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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit

Gene: atpA Accession Numbers: EG10098 (EcoCyc), b3734, ECK3727

Synonyms: papA, uncA

Regulation Summary Diagram

Regulation summary diagram for atpA

Component of:
ATP synthase F1 complex (summary available)
ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase (extended summary available)

Subunit composition of ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = [AtpA]3
         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA

The α-subunit plays an essential role in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme and in the binding and coupling between the F1 and F0 complexes. The α-subunit also contains an adenine-specific binding site which is noncatalytic, nonregulatory and not essential for enzyme assembly in vitro. Its function has not yet been determined. The α-subunit complex is a homotrimer [Rao88].

A hydrogen-bonding network is formed at the closed α/β-subunit interface of F1 [Abrahams94]. Elimination of this network results in a severely impaired enzyme. A possible role for the hydrogen-bonding network in coupling of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and rotation has been proposed [Mao08]. The role of conserved residues surrounding the catalytic site has been studied [Li09].

Citations: [Salcedo14, Lobritz15, Zhao15]

Gene Citations: [Nielsen84 , Jones83, Kasimoglu96]

Locations: inner membrane

Map Position: [3,916,339 <- 3,917,880] (84.41 centisomes, 304°)
Length: 1542 bp / 513 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 55.222 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

pI: 6.16

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0012213, CGSC:33, DIP:DIP-31845N, EchoBASE:EB0096, EcoGene:EG10098, EcoliWiki:b3734, Mint:MINT-1251537, ModBase:P0ABB0, OU-Microarray:b3734, PortEco:atpA, PR:PRO_000022186, Pride:P0ABB0, Protein Model Portal:P0ABB0, RefSeq:NP_418190, RegulonDB:EG10098, SMR:P0ABB0, String:511145.b3734, Swiss-Model:P0ABB0, UniProt:P0ABB0

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000194, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000793, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR004100, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005294, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018538, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR020003, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023366, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027417, Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR15184:SF3, PDB:Structure:1D8S, PDB:Structure:3OAA, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00006, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00306, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02874, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00152

In Paralogous Gene Group: 555 (4 members)

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0015986 - ATP synthesis coupled proton transport [GOA01a, Butlin71]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006754 - ATP biosynthetic process [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006810 - transport [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006811 - ion transport [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0015991 - ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0015992 - proton transport [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0042777 - plasma membrane ATP synthesis coupled proton transport [GOA06]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046034 - ATP metabolic process [GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Rajagopala14, Huang06a, Lasserre06, Arifuzzaman06, Stenberg05, Butland05]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0000166 - nucleotide binding [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0005524 - ATP binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016787 - hydrolase activity [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016820 - hydrolase activity, acting on acid anhydrides, catalyzing transmembrane movement of substances [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046933 - proton-transporting ATP synthase activity, rotational mechanism [GOA06, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046961 - proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotational mechanism [GOA01a]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0016020 - membrane [UniProtGOA11a, Lasserre06]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0045261 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, catalytic core F(1) [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Kanazawa78]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0005886 - plasma membrane [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, GOA06]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0033178 - proton-transporting two-sector ATPase complex, catalytic domain [GOA01a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structuremembrane
metabolismenergy metabolism, carbonATP proton motive force interconversion
transportChannel-type TransportersPyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active TransportersThe H+- or Na+-translocating F-type, V-type and A-type ATPase (F-ATPase) Su

Essentiality data for atpA knockouts:

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enrichedYes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB LennoxYes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerolNo 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 No [Joyce06]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucoseYes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 3]

Subunit of: ATP synthase F1 complex

Subunit composition of ATP synthase F1 complex = [AtpC][AtpH][(AtpA)3][AtpG][(AtpD)3]
         ATP synthase F1 complex - epsilon subunit = AtpC (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - delta subunit = AtpH (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = (AtpA)3 (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA
         ATP synthase F1 complex - gamma subunit = AtpG (summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = (AtpD)3 (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = AtpD

Component of: ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase (extended summary available)

The F1 complex of ATP synthase contains the catalytic sites. The complex consists of five subunits, each of which is required for activity [Senior90, Futai89]. The positive catalytic cooperativity of ATP hydrolysis by the F1 complex has been studied [Bulygin09].

