If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Electron Transfer|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Respiration → Anaerobic Respiration|
In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-1) and fumarate reductase (FRD) the transfer of electrons from NADH to fumarate is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. Two electrons are transferred from the NADH oxidation site of NDH-1 to the fumarate reduction site of FRD by a menaquinone pool.
Anaerobic growth of E. coli K-12 with fumarate operates preferentially with NDH-I. Electron transport from NADH to fumarate decreases significantly in a strain lacking NDH-I compared to wild-type. No significant decrease occurs in a strain lacking NADH dehydrogenase II (NDH-II) [Tran97]
By analogy to the related enzyme from mitochondria, NDH-I is believed to function as a proton pump translocating 4 H+ per NADH oxidized (2e-), however, a lower ratio of 3H+/2e- has also been proposed [Wikstrom12]. The H+/e- ratio for NDH-1 is at least 1.5 [Bogachev96]. Fumarate reductase does not contribute to the generation of proton potential [Iverson99]. Proton pumping by NDH-I is the only mechanism for PMF generation in the NADH to fumarate electron transport chain [Tran97]
Expression of the nuo operon, encoding NDH-1 is stimulated by fumarate [Tran97]. Expression of the frd operon is repressed by the preferred electron acceptors, oxygen and nitrate and induced by fumarate [Jones85, Jones87a, Iuchi87].
Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824
Iuchi87: Iuchi S, Lin EC (1987). "The narL gene product activates the nitrate reductase operon and represses the fumarate reductase and trimethylamine N-oxide reductase operons in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1987;84(11);3901-5. PMID: 3035558
Jones85: Jones HM, Gunsalus RP (1985). "Transcription of the Escherichia coli fumarate reductase genes (frdABCD) and their coordinate regulation by oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate." J Bacteriol 1985;164(3);1100-9. PMID: 2999070
Jones87a: Jones HM, Gunsalus RP (1987). "Regulation of Escherichia coli fumarate reductase (frdABCD) operon expression by respiratory electron acceptors and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 169(7);3340-9. PMID: 3298218
Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459
Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901
Baranova07: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196
Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874
Belevich07: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562
Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017
Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280
Bongaerts95: Bongaerts J, Zoske S, Weidner U, Unden G (1995). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators." Mol Microbiol 16(3);521-34. PMID: 7565112
Bottcher02: Bottcher B, Scheide D, Hesterberg M, Nagel-Steger L, Friedrich T (2002). "A novel, enzymatically active conformation of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I)." J Biol Chem 277(20);17970-7. PMID: 11880370
Braun98: Braun M, Bungert S, Friedrich T (1998). "Characterization of the overproduced NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 37(7);1861-7. PMID: 9485311
Bungert99: Bungert S, Krafft B, Schlesinger R, Friedrich T (1999). "One-step purification of the NADH dehydrogenase fragment of the Escherichia coli complex I by means of Strep-tag affinity chromatography." FEBS Lett 1999;460(2);207-11. PMID: 10544236
Calhoun93: Calhoun MW, Oden KL, Gennis RB, de Mattos MJ, Neijssel OM (1993). "Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain." J Bacteriol 175(10);3020-5. PMID: 8491720
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