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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Protein: TonB energy transducing system

Component of:
ferric coprogen outer membrane transport complex
ferric coprogen transport system
ferric citrate outer membrane transport complex (summary available)
ferric dicitrate transport system
ferrichrome outer membrane transport complex
ferrichrome transport system
ferric enterobactin outer membrane transport complex
ferric enterobactin transport system (summary available)
vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex
vitamin B12 transport system

Subunit composition of TonB energy transducing system = [TonB][ExbB][ExbD]
         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Summary:
TonB is a cytoplasmic membrane protein which transduces the proton motive force (pmf) of the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer membrane active transporters thus providing the energy source required for the import of iron-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane [Letain97]. The amino-terminal signal sequence of TonB is thought to span the cytoplasmic membrane, with the rest of the protein residing within the periplasmic space [Karlsson93]. TonB has been shown to come into close contact with proteins located in both membranes [Skare93]. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation studies found that TonB is distributed approximately equally in the inner and outer membrane fractions [Letain97]. In conjunction with cytoplasmic membrane proteins ExbB and ExbD, TonB forms an energy transduction complex which interacts with a variety of outer membrane active transporter proteins [Braun02]. When complexed with ExbB and ExbD, TonB is thought to adopt an energized conformation which is subsequently released from the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer membrane whereupon it interacts with an array of outer membrane proteins [Higgs02]. TonB is then thought to respond to the conformational changes induced in the active transport proteins upon substrate binding [Moeck97], releasing its stored energy to the active transporters and reassociating with ExbB and ExbD at the cytoplasmic membrane to be re-energized [Larsen03].

Locations: inner membrane, periplasmic space

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015682 - ferric iron transport Inferred from experiment [Gresock11]
GO:0015889 - cobalamin transport Inferred from experiment [Bassford76]
Molecular Function: GO:0031992 - energy transducer activity Inferred from experiment [Letain97]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Skare93]
GO:0042597 - periplasmic space Inferred from experiment [Postle88]


Subunit of: ferric coprogen outer membrane transport complex

Subunit composition of ferric coprogen outer membrane transport complex = [FhuE][(TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD)]
         ferric coprogen outer membrane porin FhuE = FhuE (summary available)
         TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                 tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Component of: ferric coprogen transport system

Locations: periplasmic space, outer membrane, inner membrane

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane
GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space

Credits:
Created 30-Oct-2011 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferric coprogen (ferric coprogen outer membrane transport complex)


Subunit of: ferric coprogen transport system

Subunit composition of ferric coprogen transport system = [(FhuC)2(FhuB)2(FhuD)][(FhuE)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])]
         iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter = (FhuC)2(FhuB)2(FhuD) (extended summary available)
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = FhuC
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FhuB
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = FhuD (summary available)
         ferric coprogen outer membrane transport complex = (FhuE)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])
                 ferric coprogen outer membrane porin FhuE = FhuE (summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Credits:
Created 30-Oct-2011 by Mackie A , Macquarie University


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferric coprogen (ferric coprogen transport system)


Subunit of: ferric citrate outer membrane transport complex

Subunit composition of ferric citrate outer membrane transport complex = [FecA][(TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD)]
         ferric citrate outer membrane porin FecA = FecA (summary available)
         TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                 tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Component of: ferric dicitrate transport system

Summary:
The outer membrane ferric citrate transport system is responsible for the transport of ferric citrate across the outer membrane by FecA energized by the TonB energy transducing system.

Locations: outer membrane, inner membrane, periplasmic space

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane
GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferric citrate (ferric citrate outer membrane transport complex)


Subunit of: ferric dicitrate transport system

Subunit composition of ferric dicitrate transport system = [(FecE)2(FecC)(FecD)(FecB)][(FecA)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])]
         ferric dicitrate ABC transporter = (FecE)2(FecC)(FecD)(FecB) (summary available)
                 ferric dicitrate ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = FecE (summary available)
                 ferric dicitrate ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FecC (summary available)
                 ferric dicitrate ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FecD (summary available)
                 ferric dicitrate ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = FecB (summary available)
         ferric citrate outer membrane transport complex = (FecA)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD]) (summary available)
                 ferric citrate outer membrane porin FecA = FecA (summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Locations: outer membrane, inner membrane, periplasmic space