Citations: [Sekiya14]

Last-Curated 30-Jun-2009 by Mackie A, Macquarie University

Subunit of: ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase

Synonyms: ATP synthase F0F1, ATP synthase F1F0

Subunit composition of ATP synthase / thiamin triphosphate synthase = [([AtpE]10)([AtpF]2)(AtpB)][(AtpC)(AtpH)([AtpA]3)(AtpG)([AtpD]3)]
         ATP synthase F0 complex = ([AtpE]10)([AtpF]2)(AtpB) (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - subunit c = (AtpE)10
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - b subunit = (AtpF)2 (extended summary available)
                         ATP synthase F0 complex - b subunit = AtpF
                 ATP synthase F0 complex - a subunit = AtpB (extended summary available)
         ATP synthase F1 complex = (AtpC)(AtpH)([AtpA]3)(AtpG)([AtpD]3) (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - epsilon subunit = AtpC (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - delta subunit = AtpH (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = (AtpA)3 (summary available)
                         ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit = AtpA
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - gamma subunit = AtpG (summary available)
                 ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = (AtpD)3 (summary available)
                         ATP synthase F1 complex - beta subunit = AtpD

ATP synthase (also known as F0F1 synthase) catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) under aerobic and anaerobic cell growth. ATP synthase uses the free energy derived from the transmembrane proton gradient to drive ATP synthesis (see review by [Senior88] and references therein). During fermentation ATP synthase functions in the reverse direction and catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to generate the electrochemical proton gradient needed for other membrane functions (see review by [Trchounian04] and references therein). ATP synthase is a rotary molecular nanomotor that couples the mechanical force of subunit rotation to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP at the enzyme's catalytic sites. Proton movement across the membrane generates subunit rotation which drives ATP synthesis by forcing sequential conformation change at each of the three catalytic sites.

ATP synthase is comprised of two subcomplexes known as F1 and F0 (see review by [Senior90] and references therein). The hydrophilic F1 complex consists of five subunits (α, β, γ, δ and ε) in a stoichiometry of 3:3:1:1:1. The F1 complex contains three catalytic sites located in the three α/β subunit pairs. The F0 complex is membrane-embedded and forms the proton channel through the membrane. This complex consists of three subunits (a, b and c) in a stoichiometry of 1:2:10. Functionally, ATP synthase may be considered tripartite, consisting of a rotor (γεc10), a rotor stalk or stator (b2δ) and three catalytic sites (α3β3) where ATP synthesis or hydrolysis occurs (see review by [Senior02] and comment by [Senior07]).

'Tri-site' and 'bi-site' modes of enzyme catalysis have been proposed [Cross81, Weber01, Boyer01]. Tri-site catalysis requires that all three catalytic sites are occupied and interact with each other; in bi-site catalysis the enzyme functions with two substrate filled catalytic sites.

Additional reviews: [Senior92, Weber03, Boyer93, Weber06, Senior12]

Citations: [Wachter11, Wiedenmann09, BekeSomfai11, DAlessandro08, Kasimoglu96, Kol08, Cain89, Vik91]

Locations: inner membrane

GO Terms:
Cellular Component:
GO:0005886 - plasma membrane []
GO:0045259 - proton-transporting ATP synthase complex []

Last-Curated 16-Jan-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University

Enzymatic reaction of: ATP synthase

Inferred from experiment

Synonyms: F-1F-0-type ATPase, ATP phosphohydrolase (H+-transporting), H+-transporting ATP synthase, F0F1-type ATP synthase, adenosinetriphosphatase, H+-transporting ATPase, proton translocating ATP synthase, F-type ATP synthase

EC Number:

Transport reaction diagram for ATP synthase

Alternative Substrates for ADP: GDP, IDP
Alternative Substrates for ATP: GTP, ITP

In Pathways: superpathway of histidine, purine, and pyrimidine biosynthesis, superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II, adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis

The H+/ATP ratio reflects the number of protons transported for every molecule of ATP synthesized. Based on a model of rotational catalysis for ATP synthase the H+/ATP ratio is equal to the c/β subunit stoichiometric ratio which for E. coli K-12 is 3.3 (c103) [Jiang01a]. A thermodynamic H+/ATP ratio of 4 for E. coli ATP synthase has been experimentally determined [Steigmiller08] and this value is used in the above equation. Dihydrogen phosphate is likely to be the phosphate donor during ATP synthesis [alShawi92].

