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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: NADH to fumarate electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Electron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy Respiration Anaerobic Respiration

Summary:
In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-1) and fumarate reductase (FRD) the transfer of electrons from NADH to fumarate is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. Two electrons are transferred from the NADH oxidation site of NDH-1 to the fumarate reduction site of FRD by a menaquinone pool.

Anaerobic growth of E. coli K-12 with fumarate operates preferentially with NDH-I. Electron transport from NADH to fumarate decreases significantly in a strain lacking NDH-I compared to wild-type. No significant decrease occurs in a strain lacking NADH dehydrogenase II (NDH-II) [Tran97]

By analogy to the related enzyme from mitochondria, NDH-I is believed to function as a proton pump translocating 4 H+ per NADH oxidized (2e-), however, a lower ratio of 3H+/2e- has also been proposed [Wikstrom12]. The H+/e- ratio for NDH-1 is at least 1.5 [Bogachev96]. Fumarate reductase does not contribute to the generation of proton potential [Iverson99]. Proton pumping by NDH-I is the only mechanism for PMF generation in the NADH to fumarate electron transport chain [Tran97]

Expression of the nuo operon, encoding NDH-1 is stimulated by fumarate [Tran97]. Expression of the frd operon is repressed by the preferred electron acceptors, oxygen and nitrate and induced by fumarate [Jones85, Jones87a, Iuchi87].

Citations: [Ingledew84, Unden97, Yagi03]

Credits:
Created 26-Jun-2008 by Krummenacker M , SRI International
Revised 31-Aug-2014 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


References

Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824

Ingledew84: Ingledew WJ, Poole RK (1984). "The respiratory chains of Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 48(3);222-71. PMID: 6387427

Iuchi87: Iuchi S, Lin EC (1987). "The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987;84(11);3901-5. PMID: 3035558

Iverson99: Iverson TM, Luna-Chavez C, Cecchini G, Rees DC (1999). "Structure of the Escherichia coli fumarate reductase respiratory complex." Science 1999;284(5422);1961-6. PMID: 10373108

Jones85: Jones HM, Gunsalus RP (1985). "Transcription of the Escherichia coli fumarate reductase genes (frdABCD) and their coordinate regulation by oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate." J Bacteriol 1985;164(3);1100-9. PMID: 2999070

Jones87a: Jones HM, Gunsalus RP (1987). "Regulation of Escherichia coli fumarate reductase (frdABCD) operon expression by respiratory electron acceptors and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 169(7);3340-9. PMID: 3298218

Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459

Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919

Wikstrom12: Wikstrom M, Hummer G (2012). "Stoichiometry of proton translocation by respiratory complex I and its mechanistic implications." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(12);4431-6. PMID: 22392981

Yagi03: Yagi T, Matsuno-Yagi A (2003). "The proton-translocating NADH-quinone oxidoreductase in the respiratory chain: the secret unlocked." Biochemistry 42(8);2266-74. PMID: 12600193

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Allison11: Allison KR, Brynildsen MP, Collins JJ (2011). "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides." Nature 473(7346);216-20. PMID: 21562562

Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520

Amarneh10: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2010). "Transmembrane topology of subunit N of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli." J Bioenerg Biomembr 42(6);511-6. PMID: 21120593

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901

Barak96: Barak R, Giebel I, Eisenbach M (1996). "The specificity of fumarate as a switching factor of the bacterial flagellar motor." Mol Microbiol 19(1);139-44. PMID: 8821943

Baranova07: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196

Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874

Belevich07: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562

Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017

Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280

Bongaerts95: Bongaerts J, Zoske S, Weidner U, Unden G (1995). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators." Mol Microbiol 16(3);521-34. PMID: 7565112

Bottcher02: Bottcher B, Scheide D, Hesterberg M, Nagel-Steger L, Friedrich T (2002). "A novel, enzymatically active conformation of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)." J Biol Chem 277(20);17970-7. PMID: 11880370

Brandsch89: Brandsch R, Bichler V (1989). "Covalent cofactor binding to flavoenzymes requires specific effectors." Eur J Biochem 1989;182(1);125-8. PMID: 2659351

Braun98: Braun M, Bungert S, Friedrich T (1998). "Characterization of the overproduced NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 37(7);1861-7. PMID: 9485311

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Bungert99: Bungert S, Krafft B, Schlesinger R, Friedrich T (1999). "One-step purification of the NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the Escherichia coli complex I by means of Strep-tag affinity chromatography." FEBS Lett 1999;460(2);207-11. PMID: 10544236

Calhoun93: Calhoun MW, Oden KL, Gennis RB, de Mattos MJ, Neijssel OM (1993). "Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain." J Bacteriol 175(10);3020-5. PMID: 8491720

Calhoun93a: Calhoun MW, Gennis RB (1993). "Demonstration of separate genetic loci encoding distinct membrane-bound respiratory NADH dehydrogenases in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1993;175(10);3013-9. PMID: 8387992

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Dec 20, 2014, biocyc11.