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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14



Gene: rplN Accession Numbers: EG10875 (EcoCyc), b3310, ECK3297

Regulation Summary Diagram

Regulation summary diagram for rplN

Component of:
50S ribosomal subunit
ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
The L14 protein is a component of the 50S subunit of the ribosome.

L14 crosslinks to 23S rRNA [Osswald90, Urlaub95]. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome, L14 was modelled to be located at the 30S-50S subunit interface, at bridges B5 and B8 [Gao03]. In all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ribosome, a structural gate between helices 71 and 92 of 23S rRNA restricts tRNA motion and together with L14 acts as a steric filter for the cognate tRNA [Caulfield12].

L14 interacts directly with ribosomal silencing factor. Amino acid residues in L14 that are essential for this interaction have been identified by mutagenesis [Hauser12].

Based on amino-terminal sequencing of the purified protein, L14 may be identical to Rep helicase stimulatory protein (RHSP) [Smith89a, Yancey91]. RHSP forms aggregates on DNA and interacts with rRNA [Yancey91].

Retroregulation of L14 expression by mRNA processing and decay has been studied in E. coli B/r [Liang99].

Gene Citations: [Cerretti83]

Locations: cytosol, ribosome

Map Position: [3,445,800 <- 3,446,171] (74.27 centisomes, 267°)
Length: 372 bp / 123 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 13.541 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010837, CGSC:252, DIP:DIP-35798N, EchoBASE:EB0868, EcoGene:EG10875, EcoliWiki:b3310, Mint:MINT-1304553, ModBase:P0ADY3, OU-Microarray:b3310, PortEco:rplN, PR:PRO_000023820, Pride:P0ADY3, Protein Model Portal:P0ADY3, RefSeq:NP_417769, RegulonDB:EG10875, SMR:P0ADY3, String:511145.b3310, Swiss-Model:P0ADY3, UniProt:P0ADY3

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000218, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005745, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR019972, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023571, Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR11761, PDB:Structure:1ML5, PDB:Structure:2J28, PDB:Structure:2RDO, PDB:Structure:3BBX, PDB:Structure:3IY9, PDB:Structure:3IZZ, PDB:Structure:3J5L, PDB:Structure:3J7Z, PDB:Structure:3J9Y, PDB:Structure:487D, PDB:Structure:4CSU, PDB:Structure:4U1U, PDB:Structure:4U1V, PDB:Structure:4U20, PDB:Structure:4U24, PDB:Structure:4U25, PDB:Structure:4U26, PDB:Structure:4U27, PDB:Structure:4UY8, PDB:Structure:4V6E, PDB:Structure:4V6K, PDB:Structure:4V6L, PDB:Structure:4V6M, PDB:Structure:4V6N, PDB:Structure:4V6O, PDB:Structure:4V6P, PDB:Structure:4V6Q, PDB:Structure:4V6R, PDB:Structure:4V6S, PDB:Structure:4V6T, PDB:Structure:4V6V, PDB:Structure:4V6Y, PDB:Structure:4V6Z, PDB:Structure:4V7V, PDB:Structure:4V9C, PDB:Structure:4V9D, PDB:Structure:4V9O, PDB:Structure:4V9P, PDB:Structure:4V47, PDB:Structure:4V48, PDB:Structure:4V4H, PDB:Structure:4V4Q, PDB:Structure:4V4V, PDB:Structure:4V4W, PDB:Structure:4V50, PDB:Structure:4V52, PDB:Structure:4V53, PDB:Structure:4V54, PDB:Structure:4V55, PDB:Structure:4V56, PDB:Structure:4V57, PDB:Structure:4V5B, PDB:Structure:4V5H, PDB:Structure:4V5Y, PDB:Structure:4V64, PDB:Structure:4V65, PDB:Structure:4V66, PDB:Structure:4V69, PDB:Structure:4V6C, PDB:Structure:4V6D, PDB:Structure:4V70, PDB:Structure:4V71, PDB:Structure:4V72, PDB:Structure:4V73, PDB:Structure:4V74, PDB:Structure:4V75, PDB:Structure:4V76, PDB:Structure:4V77, PDB:Structure:4V78, PDB:Structure:4V79, PDB:Structure:4V7A, PDB:Structure:4V7B, PDB:Structure:4V7C, PDB:Structure:4V7D, PDB:Structure:4V7I, PDB:Structure:4V7S, PDB:Structure:4V7T, PDB:Structure:4V7U, PDB:Structure:4V85, PDB:Structure:4V89, PDB:Structure:4WF1, PDB:Structure:4WWW, PDB:Structure:4YBB, PDB:Structure:5AFI, PDB:Structure:5AKA, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00238, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00049