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: Mg2+

Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): citreoviridin [Senior90], aurovertin [Senior90], quercetin [Dadi09], trans-resveratrol [Dadi09], fluoroaluminate [Senior90], 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole [Senior90], dicyclohexylcarbodiimide [Senior90], efrapeptin [Senior90]

Enzymatic reaction of: thiamin triphosphate synthase

Inferred from experiment

Transport reaction diagram for thiamin triphosphate synthase

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of ATP synthase F1 complex - alpha subunit with features indicated

Feature Class Location Attached Group Citations Comment
Pfam PF02874 29 -> 92  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
ATP-synt_ab_N : ATP synthase alpha/beta family, beta-barrel domain
Sequence-Conflict 91  
Inferred by curator[Kanazawa82, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 4; AAA83873).
Pfam PF00006 149 -> 375  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
ATP-synt_ab : ATP synthase alpha/beta family, nucleotide-binding domain
Nucleotide-Phosphate-Binding-Region 169 -> 176 ATP
Inferred by curator[UniProt15]
UniProt: ATP.
Mutagenesis-Variant 175  
Inferred from experiment[Rao88]
Inferred from experiment[Rao88]
K → I: Reduced activity and loss of ATP-binding.
K → E: Reduced activity and reduced ATP-binding.
Sequence-Conflict 239 -> 244  
Inferred by curator[Kanazawa82, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 4; CAA25780/ AAA24735).
Sequence-Conflict 300 -> 302  
Inferred by curator[Gay81, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 2; CAA23519).
Amino-Acid-Site 373  
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Required for activity; Sequence Annotation Type: site.
Pfam PF00306 387 -> 468  
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
ATP-synt_ab_C : ATP synthase alpha/beta chain, C terminal domain

Gene Local Context (not to scale -- see Genome Browser for correct scale)

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3734 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10098; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Abrahams94: Abrahams JP, Leslie AG, Lutter R, Walker JE (1994). "Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria." Nature 370(6491);621-8. PMID: 8065448

alShawi92: al-Shawi MK, Senior AE (1992). "Catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Characterization of unisite catalysis at varied pH." Biochemistry 31(3);878-85. PMID: 1531027

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

BekeSomfai11: Beke-Somfai T, Lincoln P, Norden B (2011). "Double-lock ratchet mechanism revealing the role of alphaSER-344 in FoF1 ATP synthase." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(12);4828-33. PMID: 21383131

Boyer01: Boyer PD (2001). "Toward an adequate scheme for the ATP synthase catalysis." Biochemistry (Mosc) 66(10);1058-66. PMID: 11736627

Boyer93: Boyer PD (1993). "The binding change mechanism for ATP synthase--some probabilities and possibilities." Biochim Biophys Acta 1140(3);215-50. PMID: 8417777

Bulygin09: Bulygin VV, Milgrom YM (2009). "A bi-site mechanism for Escherichia coli F(1)-ATPase accounts for the observed positive catalytic cooperativity." Biochim Biophys Acta 1787(8);1016-23. PMID: 19269272

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Butlin71: Butlin JD, Cox GB, Gibson F (1971). "Oxidative phosphorylation in Escherichia coli K12. Mutations affecting magnesium ion- or calcium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase." Biochem J 124(1);75-81. PMID: 4256722

Cain89: Cain BD, Simoni RD (1989). "Proton translocation by the F1F0ATPase of Escherichia coli. Mutagenic analysis of the a subunit." J Biol Chem 264(6);3292-300. PMID: 2536742

Cross81: Cross RL (1981). "The mechanism and regulation of ATP synthesis by F1-ATPases." Annu Rev Biochem 50;681-714. PMID: 6455964

Dadi09: Dadi PK, Ahmad M, Ahmad Z (2009). "Inhibition of ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by polyphenols." Int J Biol Macromol 45(1);72-9. PMID: 19375450

DAlessandro08: D'Alessandro M, Turina P, Melandri BA (2008). "Intrinsic uncoupling in the ATP synthase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1518-1527. PMID: 18952048

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Finn14: Finn RD, Bateman A, Clements J, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Heger A, Hetherington K, Holm L, Mistry J, Sonnhammer EL, Tate J, Punta M (2014). "Pfam: the protein families database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(Database issue);D222-30. PMID: 24288371

Futai89: Futai M, Noumi T, Maeda M (1989). "ATP synthase (H+-ATPase): results by combined biochemical and molecular biological approaches." Annu Rev Biochem 58;111-36. PMID: 2528322

