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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: TCA cycle I (prokaryotic)

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Synonyms: tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid cycle, Krebs cycle, Szent-Gyorgyi-Krebs cycle, TCA cycle I (2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase)

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy TCA cycle

Summary:
The TCA pathway is a catabolic pathway of aerobic respiration. It generates energy and reducing power. It is the first step in generating precursors for biosynthesis. When acetate is the carbon source, citrate synthase is rate-limiting for the TCA cycle. [Walsh85, Walsh87a] Respiration is an ATP-generating process in which compounds act as electron donors through a chain of electron transfer to electron acceptors. Aerobic respiration uses oxygen as the final acceptor. Anaerobic respiration uses several organic compounds as acceptors such as fumarate, nitrate and hydrogen. During the chain of electron transfer, protons (H+) are transported outside the cytoplasmic membrane, generating a proton motive force. Upon passage of protons back into the cytoplasm, the PMF energy is captured as ATP, catalyzed by a multisubunit ATPase.

Citations: [Neidhardt96, Swim54]

Superpathways: superpathway of glyoxylate bypass and TCA , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass


References

Neidhardt96: Neidhardt FC, Curtiss III R, Ingraham JL, Lin ECC, Low Jr KB, Magasanik B, Reznikoff WS, Riley M, Schaechter M, Umbarger HE "Escherichia coli and Salmonella, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Second Edition." American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1996.

Swim54: Swim HE, Krampitz LO (1954). "Acetic acid oxidation by Escherichia coli; evidence for the occurrence of a tricarboxylic acid cycle." J Bacteriol 67(4);419-25. PMID: 13152052

Walsh85: Walsh K, Koshland DE (1985). "Characterization of rate-controlling steps in vivo by use of an adjustable expression vector." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1985;82(11);3577-81. PMID: 3889909

Walsh87a: Walsh K, Schena M, Flint AJ, Koshland DE (1987). "Compensatory regulation in metabolic pathways--responses to increases and decreases in citrate synthase levels." Biochem Soc Symp 1987;54;183-95. PMID: 3332995

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Allison88: Allison N, Williams CH, Guest JR (1988). "Overexpression and mutagenesis of the lipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." Biochem J 256(3);741-9. PMID: 3066354

Alwine73: Alwine JC, Russell RM, Murray KN (1973). "Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity." J Bacteriol 115(1);1-8. PMID: 4197899

Amarneh05: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2005). "Direct transfer of NADH from malate dehydrogenase to complex I in Escherichia coli." Cell Biochem Biophys 42(3);251-61. PMID: 15976458

Anderson88a: Anderson DH, Duckworth HW (1988). "In vitro mutagenesis of Escherichia coli citrate synthase to clarify the locations of ligand binding sites." J Biol Chem 1988;263(5);2163-9. PMID: 3276685

Apostolakos82: Apostolakos D, Menter PA, Rampsch BJ, Reeves HC, Birge EA "Genetic map position of the cistron coding for isocitrate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Current Microbiology 1982;7:45-47.

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Bailey99: Bailey DL, Fraser ME, Bridger WA, James MN, Wolodko WT (1999). "A dimeric form of Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetase produced by site-directed mutagenesis." J Mol Biol 285(4);1655-66. PMID: 9917403

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Bell89: Bell PJ, Andrews SC, Sivak MN, Guest JR (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the FNR-regulated fumarase gene (fumB) of Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 1989;171(6);3494-503. PMID: 2656658

Bennett95: Bennett B, Gruer MJ, Guest JR, Thomson AJ (1995). "Spectroscopic characterisation of an aconitase (AcnA) of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 233(1);317-26. PMID: 7588761

Bild80: Bild GS, Janson CA, Boyer PD (1980). "Subunit interaction during catalysis. ATP modulation of catalytic steps in the succinyl-CoA synthetase reaction." J Biol Chem 255(17);8109-15. PMID: 6997289

Birney96: Birney M, Um HD, Klein C (1996). "Novel mechanisms of Escherichia coli succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase regulation." J Bacteriol 178(10);2883-9. PMID: 8631677

Birney97: Birney M, Um H, Klein C (1997). "Multiple levels of regulation of Escherichia coli succinyl-CoA synthetase." Arch Biochem Biophys 347(1);103-12. PMID: 9344470

Blank02: Blank L, Green J, Guest JR (2002). "AcnC of Escherichia coli is a 2-methylcitrate dehydratase (PrpD) that can use citrate and isocitrate as substrates." Microbiology 148(Pt 1);133-46. PMID: 11782506

Borthwick84: Borthwick AC, Holms WH, Nimmo HG (1984). "The phosphorylation of Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase in intact cells." Biochem J 1984;222(3);797-804. PMID: 6385963

Bradbury96: Bradbury AJ, Gruer MJ, Rudd KE, Guest JR (1996). "The second aconitase (AcnB) of Escherichia coli." Microbiology 142 ( Pt 2);389-400. PMID: 8932712

Brandsch89: Brandsch R, Bichler V (1989). "Covalent cofactor binding to flavoenzymes requires specific effectors." Eur J Biochem 1989;182(1);125-8. PMID: 2659351

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). "Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014." http://www.brenda-enzymes.org.

Bridger68: Bridger WA, Millen WA, Boyer PD (1968). "Substrate synergism and phosphoenzyme formation in catalysis by succinyl coenzyme A synthetase." Biochemistry 7(10);3608-16. PMID: 4878702

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Dec 22, 2014, biocyc11.