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane
GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferric dicitrate (ferric dicitrate transport system)


Subunit of: ferrichrome outer membrane transport complex

Subunit composition of ferrichrome outer membrane transport complex = [(TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD)][FhuA]
         TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                 tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)
         ferrichrome / phage / antibiotic outer membrane porin FhuA = FhuA (extended summary available)

Component of: ferrichrome transport system


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferrichrome (ferrichrome outer membrane transport complex)


Subunit of: ferrichrome transport system

Synonyms: iron (III) hydroxamate uptake system

Subunit composition of ferrichrome transport system = [(FhuC)2(FhuB)2(FhuD)][([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])(FhuA)]
         iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter = (FhuC)2(FhuB)2(FhuD) (extended summary available)
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = FhuC
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FhuB
                 iron (III) hydroxamate ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = FhuD (summary available)
         ferrichrome outer membrane transport complex = ([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])(FhuA)
                 TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)
                 ferrichrome / phage / antibiotic outer membrane porin FhuA = FhuA (extended summary available)

Citations: [Wu95]


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferrichrome (ferrichrome transport system)


Subunit of: ferric enterobactin outer membrane transport complex

Subunit composition of ferric enterobactin outer membrane transport complex = [(TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD)][FepA]
         TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                 tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)
         ferric enterobactin / colicin B / colicin D outer membrane porin FepA = FepA (summary available)

Component of: ferric enterobactin transport system (summary available)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of ferric enterobactin (ferric enterobactin outer membrane transport complex)


Subunit of: ferric enterobactin transport system

Subunit composition of ferric enterobactin transport system = [(FepC)2(FepD)(FepG)(FepB)][([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])(FepA)]
         ferric enterobactin ABC transporter = (FepC)2(FepD)(FepG)(FepB) (extended summary available)
                 ferric enterobactin ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = FepC (extended summary available)
                 ferric enterobactin ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FepD
                 ferric enterobactin ABC transporter - membrane subunit = FepG
                 ferric enterobactin ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = FepB
         ferric enterobactin outer membrane transport complex = ([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])(FepA)
                 TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)
                 ferric enterobactin / colicin B / colicin D outer membrane porin FepA = FepA (summary available)

Summary:
FepA is a 22-stranded membrane-spanning beta barrel protein in the outer membrane. FepA is a TonB dependent active transporter that recognizes ferric enterobactin and translocates the molecule across the outer membrane into the periplasm. FepB is a periplasmic binding protein that binds ferric enterobactin for transport across the inner membrane by the FepCDG ABC transporter.

Locations: outer membrane, inner membrane, periplasmic space

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane
GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space


Enzymatic reaction of: ferric enterobactin transport


Subunit of: vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex

Subunit composition of vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex = [BtuB][(TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD)]
         vitamin B12 / E colicin / bacteriophage BF23 outer membrane porin BtuB = BtuB (extended summary available)
         TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                 tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)

Component of: vitamin B12 transport system

Locations: outer membrane, inner membrane, periplasmic space

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane
GO:0009279 - cell outer membrane
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of cobinamide (vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex)


Enzymatic reaction of: transport of cob(I)alamin (vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex)

Alternative Products for cob(I)alamin: coenzyme B12 [Bradbeer78 ]


Subunit of: vitamin B12 transport system

Subunit composition of vitamin B12 transport system = [(BtuB)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])][(BtuD)2(BtuC)2(BtuF)]
         vitamin B12 outer membrane transport complex = (BtuB)([TonB][ExbB][ExbD])
                 vitamin B12 / E colicin / bacteriophage BF23 outer membrane porin BtuB = BtuB (extended summary available)
                 TonB energy transducing system = (TonB)(ExbB)(ExbD) (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit = TonB (extended summary available)
                         TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit = ExbB (summary available)
                         tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit = ExbD (summary available)
         vitamin B12 ABC transporter = (BtuD)2(BtuC)2(BtuF) (extended summary available)
                 vitamin B12 ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = BtuD (summary available)
                 vitamin B12 ABC transporter - membrane subunit = BtuC (summary available)
                 vitamin B12 ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = BtuF (summary available)


Enzymatic reaction of: cobinamide transport (vitamin B12 transport system)