Gay81: Gay NJ, Walker JE (1981). "The atp operon: nucleotide sequence of the region encoding the alpha-subunit of Escherichia coli ATP-synthase." Nucleic Acids Res 9(9);2187-94. PMID: 6272228

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

Gigliobianco13: Gigliobianco T, Gangolf M, Lakaye B, Pirson B, von Ballmoos C, Wins P, Bettendorff L (2013). "An alternative role of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase in Escherichia coli: synthesis of thiamine triphosphate." Sci Rep 3;1071. PMID: 23323214

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Huang06a: Huang CZ, Lin XM, Wu LN, Zhang DF, Liu D, Wang SY, Peng XX (2006). "Systematic identification of the subproteome of Escherichia coli cell envelope reveals the interaction network of membrane proteins and membrane-associated peripheral proteins." J Proteome Res 5(12);3268-76. PMID: 17137328

Jiang01a: Jiang W, Hermolin J, Fillingame RH (2001). "The preferred stoichiometry of c subunits in the rotary motor sector of Escherichia coli ATP synthase is 10." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(9);4966-71. PMID: 11320246

Jones83: Jones HM, Brajkovich CM, Gunsalus RP (1983). "In vivo 5' terminus and length of the mRNA for the proton-translocating ATPase (unc) operon of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 155(3);1279-87. PMID: 6193097

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Kanazawa78: Kanazawa H, Saito S, Futai M (1978). "Coupling factor ATPase from Escherichia coli. An uncA mutant (uncA401) with defective alpha subunit." J Biochem 84(6);1513-7. PMID: 153904

Kanazawa82: Kanazawa H, Futai M (1982). "Structure and function of H+-ATPase: what we have learned from Escherichia coli H+-ATPase." Ann N Y Acad Sci 402;45-64. PMID: 6301339

Kasimoglu96: Kasimoglu E, Park SJ, Malek J, Tseng CP, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton-translocating ATPase (atpIBEFHAGDC) operon of Escherichia coli: control by cell growth rate." J Bacteriol 178(19);5563-7. PMID: 8824597

Kol08: Kol S, Nouwen N, Driessen AJ (2008). "The charge distribution in the cytoplasmic loop of subunit C of the F1F0 ATPase is a determinant for YidC targeting." J Biol Chem 283(15);9871-7. PMID: 18276587

Lasserre06: Lasserre JP, Beyne E, Pyndiah S, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M (2006). "A complexomic study of Escherichia coli using two-dimensional blue native/SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis." Electrophoresis 27(16);3306-21. PMID: 16858726

Li09: Li W, Brudecki LE, Senior AE, Ahmad Z (2009). "Role of alpha -subunit VISIT-DG sequence residues Ser-347 and Gly-351 in the catalytic sites of Escherichia coli ATP synthase." J Biol Chem. PMID: 19240022

Lobritz15: Lobritz MA, Belenky P, Porter CB, Gutierrez A, Yang JH, Schwarz EG, Dwyer DJ, Khalil AS, Collins JJ (2015). "Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(27);8173-80. PMID: 26100898

Mao08: Mao HZ, Abraham CG, Krishnakumar AM, Weber J (2008). "A functionally important hydrogen-bonding network at the betaDP/alphaDP interface of ATP synthase." J Biol Chem 283(36);24781-8. PMID: 18579516

Nielsen84: Nielsen J, Jorgensen BB, van Meyenburg KV, Hansen FG (1984). "The promoters of the atp operon of Escherichia coli K12." Mol Gen Genet 1984;193(1);64-71. PMID: 6318052

Pati89: Pati S, Brusilow WS (1989). "The roles of the alpha and gamma subunits in proton conduction through the Fo sector of the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 264(5);2640-4. PMID: 2536718

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

Rao88: Rao R, Pagan J, Senior AE (1988). "Directed mutagenesis of the strongly conserved lysine 175 in the proposed nucleotide-binding domain of alpha-subunit from Escherichia coli F1-ATPase." J Biol Chem 263(31);15957-63. PMID: 2903146

Salcedo14: Salcedo G, Cano-Sanchez P, de Gomez-Puyou MT, Velazquez-Campoy A, Garcia-Hernandez E (2014). "Isolated noncatalytic and catalytic subunits of F1-ATPase exhibit similar, albeit not identical, energetic strategies for recognizing adenosine nucleotides." Biochim Biophys Acta 1837(1);44-50. PMID: 23994287