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for rplN


GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006412 - translation [GOA06, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Hauser12]
Inferred from experimentGO:0070180 - large ribosomal subunit rRNA binding [Urlaub95]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0003723 - RNA binding [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0003735 - structural constituent of ribosome [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0019843 - rRNA binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA06]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0005829 - cytosol [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
Inferred from experimentGO:0022625 - cytosolic large ribosomal subunit [Hindennach71, Kaltschmidt70]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0005840 - ribosome [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0015934 - large ribosomal subunit [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0030529 - ribonucleoprotein complex [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structureribosomes
information transferprotein relatedribosomal proteins
information transferprotein relatedtranslation

Essentiality data for rplN knockouts:

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB LennoxNo 37 Aerobic 7   No [Baba06, Comment 1]

Credits:
Last-Curated 31-Jul-2012 by Keseler I, SRI International


Subunit of: 50S ribosomal subunit

Inferred from experiment

Synonyms: ribosome, large subunit

Subunit composition of 50S ribosomal subunit = [RrlA][RrfA][RplA][RplB][RplC][RplD][RplE][RplF][(RplJ)([RplL]2)2][RplI][RplK][RplM][RplN][RplO][RplP][RplQ][RplR][RplS][RplT][RplU][RplV][RplW][RplX][RplY][RpmA][RpmB][RpmC][RpmD][RpmE][RpmF][RpmG][RpmH][RpmI][RpmJ]
         23S ribosomal RNA (rrlA) = RrlA (extended summary available)
         5S ribosomal RNA (rrfA) = RrfA (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L1 = RplA (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L2 = RplB (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L3 = RplC (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L4 = RplD (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L5 = RplE (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L6 = RplF (summary available)
         50S ribosomal protein complex L8 = (RplJ)([RplL]2)2 (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L10 = RplJ (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L7/L12 dimer = (RplL)2
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L12 = RplL
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L9 = RplI (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L11 = RplK (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L13 = RplM (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 = RplN (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L15 = RplO (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L16 = RplP (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L17 = RplQ (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L18 = RplR (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L19 = RplS (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L20 = RplT (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L21 = RplU (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L22 = RplV (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L23 = RplW (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L24 = RplX (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L25 = RplY (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L27 = RpmA (extended summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L28 = RpmB (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L29 = RpmC (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L30 = RpmD (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L31 = RpmE (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L32 = RpmF (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L33 = RpmG (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L34 = RpmH (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L35 = RpmI (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit protein L36 = RpmJ (extended summary available)

Component of: ribosome (summary available)

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:1P85, PDB:Structure:1P86, PDB:Structure:2AW4, PDB:Structure:2AWB

Credits:
Created 02-Jun-2006 by Keseler I, SRI International


Subunit of: ribosome

Subunit composition of ribosome = [(RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra)][(RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)]
         30S ribosomal subunit = (RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra) (summary available)
                 16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit = (RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)
                 23S ribosomal RNA (rrlA) = RrlA (extended summary available)
                 5S ribosomal RNA (rrfA) = RrfA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L1 = RplA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L2 = RplB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L3 = RplC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L4 = RplD (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L5 = RplE (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L6 = RplF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal protein complex L8 = (RplJ)([RplL]2)2 (summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L10 = RplJ (extended summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L7/L12 dimer = (RplL)2
                                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L12 = RplL
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L9 = RplI (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L11 = RplK (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L13 = RplM (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 = RplN (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L15 = RplO (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L16 = RplP (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L17 = RplQ (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L18 = RplR (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L19 = RplS (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L20 = RplT (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L21 = RplU (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L22 = RplV (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L23 = RplW (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L24 = RplX (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L25 = RplY (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L27 = RpmA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L28 = RpmB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L29 = RpmC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L30 = RpmD (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L31 = RpmE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L32 = RpmF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L33 = RpmG (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L34 = RpmH (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L35 = RpmI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L36 = RpmJ (extended summary available)

Summary:
The ribosome is a complex machinery that translates the genetic code.

A crystal structure of the E. coli ribosome has been determined at 3.5 Å resolution [Schuwirth05]. Additional crystal structures of the ribosome with tRNA bound in two functionally distinct states reveal how a ratchet-like motion of the small and large subunits contributes to translocation, termination of translation, and ribosome recycling [Zhang09, Dunkle11].

