If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Amines and Polyamines Degradation|
|Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Carbohydrates Degradation → Sugars Degradation|
Sialic acids are nine-carbon keto sugars that mediate a variety of cell-cell and cell-molecule interactions in eukaryotes and can be utilized by pathogens to evade the host immune response. Other bacteria, including E. coli K-12, can utilize N-acetylneuraminate, the most common form of sialic acid, as a sole source of carbon [Vimr85, Plumbridge99].
Production of the enzymes involved in N-acetylneuraminate degradation is induced by growth on sialic acid as the sole source of carbon, which is due to transcriptional regulation by the repressor NanR [Kalivoda03]. N-acetylmannosamine is only metabolized slowly by E. coli K-12, which may be due to low expression of an N-acetylmannosamine transporter and the predicted N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase in the absence of the inducer [Plumbridge99].
Please note that no biochemical data are available for the predicted N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate epimerase.
Kalivoda03: Kalivoda KA, Steenbergen SM, Vimr ER, Plumbridge J (2003). "Regulation of sialic acid catabolism by the DNA binding protein NanR in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 185(16);4806-15. PMID: 12897000
Plumbridge99: Plumbridge J, Vimr E (1999). "Convergent pathways for utilization of the amino sugars N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmannosamine, and N-acetylneuraminic acid by Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1999;181(1);47-54. PMID: 9864311
Aisaka91: Aisaka K, Igarashi A, Yamaguchi K, Uwajima T (1991). "Purification, crystallization and characterization of N-acetylneuraminate lyase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1991;276 ( Pt 2);541-6. PMID: 1646603
Campeotto09: Campeotto I, Carr SB, Trinh CH, Nelson AS, Berry A, Phillips SE, Pearson AR (2009). "Structure of an Escherichia coli N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid lyase mutant, E192N, in complex with pyruvate at 1.45 angstrom resolution." Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 65(Pt 11);1088-90. PMID: 19923724
Campeotto10: Campeotto I, Bolt AH, Harman TA, Dennis C, Trinh CH, Phillips SE, Nelson A, Pearson AR, Berry A (2010). "Structural insights into substrate specificity in variants of N-acetylneuraminic Acid lyase produced by directed evolution." J Mol Biol 404(1);56-69. PMID: 20826162
Chang04: Chang DE, Smalley DJ, Tucker DL, Leatham MP, Norris WE, Stevenson SJ, Anderson AB, Grissom JE, Laux DC, Cohen PS, Conway T (2004). "Carbon nutrition of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(19);7427-32. PMID: 15123798
Chou11: Chou CY, Ko TP, Wu KJ, Huang KF, Lin CH, Wong CH, Wang AH (2011). "Modulation of substrate specificities of D-sialic acid aldolase through single mutations of Val-251." J Biol Chem 286(16);14057-64. PMID: 21270125
Cox02: Cox AD, Hood DW, Martin A, Makepeace KM, Deadman ME, Li J, Brisson JR, Moxon ER, Richards JC (2002). "Identification and structural characterization of a sialylated lacto-N-neotetraose structure in the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae." Eur J Biochem 269(16);4009-19. PMID: 12180977
Devenish09: Devenish SR, Gerrard JA (2009). "The quaternary structure of Escherichia coli N-acetylneuraminate lyase is essential for functional expression." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 388(1);107-11. PMID: 19646958
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Ferrero07: Ferrero MA, Martinez-Blanco H, Lopez-Velasco FF, Ezquerro-Saenz C, Navasa N, Lozano S, Rodriguez-Aparicio LB (2007). "Purification and characterization of GlcNAc-6-P 2-epimerase from Escherichia coli K92." Acta Biochim Pol 54(2);387-99. PMID: 17565386
Hood99: Hood DW, Makepeace K, Deadman ME, Rest RF, Thibault P, Martin A, Richards JC, Moxon ER (1999). "Sialic acid in the lipopolysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae: strain distribution, influence on serum resistance and structural characterization." Mol Microbiol 33(4);679-92. PMID: 10447878
Hopkins13: Hopkins AP, Hawkhead JA, Thomas GH (2013). "Transport and catabolism of the sialic acids N-glycolylneuraminic acid and 3-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid by Escherichia coli K-12." FEMS Microbiol Lett 347(1);14-22. PMID: 23848303
Hsu05a: Hsu CC, Hong Z, Wada M, Franke D, Wong CH (2005). "Directed evolution of D-sialic acid aldolase to L-3-deoxy-manno-2-octulosonic acid (L-KDO) aldolase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(26);9122-6. PMID: 15967977
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