Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: Aerotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction System
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: Aerotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction System

Diagram Key:

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for Aerotactic Two-Component Signal Transduction System

Synonyms: Energy taxis signal transduction, Redox taxis signal transduction

Superclasses: Signal transduction pathways

Energy taxis is the ability of bacteria to monitor their internal energy levels and respond by moving to a position that is optimal for their metabolic requirements. In E. coli energy taxis encompasses aerotaxis (response to an oxygen gradient) and redox taxis (response to a redox gradient). The molecular mechanisms of energy taxis are closely related to those of chemotaxis whereby bacteria respond to specific chemical attractants and repellents in their external environment (see chemotactic two-component signal transduction).

Energy taxis in E. coli is achieved by a signal transduction system that responds to changes in the electron transport system. Two receptors sense changes in the ET system: Aer and Tsr. Aer senses changes in the redox state of the system via an FAD cofactor while Tsr senses changes in proton motive force that result from perturbation of the ET system. Signals from Aer and Tsr are transduced via the CheA, CheW and CheY proteins, to the flagellar apparatus. CheY influences flagella rotation by direct binding to the FliM protein - a component of the flagella motor switch complex. CheY and phosphoCheY bind to FliM with different affinities, influencing the direction of flagellar rotation and facilitating movement.

Reviews: [Taylor99, Schweinitzer10, Alexandre10]

Created 30-Sep-2010 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Alexandre10: Alexandre G (2010). "Coupling metabolism and chemotaxis-dependent behaviours by energy taxis receptors." Microbiology 156(Pt 8);2283-93. PMID: 20558508

Bibikov97: Bibikov SI, Biran R, Rudd KE, Parkinson JS (1997). "A signal transducer for aerotaxis in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 179(12);4075-9. PMID: 9190831

Rebbapragada97: Rebbapragada A, Johnson MS, Harding GP, Zuccarelli AJ, Fletcher HM, Zhulin IB, Taylor BL (1997). "The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(20);10541-6. PMID: 9380671

Rowsell95: Rowsell EH, Smith JM, Wolfe A, Taylor BL (1995). "CheA, CheW, and CheY are required for chemotaxis to oxygen and sugars of the phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 177(20);6011-4. PMID: 7592359

Schweinitzer10: Schweinitzer T, Josenhans C (2010). "Bacterial energy taxis: a global strategy?." Arch Microbiol 192(7);507-20. PMID: 20411245

Taylor99: Taylor BL, Zhulin IB, Johnson MS (1999). "Aerotaxis and other energy-sensing behavior in bacteria." Annu Rev Microbiol 53;103-28. PMID: 10547687

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Barak01: Barak R, Eisenbach M (2001). "Acetylation of the response regulator, CheY, is involved in bacterial chemotaxis." Mol Microbiol 40(3);731-43. PMID: 11359578

Barak04: Barak R, Eisenbach M (2004). "Co-regulation of acetylation and phosphorylation of CheY, a response regulator in chemotaxis of Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);375-81. PMID: 15327941

Barak04a: Barak R, Prasad K, Shainskaya A, Wolfe AJ, Eisenbach M (2004). "Acetylation of the chemotaxis response regulator CheY by acetyl-CoA synthetase purified from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 342(2);383-401. PMID: 15327942

Barak06: Barak R, Yan J, Shainskaya A, Eisenbach M (2006). "The chemotaxis response regulator CheY can catalyze its own acetylation." J Mol Biol 359(2);251-65. PMID: 16630631

Barak92: Barak R, Welch M, Yanovsky A, Oosawa K, Eisenbach M (1992). "Acetyladenylate or its derivative acetylates the chemotaxis protein CheY in vitro and increases its activity at the flagellar switch." Biochemistry 31(41);10099-107. PMID: 1390767

Bhatnagar12: Bhatnagar J, Sircar R, Borbat PP, Freed JH, Crane BR (2012). "Self-association of the histidine kinase CheA as studied by pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy." Biophys J 102(9);2192-201. PMID: 22824284

Borkovich89: Borkovich KA, Kaplan N, Hess JF, Simon MI (1989). "Transmembrane signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis involves ligand-dependent activation of phosphate group transfer." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(4);1208-12. PMID: 2645576

Borkovich90: Borkovich KA, Simon MI (1990). "The dynamics of protein phosphorylation in bacterial chemotaxis." Cell 63(6);1339-48. PMID: 2261645

Bourret93: Bourret RB, Davagnino J, Simon MI (1993). "The carboxy-terminal portion of the CheA kinase mediates regulation of autophosphorylation by transducer and CheW." J Bacteriol 175(7);2097-101. PMID: 8384620

Briegel13: Briegel A, Ames P, Gumbart JC, Oikonomou CM, Parkinson JS, Jensen GJ (2013). "The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signalling state." Mol Microbiol 89(5);831-41. PMID: 23802570

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Eisenbach96: Eisenbach M (1996). "Control of bacterial chemotaxis." Mol Microbiol 20(5);903-10. PMID: 8809743

Filimonov93: Filimonov VV, Prieto J, Martinez JC, Bruix M, Mateo PL, Serrano L (1993). "Thermodynamic analysis of the chemotactic protein from Escherichia coli, CheY." Biochemistry 1993;32(47);12906-21. PMID: 8251514

Fraiberg14: Fraiberg M, Afanzar O, Cassidy CK, Gabashvili A, Schulten K, Levin Y, Eisenbach M (2014). "CheY's acetylation sites responsible for generating clockwise flagellar rotation in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol. PMID: 25388160

Francis04: Francis NR, Wolanin PM, Stock JB, Derosier DJ, Thomas DR (2004). "Three-dimensional structure and organization of a receptor/signaling complex." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(50);17480-5. PMID: 15572451

Garzon96: Garzon A, Parkinson JS (1996). "Chemotactic signaling by the P1 phosphorylation domain liberated from the CheA histidine kinase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 178(23);6752-8. PMID: 8955292

Gegner91: Gegner JA, Dahlquist FW (1991). "Signal transduction in bacteria: CheW forms a reversible complex with the protein kinase CheA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1991;88(3);750-4. PMID: 1992467

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Hao09: Hao S, Hamel D, Zhou H, Dahlquist FW (2009). "Structural basis for the localization of the chemotaxis phosphatase CheZ by CheAS." J Bacteriol 191(18);5842-4. PMID: 19502407

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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