Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: NADH to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer I
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: NADH to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for NADH to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer I

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyElectron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyRespirationAerobic Respiration

In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-1) and cytochrome bo oxidase the transfer of electrons from NADH to oxygen is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane [Matsushita87].

By analogy to the related enzyme from mitochondria, NDH-I is thought to function as a proton pump translocating 4H+ per NADH oxidised (2e-) [H+/e- = 2] however a lower ratio of 3H+/2e- has also been proposed [Bogachev96, Wikstrom12]. Cytochrome bo oxidase contributes to the PMF (H+/e-=2) through its action as a proton pump (H+/e-=1) [Puustinen89] and through a redox loop mechanism (H+/e-=1) ( [Puustinen91] and see review by [Unden97]).

During glucose limited aerobic growth E. coli directs electron flux through both NDH-I and NADH dehydrognease II (NDH-II) [Calhoun93]. Electron transport from NADH to oxygen is not affected in a strain lacking NDH-I but is significantly reduced in a strain lacking NDH-II which suggests that NDH-II is used preferentially in aerobic respiration [Tran97]

Cytochrome bo oxidase is expressed when levels of oxygen are high [Kita84] unlike the cytochrome bd oxidase which is expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions [Cotter90, Tseng96].

Citations: [Yagi03, Kita82, Matsushita84, Matsushita86, Ingledew84]

Created 26-Jun-2008 by Krummenacker M, SRI International
Revised 31-Aug-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824

Calhoun93: Calhoun MW, Oden KL, Gennis RB, de Mattos MJ, Neijssel OM (1993). "Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain." J Bacteriol 175(10);3020-5. PMID: 8491720

Cotter90: Cotter PA, Chepuri V, Gennis RB, Gunsalus RP (1990). "Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 172(11);6333-8. PMID: 2172211

Ingledew84: Ingledew WJ, Poole RK (1984). "The respiratory chains of Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 48(3);222-71. PMID: 6387427

Kita82: Kita K, Kasahara M, Anraku Y (1982). "Formation of a membrane potential by reconstructed liposomes made with cytochrome b562-o complex, a terminal oxidase of Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 257(14);7933-5. PMID: 7045115

Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Matsushita84: Matsushita K, Patel L, Kaback HR (1984). "Cytochrome o type oxidase from Escherichia coli. Characterization of the enzyme and mechanism of electrochemical proton gradient generation." Biochemistry 23(20);4703-14. PMID: 6093862

Matsushita86: Matsushita K, Kaback HR (1986). "D-lactate oxidation and generation of the proton electrochemical gradient in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli GR19N and in proteoliposomes reconstituted with purified D-lactate dehydrogenase and cytochrome o oxidase." Biochemistry 25(9);2321-7. PMID: 3013300

Matsushita87: Matsushita K, Ohnishi T, Kaback HR (1987). "NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases of the Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain." Biochemistry 1987;26(24);7732-7. PMID: 3122832

Puustinen89: Puustinen A, Finel M, Virkki M, Wikstrom M (1989). "Cytochrome o (bo) is a proton pump in Paracoccus denitrificans and Escherichia coli." FEBS Lett 249(2);163-7. PMID: 2544445

Puustinen91: Puustinen A, Finel M, Haltia T, Gennis RB, Wikstrom M (1991). "Properties of the two terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 30(16);3936-42. PMID: 1850294

Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459

Tseng96: Tseng CP, Albrecht J, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Effect of microaerophilic cell growth conditions on expression of the aerobic (cyoABCDE and cydAB) and anaerobic (narGHJI, frdABCD, and dmsABC) respiratory pathway genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(4);1094-8. PMID: 8576043

Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919

Wikstrom12: Wikstrom M, Hummer G (2012). "Stoichiometry of proton translocation by respiratory complex I and its mechanistic implications." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(12);4431-6. PMID: 22392981

Yagi03: Yagi T, Matsuno-Yagi A (2003). "The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in the respiratory chain: the secret unlocked." Biochemistry 42(8);2266-74. PMID: 12600193

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Abramson00: Abramson J, Riistama S, Larsson G, Jasaitis A, Svensson-Ek M, Laakkonen L, Puustinen A, Iwata S, Wikstrom M (2000). "The structure of the ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli and its ubiquinone binding site." Nat Struct Biol 7(10);910-7. PMID: 11017202

Abramson00a: Abramson J, Larsson G, Byrne B, Puustinen A, Garcia-Horsman A, Iwata S (2000). "Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an integral membrane protein, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase from Escherichia coli." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56(Pt 8);1076-8. PMID: 10944359

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Allison11: Allison KR, Brynildsen MP, Collins JJ (2011). "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides." Nature 473(7346);216-20. PMID: 21562562

Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520

Amarneh10: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2010). "Transmembrane topology of subunit N of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli." J Bioenerg Biomembr 42(6);511-6. PMID: 21120593

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Au85: Au DC, Lorence RM, Gennis RB (1985). "Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the cytochrome o terminal oxidase." J Bacteriol 161(1);123-7. PMID: 2981797

Au87: Au DC, Gennis RB (1987). "Cloning of the cyo locus encoding the cytochrome o terminal oxidase complex of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 169(7);3237-42. PMID: 3036778

Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901

Baranova07: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196

Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874

Barker96: Barker PD, Nerou EP, Cheesman MR, Thomson AJ, de Oliveira P, Hill HA (1996). "Bis-methionine ligation to heme iron in mutants of cytochrome b562. 1. Spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization of the electronic properties." Biochemistry 35(42);13618-26. PMID: 8885841

Barker96a: Barker PD, Freund SM (1996). "Bis-methionine ligation to heme iron in mutants of cytochrome b562. 2. Characterization by NMR of heme-ligand interactions." Biochemistry 35(42);13627-35. PMID: 8885842

Bekker09: Bekker M, de Vries S, Ter Beek A, Hellingwerf KJ, de Mattos MJ (2009). "Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase." J Bacteriol 191(17);5510-7. PMID: 19542282

Belevich07: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562

Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017

Belevich14: Belevich N, Belevich G, Verkhovskaya M (2014). "Real-time optical studies of respiratory Complex I turnover." Biochim Biophys Acta 1837(12);1973-1980. PMID: 25283488

Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280

Bongaerts95: Bongaerts J, Zoske S, Weidner U, Unden G (1995). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators." Mol Microbiol 16(3);521-34. PMID: 7565112

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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