Enzymatic reaction of: cob(I)alamin transport (vitamin B12 transport system)

Alternative Products for cob(I)alamin: coenzyme B12 [Bradbeer78 ]


Subunit of TonB energy transducing system: TonB energy transducing system - TonB subunit

Synonyms: ExbA, TonB

Gene: tonB Accession Numbers: EG11012 (EcoCyc), b1252, ECK1246

Locations: periplasmic space, inner membrane

Sequence Length: 239 AAs

Molecular Weight: 26.094 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 25.0 kD (experimental) [James09]

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0015889 - cobalamin transport Inferred from experiment [Cadieux02, Bassford76]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0015031 - protein transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0015891 - siderophore transport Author statement [Braun95]
GO:0042914 - colicin transport Author statement [Braun95]
GO:0043213 - bacteriocin transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0044718 - siderophore transmembrane transport Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Ollis12, Ollis12a, Ollis11, Brinkman08, VakhariaRao07, James09]
GO:0031992 - energy transducer activity Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, Letain97, Bassford76]
GO:0015343 - siderophore transmembrane transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, Postle88]
GO:0031233 - intrinsic component of external side of plasma membrane Inferred from experiment [Skare93]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a, DiazMejia09]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure membrane
extrachromosomal prophage genes and phage related functions

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-11010N , DIP:DIP-48111N , DisProt:DP00043 , EcoliWiki:b1252 , ModBase:P02929 , PR:PRO_000024083 , Pride:P02929 , Protein Model Portal:P02929 , RefSeq:NP_415768 , SMR:P02929 , UniProt:P02929

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003538 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006260 , PDB:Structure:1IHR , PDB:Structure:1QXX , PDB:Structure:1U07 , PDB:Structure:1XX3 , PDB:Structure:2GRX , PDB:Structure:2GSK , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03544 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR01374

Summary:
TonB is a cytoplasmic membrane protein which transduces the proton motive force (pmf) of the cytoplasmic membrane to the outer membrane active transporters thus providing the energy source required for the import of iron-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane [Letain97]. TonB functions as part of an energy transduction complex with ExbB and ExbD [Braun02].

TonB induces conformational changes in outer exposed-surface loops of the outer-membrane receptor FhuA, which promotes binding to and transport of hydroxamate-type siderophores into the periplasm [James08]. TonB also interacts with the periplasmic binding protein BtuF. This interaction has a stoichiometry of 1:1 and is independent of cyanocobalamin binding by BtuF [James09].

Hybrid protein studies indicate that the TonB N terminus remains associated with the inner membrane, while the downstream region bridges the cell envelope due to the affinity of the C terminus for peptidoglycan. This suggests that TonB searches for occupied receptor proteins from underneath the peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins [Kaserer08].

The crystal structure of a 92-residue fragment of TonB (TonB-92) has been determined to 1.13 Å resolution [Kodding04].

Essentiality data for tonB knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 3]

Subunit of TonB energy transducing system: TonB energy transducing system - ExbB subunit

Synonyms: ExbB

Gene: exbB Accession Numbers: EG10271 (EcoCyc), b3006, ECK2999

Locations: inner membrane

Sequence Length: 244 AAs

Molecular Weight: 26.287 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0050821 - protein stabilization Inferred from experiment [Ahmer95]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0015031 - protein transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0043213 - bacteriocin transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Ollis12, Ollis11, Brinkman08, VakhariaRao07, Higgs98]
GO:0031992 - energy transducer activity Inferred from experiment [Letain97]
GO:0008565 - protein transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Zhang07, Daley05, Letain97]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations Fe aquisition
cell structure membrane
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Ion-gradient-driven energizers

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-47841N , EcoliWiki:b3006 , PR:PRO_000022554 , Pride:P0ABU7 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABU7 , RefSeq:NP_417479 , String:511145.b3006 , UniProt:P0ABU7

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002898 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014164 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01618

Summary:
ExbB and ExbD proteins function as part of the TonB-dependent energy transduction system for the import of iron-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane. ExbB and ExbD are encoded by the exb operon in Escherichia coli [Held02].