Sekiya14: Sekiya M, Hisasaka R, Iwamoto-Kihara A, Futai M, Nakanishi-Matsui M (2014). "A unique mechanism of curcumin inhibition on F1 ATPase." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 452(4);940-4. PMID: 25230139

Senior02: Senior AE, Nadanaciva S, Weber J (2002). "The molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis by F1F0-ATP synthase." Biochim Biophys Acta 1553(3);188-211. PMID: 11997128

Senior07: Senior AE (2007). "ATP synthase: motoring to the finish line." Cell 130(2);220-1. PMID: 17662937

Senior12: Senior AE (2012). "Two ATPases." J Biol Chem 287(36);30049-62. PMID: 22822068

Senior88: Senior AE (1988). "ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation." Physiol Rev 68(1);177-231. PMID: 2892214

Senior90: Senior AE (1990). "The proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli." Annu Rev Biophys Biophys Chem 19;7-41. PMID: 2141983

Senior92: Senior AE (1992). "Catalytic sites of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase." J Bioenerg Biomembr 24(5);479-84. PMID: 1429542

Steigmiller08: Steigmiller S, Turina P, Graber P (2008). "The thermodynamic H+/ATP ratios of the H+-ATPsynthases from chloroplasts and Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(10);3745-50. PMID: 18316723

Stenberg05: Stenberg F, Chovanec P, Maslen SL, Robinson CV, Ilag LL, von Heijne G, Daley DO (2005). "Protein complexes of the Escherichia coli cell envelope." J Biol Chem 280(41);34409-19. PMID: 16079137

Trchounian04: Trchounian A (2004). "Escherichia coli proton-translocating F0F1-ATP synthase and its association with solute secondary transporters and/or enzymes of anaerobic oxidation-reduction under fermentation." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 315(4);1051-7. PMID: 14985119

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-08 released on 2015-07-22." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vik91: Vik SB, Lee D, Marshall PA (1991). "Temperature-sensitive mutations at the carboxy terminus of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli F1F0 ATP synthase." J Bacteriol 173(14);4544-8. PMID: 1829729

Wachter11: Wachter A, Bi Y, Dunn SD, Cain BD, Sielaff H, Wintermann F, Engelbrecht S, Junge W (2011). "Two rotary motors in F-ATP synthase are elastically coupled by a flexible rotor and a stiff stator stalk." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(10);3924-9. PMID: 21368147

Weber01: Weber J, Senior AE (2001). "Bi-site catalysis in F1-ATPase: does it exist?." J Biol Chem 276(38);35422-8. PMID: 11451960

Weber03: Weber J, Senior AE (2003). "ATP synthesis driven by proton transport in F1F0-ATP synthase." FEBS Lett 545(1);61-70. PMID: 12788493

Weber06: Weber J (2006). "ATP synthase: subunit-subunit interactions in the stator stalk." Biochim Biophys Acta 1757(9-10);1162-70. PMID: 16730323

Wiedenmann09: Wiedenmann A, Dimroth P, von Ballmoos C (2009). "Functional asymmetry of the F(0) motor in bacterial ATP synthases." Mol Microbiol 72(2);479-90. PMID: 19317834

Zhao15: Zhao Z, Eberhart LJ, Orfe LH, Lu SY, Besser TE, Call DR (2015). "Genome-wide screening identifies six genes that are associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli microcin PDI." Appl Environ Microbiol. PMID: 26209678

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Arechaga03: Arechaga I, Miroux B, Runswick MJ, Walker JE (2003). "Over-expression of Escherichia coli F1F(o)-ATPase subunit a is inhibited by instability of the uncB gene transcript." FEBS Lett 547(1-3);97-100. PMID: 12860393

Kumar11: Kumar R, Shimizu K (2011). "Transcriptional regulation of main metabolic pathways of cyoA, cydB, fnr, and fur gene knockout Escherichia coli in C-limited and N-limited aerobic continuous cultures." Microb Cell Fact 10;3. PMID: 21272324

Lin12: Lin X, Wang C, Guo C, Tian Y, Li H, Peng X (2012). "Differential regulation of OmpC and OmpF by AtpB in Escherichia coli exposed to nalidixic acid and chlortetracycline." J Proteomics 75(18);5898-910. PMID: 22960566

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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