, Zhao B, El Bakkouri M, Thibault G, Liu K, Ramachandran S, Snider J, Pai EF, Houry WA (2011). "Linkage between the bacterial acid stress and stringent responses: the structure of the inducible lysine decarboxylase." EMBO J 30(5);931-44. PMID: 21278708
Kikuchi97: Kikuchi Y, Kojima H, Tanaka T, Takatsuka Y, Kamio Y (1997). "Characterization of a second lysine decarboxylase isolated from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1997;179(14);4486-92. PMID: 9226257
Kikuchi98: Kikuchi Y, Kurahashi O, Nagano T, Kamio Y (1998). "RpoS-dependent expression of the second lysine decarboxylase gene in Escherichia coli." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(6);1267-70. PMID: 9692215
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