If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, Szent-Gyorgyi-Krebs cycle
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → TCA cycle|
The TCA pathway is a catabolic pathway of aerobic respiration. It generates energy and reducing power. It is the first step in generating precursors for biosynthesis. When acetate is the carbon source, citrate synthase is rate-limiting for the TCA cycle. [Walsh85, Walsh87] Respiration is an ATP-generating process in which compounds act as electron donors through a chain of electron transfer to electron acceptors. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as the final acceptor. Anaerobic respiration uses several organic compounds as acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate and hydrogen. During the chain of electron transfer, protons (H+) are transported outside the cytoplasmic membrane, generating a proton motive force. Upon passage of protons back into the cytoplasm, the PMF energy is captured as ATP, catalyzed by a multisubunit ATPase.
Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.
Walsh87: Walsh K, Schena M, Flint AJ, Koshland DE (1987). "Compensatory regulation in metabolic pathways--responses to increases and decreases in citrate synthase levels." Biochem Soc Symp 1987;54;183-95. PMID: 3332995
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Anderson88: Anderson DH, Duckworth HW (1988). "In vitro mutagenesis of Escherichia coli citrate synthase to clarify the locations of ligand binding sites." J Biol Chem 1988;263(5);2163-9. PMID: 3276685
Apostolakos82: Apostolakos D, Menter PA, Rampsch BJ, Reeves HC, Birge EA "Genetic map position of the cistron coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Current Microbiology 1982;7:45-47.
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Bailey99: Bailey DL, Fraser ME, Bridger WA, James MN, Wolodko WT (1999). "A dimeric form of Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetase produced by site-directed mutagenesis." J Mol Biol 285(4);1655-66. PMID: 9917403
Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151
Bild80: Bild GS, Janson CA, Boyer PD (1980). "Subunit interaction during catalysis. ATP modulation of catalytic steps in the succinyl-CoA synthetase reaction." J Biol Chem 255(17);8109-15. PMID: 6997289
Blank02: Blank L, Green J, Guest JR (2002). "AcnC of Escherichia coli is a 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (PrpD) that can use citrate and isocitrate as substrates." Microbiology 148(Pt 1);133-46. PMID: 11782506
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