Approximately eight molecules of Zn2+ are bound to the ribosome; therefore, it appears that a large fraction of intracellular Zn2+ is ribosome-associated [Hensley11].

Selected reviews: [Ramakrishnan02, Yonath05, Ogle05, Kaczanowska07]

Citations: [Kuhlenkoetter11, Goldman15]

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:3R8N, PDB:Structure:3R8O, PDB:Structure:3R8S, PDB:Structure:3R8T

Enzymes activated by ribosome, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: ATPase [Becker12]

Credits:
Created 15-Jun-2006 by Keseler I, SRI International


Sequence Features

Protein sequence of 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Sequence-Conflict 63
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 84
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 90 -> 91
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).
Sequence-Conflict 97
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).
Mutagenesis-Variant 97
Inferred from experiment[Hauser12]
UniProt: Reduced RsfS binding.
Mutagenesis-Variant 98
Inferred from experiment[Hauser12]
UniProt: Reduced RsfS binding.
Mutagenesis-Variant 114
Inferred from experiment[Hauser12]
UniProt: Reduced RsfS binding.
Sequence-Conflict 115
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).
Mutagenesis-Variant 117
Inferred from experiment[Hauser12]
UniProt: No change in RsfS binding.
Sequence-Conflict 123
Inferred by curator[Morinaga78, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1; AA sequence).


Sequence Pfam Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Pfam PF00238 1 -> 123
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
Ribosomal_L14 : Ribosomal protein L14p/L23e


Gene Local Context (not to scale -- see Genome Browser for correct scale)

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Unit

Transcription-unit diagram

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3310 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10875; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Becker12: Becker M, Gzyl KE, Altamirano AM, Vuong A, Urban K, Wieden HJ (2012). "The 70S ribosome modulates the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli YchF." RNA Biol 9(10);1288-301. PMID: 22995830

Caulfield12: Caulfield T, Devkota B (2012). "Motion of transfer RNA from the A/T state into the A-site using docking and simulations." Proteins 80(11);2489-500. PMID: 22730134

Cerretti83: Cerretti DP, Dean D, Davis GR, Bedwell DM, Nomura M (1983). "The spc ribosomal protein operon of Escherichia coli: sequence and cotranscription of the ribosomal protein genes and a protein export gene." Nucleic Acids Res 1983;11(9);2599-616. PMID: 6222285

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dunkle11: Dunkle JA, Wang L, Feldman MB, Pulk A, Chen VB, Kapral GJ, Noeske J, Richardson JS, Blanchard SC, Cate JH (2011). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding." Science 332(6032);981-4. PMID: 21596992

Finn14: Finn RD, Bateman A, Clements J, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Heger A, Hetherington K, Holm L, Mistry J, Sonnhammer EL, Tate J, Punta M (2014). "Pfam: the protein families database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(Database issue);D222-30. PMID: 24288371

Gao03: Gao H, Sengupta J, Valle M, Korostelev A, Eswar N, Stagg SM, Van Roey P, Agrawal RK, Harvey SC, Sali A, Chapman MS, Frank J (2003). "Study of the structural dynamics of the E coli 70S ribosome using real-space refinement." Cell 113(6);789-801. PMID: 12809609

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Goldman15: Goldman DH, Kaiser CM, Milin A, Righini M, Tinoco I, Bustamante C (2015). "Ribosome. Mechanical force releases nascent chain-mediated ribosome arrest in vitro and in vivo." Science 348(6233);457-60. PMID: 25908824

Hauser12: Hauser R, Pech M, Kijek J, Yamamoto H, Titz B, Naeve F, Tovchigrechko A, Yamamoto K, Szaflarski W, Takeuchi N, Stellberger T, Diefenbacher ME, Nierhaus KH, Uetz P (2012). "RsfA (YbeB) Proteins Are Conserved Ribosomal Silencing Factors." PLoS Genet 8(7);e1002815. PMID: 22829778

Hensley11: Hensley MP, Tierney DL, Crowder MW (2011). "Zn(II) binding to Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes." Biochemistry 50(46);9937-9. PMID: 22026583

Hindennach71: Hindennach I, Kaltschmidt E, Wittmann HG (1971). "Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of proteins from 50S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 23(1);12-6. PMID: 4942547

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Kaczanowska07: Kaczanowska M, Ryden-Aulin M (2007). "Ribosome biogenesis and the translation process in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71(3);477-94. PMID: 17804668