Essentiality data for exbB knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 4]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 3]

Subunit of TonB energy transducing system: tonB energy transducing system - ExbD subunit

Synonyms: ExbD

Gene: exbD Accession Numbers: EG10272 (EcoCyc), b3005, ECK2998

Locations: inner membrane

Sequence Length: 141 AAs

Molecular Weight: 15.527 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0050821 - protein stabilization Inferred from experiment [Ahmer95]
GO:0006810 - transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0015031 - protein transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
GO:0043213 - bacteriocin transport Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]
Molecular Function: GO:0005515 - protein binding Inferred from experiment [Ollis12, Ollis12a, Ollis11]
GO:0031992 - energy transducer activity Inferred from experiment [Letain97]
GO:0042802 - identical protein binding Inferred from experiment [Rajagopala14, Ollis12, Ollis11]
GO:0005215 - transporter activity Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005886 - plasma membrane Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a, DiazMejia09, Zhang07, Letain97]
GO:0016020 - membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0016021 - integral component of membrane Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell processes adaptations Fe aquisition
transport Electrochemical potential driven transporters Ion-gradient-driven energizers

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-47973N , EcoliWiki:b3005 , PR:PRO_000022555 , Protein Model Portal:P0ABV2 , RefSeq:NP_417478 , SMR:P0ABV2 , String:511145.b3005 , UniProt:P0ABV2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003400 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014170 , PDB:Structure:2PFU , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02472

Summary:
ExbB and ExbD proteins function as part of the TonB-dependent energy transduction system for the import of iron-siderophore complexes and vitamin B12 across the outer membrane. ExbB and ExbD are encoded by the exb operon in Escherichia coli [Held02].

Essentiality data for exbD knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enriched Yes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 4]
LB Lennox Yes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
M9 medium with 1% glycerol Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 2]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucose Yes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 1]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 3]

References

Ahmer95: Ahmer BM, Thomas MG, Larsen RA, Postle K (1995). "Characterization of the exbBD operon of Escherichia coli and the role of ExbB and ExbD in TonB function and stability." J Bacteriol 1995;177(16);4742-7. PMID: 7642501

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Barnard01: Barnard TJ, Watson ME, McIntosh MA (2001). "Mutations in the Escherichia coli receptor FepA reveal residues involved in ligand binding and transport." Mol Microbiol 2001;41(3);527-36. PMID: 11532122

Bassford76: Bassford PJ, Bradbeer C, Kadner RJ, Schnaitman CA (1976). "Transport of vitamin B12 in tonB mutants of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 128(1);242-7. PMID: 135755

Bradbeer78: Bradbeer C, Kenley JS, Di Masi DR, Leighton M (1978). "Transport of vitamin B12 in Escherichia coli. Corrinoid specificities of the periplasmic B12-binding protein and of energy-dependent B12 transport." J Biol Chem 253(5);1347-52. PMID: 342526

Braun02: Braun V, Braun M (2002). "Active transport of iron and siderophore antibiotics." Curr Opin Microbiol 5(2);194-201. PMID: 11934617

Braun95: Braun V (1995). "Energy-coupled transport and signal transduction through the gram-negative outer membrane via TonB-ExbB-ExbD-dependent receptor proteins." FEMS Microbiol Rev 16(4);295-307. PMID: 7654405

Brinkman08: Brinkman KK, Larsen RA (2008). "Interactions of the energy transducer TonB with noncognate energy-harvesting complexes." J Bacteriol 190(1);421-7. PMID: 17965155

Cadieux02: Cadieux N, Bradbeer C, Reeger-Schneider E, Koster W, Mohanty AK, Wiener MC, Kadner RJ (2002). "Identification of the periplasmic cobalamin-binding protein BtuF of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 2002;184(3);706-17. PMID: 11790740

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Ferguson98: Ferguson AD, Hofmann E, Coulton JW, Diederichs K, Welte W (1998). "Siderophore-mediated iron transport: crystal structure of FhuA with bound lipopolysaccharide." Science 282(5397);2215-20. PMID: 9856937

Gaspar99: Gaspar M, Santos MA, Krauter K, Winkelmann G (1999). "Molecular recognition of synthetic siderophore analogues: a study with receptor-deficient and fhu(A-B) deletion mutants of Escherichia coli." Biometals 1999;12(3);209-18. PMID: 10581683

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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