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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21



Gene: rpsU Accession Numbers: EG10920 (EcoCyc), b3065, ECK3055

Regulation Summary Diagram: ?

Component of:
30S ribosomal subunit (summary available)
ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
The S21 protein is a component of the 30S subunit of the ribosome. S21 was found to associate with the 50S subunit of the ribosome as well as the 30S subunit [Odom84].

Interactions between S21 and 16S rRNA have been mapped [Stern88]. S21 also crosslinks to the 4.5S RNA of the signal recognition particle [Gu05]. Interactions between S21 and mRNA can be shown by fluorescence energy transfer [Czworkowski91] and crosslinking [Brandt92].

S21 is required for full activity of translation initiation [Held74, Van81]. S21 was also shown to crosslink to IF3 [MacKeen80, Cooperman81].

Processing and degradation of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD operon mRNA has been studied; see for example [Yajnik93, Lupski84a] and references therein.

Review: [Lupski84a]

Gene Citations: [Burton83, Lupski83, Lupski84]

Locations: cytosol, ribosome

Map Position: [3,208,803 -> 3,209,018] (69.16 centisomes)
Length: 216 bp / 71 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 8.5 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0010063 , CGSC:211 , DIP:DIP-47839N , EchoBASE:EB0913 , EcoGene:EG10920 , EcoliWiki:b3065 , Mint:MINT-1281887 , OU-Microarray:b3065 , PortEco:rpsU , PR:PRO_000023874 , Pride:P68679 , Protein Model Portal:P68679 , RefSeq:NP_417537 , RegulonDB:EG10920 , SMR:P68679 , String:511145.b3065 , UniProt:P68679

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001911 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR018278 , PDB:Structure:1VS5 , PDB:Structure:1VS7 , PDB:Structure:2AVY , PDB:Structure:2AW7 , PDB:Structure:2I2P , PDB:Structure:2I2U , PDB:Structure:2QAL , PDB:Structure:2QAN , PDB:Structure:2QB9 , PDB:Structure:2QBB , PDB:Structure:2QBD , PDB:Structure:2QBF , PDB:Structure:2QBH , PDB:Structure:2QBJ , PDB:Structure:2QOU , PDB:Structure:2QOW , PDB:Structure:2QOY , PDB:Structure:2QP0 , PDB:Structure:2VHO , PDB:Structure:2VHP , PDB:Structure:2WWL , PDB:Structure:2YKR , PDB:Structure:2Z4K , PDB:Structure:2Z4M , PDB:Structure:3DF1 , PDB:Structure:3DF3 , PDB:Structure:3E1A , PDB:Structure:3E1C , PDB:Structure:3FIH , PDB:Structure:3I1M , PDB:Structure:3I1O , PDB:Structure:3I1Q , PDB:