Kaltschmidt70: Kaltschmidt E, Wittmann HG (1970). "Ribosomal proteins. XII. Number of proteins in small and large ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli as determined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 67(3);1276-82. PMID: 4922286

Kuhlenkoetter11: Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011). "Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome." Nature 476(7360);351-4. PMID: 21804565

Liang99: Liang ST, Ehrenberg M, Dennis P, Bremer H (1999). "Decay of rplN and lacZ mRNA in Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 288(4);521-38. PMID: 10329160

Morinaga78: Morinaga T, Funatsu G, Funatsu M (1978). "Primary structure of protein L14 isolated from Escherichia coli ribosomes." FEBS Lett 91(1);74-7. PMID: 352727

Ogle05: Ogle JM, Ramakrishnan V (2005). "Structural insights into translational fidelity." Annu Rev Biochem 74;129-77. PMID: 15952884

Osswald90: Osswald M, Greuer B, Brimacombe R (1990). "Localization of a series of RNA-protein cross-link sites in the 23S and 5S ribosomal RNA from Escherichia coli, induced by treatment of 50S subunits with three different bifunctional reagents." Nucleic Acids Res 18(23);6755-60. PMID: 1702198

Ramakrishnan02: Ramakrishnan V (2002). "Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation." Cell 108(4);557-72. PMID: 11909526

Schuwirth05: Schuwirth BS, Borovinskaya MA, Hau CW, Zhang W, Vila-Sanjurjo A, Holton JM, Cate JH (2005). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome at 3.5 A resolution." Science 310(5749);827-34. PMID: 16272117

Smith89a: Smith KR, Yancey JE, Matson SW (1989). "Identification and purification of a protein that stimulates the helicase activity of the Escherichia coli Rep protein." J Biol Chem 264(11);6119-26. PMID: 2522929

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-08 released on 2015-07-22." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Urlaub95: Urlaub H, Kruft V, Bischof O, Muller EC, Wittmann-Liebold B (1995). "Protein-rRNA binding features and their structural and functional implications in ribosomes as determined by cross-linking studies." EMBO J 14(18);4578-88. PMID: 7556101

Yancey91: Yancey JE, Matson SW (1991). "The DNA unwinding reaction catalyzed by Rep protein is facilitated by an RHSP-DNA interaction." Nucleic Acids Res 19(14);3943-51. PMID: 1650456

Yonath05: Yonath A (2005). "Antibiotics targeting ribosomes: resistance, selectivity, synergism and cellular regulation." Annu Rev Biochem 74;649-79. PMID: 16180279

Zhang09: Zhang W, Dunkle JA, Cate JH (2009). "Structures of the ribosome in intermediate states of ratcheting." Science 325(5943);1014-7. PMID: 19696352

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Cerretti88: Cerretti DP, Mattheakis LC, Kearney KR, Vu L, Nomura M (1988). "Translational regulation of the spc operon in Escherichia coli. Identification and structural analysis of the target site for S8 repressor protein." J Mol Biol 204(2);309-29. PMID: 2464692

Dean81a: Dean D, Yates JL, Nomura M (1981). "Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S8 feedback regulates part of spc operon." Nature 289(5793);89-91. PMID: 6450328

Lemke11: Lemke JJ, Sanchez-Vazquez P, Burgos HL, Hedberg G, Ross W, Gourse RL (2011). "Direct regulation of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein promoters by the transcription factors ppGpp and DksA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(14);5712-7. PMID: 21402902

Mattheakis88: Mattheakis LC, Nomura M (1988). "Feedback regulation of the spc operon in Escherichia coli: translational coupling and mRNA processing." J Bacteriol 170(10);4484-92. PMID: 3049533

Mattheakis89: Mattheakis L, Vu L, Sor F, Nomura M (1989). "Retroregulation of the synthesis of ribosomal proteins L14 and L24 by feedback repressor S8 in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86(2);448-52. PMID: 2643112

Post78: Post LE, Arfsten AE, Reusser F, Nomura M (1978). "DNA sequences of promoter regions for the str and spc ribosomal protein operons in E. coli." Cell 15(1);215-29. PMID: 151587

Post78a: Post LE, Arfsten AE, Nomura M, Jaskunas SR (1978). "Isolation and characterization of a promoter mutant in the str ribosomal protein operon in E. coli." Cell 1978;15(1);231-6. PMID: 359165

Yates80: Yates JL, Arfsten AE, Nomura M (1980). "In vitro expression of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein genes: autogenous inhibition of translation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(4);1837-41. PMID: 6445562


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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