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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: Chemotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: Chemotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction

Diagram Key:

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for Chemotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction

Superclasses: Signal transduction pathways

E. coli movement is typically described as a random three-dimensional walk in which runs of movement in a straight line are punctuated by tumbles as the cell briefly stops and randomly reorients before moving off again. This swimming/tumbling behaviour results from alternating clockwise (tumbling behavior) and counterclockwise (straight swimming behavior) flagellar rotation. Chemotaxis is the ability of E. coli to move or 'swim' towards or away from specific chemical attractants and repellents and is achieved by regulating the probability of CW and CCW flagella rotation via a modified two-component signal transduction pathway - the chemotactic signal transduction pathway. Pathway components include the dual function histidine kinase CheA, the response regulators CheY and CheB, plus CheW, CheR, and the transmembrane receptor proteins.

CheA is a dual function cytoplasmic histidine kinase which, in conjunction with one of the transmembrane receptor proteins (the so-called methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins - Tsr, Tar, Trg or Tap) and a linker protein CheW, forms a ternery signalling complex ( MCPI, MCPII, MCPIII or MCPIV). Ligands interact with the receptor proteins and affect the flow of phosphoryl groups from CheA to two response regulators - CheY and CheB - neither of these proteins are transcription factors unlike the majority of two-component response regulators in E. coli. CheY influences flagella rotation by direct binding to the FliM protein - a component of the flagella motor switch complex. CheY and phosphoCheY bind to FliM with different affinities and influence the direction of flagellar rotation. CheB is a methylesterase which, along with CheR methyltransferase takes part in a feedback loop that enables the pathway to adapt to background stimuli.

Reviews: [Falke97, Falke01, Baker06, Kirby09, Hazelbauer10]

Citations: [Park10]

Created 28-Sep-2010 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Baker06: Baker MD, Wolanin PM, Stock JB (2006). "Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis." Bioessays 28(1);9-22. PMID: 16369945

Falke01: Falke JJ, Hazelbauer GL (2001). "Transmembrane signaling in bacterial chemoreceptors." Trends Biochem Sci 26(4);257-65. PMID: 11295559

Falke97: Falke JJ, Bass RB, Butler SL, Chervitz SA, Danielson MA (1997). "The two-component signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis: a molecular view of signal transduction by receptors, kinases, and adaptation enzymes." Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 13;457-512. PMID: 9442881

Gegner92: Gegner JA, Graham DR, Roth AF, Dahlquist FW (1992). "Assembly of an MCP receptor, CheW, and kinase CheA complex in the bacterial chemotaxis signal transduction pathway." Cell 70(6);975-82. PMID: 1326408

Hazelbauer10: Hazelbauer GL, Lai WC (2010). "Bacterial chemoreceptors: providing enhanced features to two-component signaling." Curr Opin Microbiol 13(2);124-32. PMID: 20122866

Hess88: Hess JF, Oosawa K, Kaplan N, Simon MI (1988). "Phosphorylation of three proteins in the signaling pathway of bacterial chemotaxis." Cell 1988;53(1);79-87. PMID: 3280143

Kirby09: Kirby JR (2009). "Chemotaxis-like regulatory systems: unique roles in diverse bacteria." Annu Rev Microbiol 63;45-59. PMID: 19379070

Park10: Park H, Pontius W, Guet CC, Marko JF, Emonet T, Cluzel P (2010). "Interdependence of behavioural variability and response to small stimuli in bacteria." Nature. PMID: 21076396

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Armstrong69: Armstrong JB, Adler J (1969). "Complementation of nonchemotactic mutants of Escherichia coli." Genetics 61(1);61-6. PMID: 4895809

Barak01: Barak R, Eisenbach M (2001). "Acetylation of the response regulator, CheY, is involved in bacterial chemotaxis." Mol Microbiol 40(3);731-43. PMID: 11359578

Barak04: Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe AJ, Eisenbach M (2004). "Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);383-401. PMID: 15327942

Barak04a: Barak R, Eisenbach M (2004). "Co-regulation of acetylation and phosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);375-81. PMID: 15327941

Barak06: Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M (2006). "The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation." J Mol Biol 359(2);251-65. PMID: 16630631

Barak92: Barak R, Welch M, Yanovsky A, Oosawa K, Eisenbach M (1992). "Acetyladenylate or its derivative acetylates the chemotaxis protein CheY in vitro and increases its activity at the flagellar switch." Biochemistry 31(41);10099-107. PMID: 1390767

Bhatnagar12: Bhatnagar J, Sircar R, Borbat PP, Freed JH, Crane BR (2012). "Self-association of the histidine kinase CheA as studied by pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy." Biophys J 102(9);2192-201. PMID: 22824284

Borkovich89: Borkovich KA, Kaplan N, Hess JF, Simon MI (1989). "Transmembrane signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis involves ligand-dependent activation of phosphate group transfer." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(4);1208-12. PMID: 2645576

Borkovich90: Borkovich KA, Simon MI (1990). "The dynamics of protein phosphorylation in bacterial chemotaxis." Cell 63(6);1339-48. PMID: 2261645

Bourret93: Bourret RB, Davagnino J, Simon MI (1993). "The carboxy-terminal portion of the CheA kinase mediates regulation of autophosphorylation by transducer and CheW." J Bacteriol 175(7);2097-101. PMID: 8384620

Briegel13: Briegel A, Ames P, Gumbart JC, Oikonomou CM, Parkinson JS, Jensen GJ (2013). "The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signalling state." Mol Microbiol 89(5);831-41. PMID: 23802570

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eisenbach96: Eisenbach M (1996). "Control of bacterial chemotaxis." Mol Microbiol 20(5);903-10. PMID: 8809743

Filimonov93: Filimonov VV, Prieto J, Martinez JC, Bruix M, Mateo PL, Serrano L (1993). "Thermodynamic analysis of the chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, CheY." Biochemistry 1993;32(47);12906-21. PMID: 8251514

Fraiberg14: Fraiberg M, Afanzar O, Cassidy CK, Gabashvili A, Schulten K, Levin Y, Eisenbach M (2014). "CheY's acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol. PMID: 25388160

Francis04: Francis NR, Wolanin PM, Stock JB, Derosier DJ, Thomas DR (2004). "Three-dimensional structure and organization of a receptor/signaling complex." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(50);17480-5. PMID: 15572451

Garzon96: Garzon A, Parkinson JS (1996). "Chemotactic signaling by the P1 phosphorylation domain liberated from the CheA histidine kinase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 178(23);6752-8. PMID: 8955292

Gegner91: Gegner JA, Dahlquist FW (1991). "Signal transduction in bacteria: CheW forms a reversible complex with the protein kinase CheA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991;88(3);750-4. PMID: 1992467

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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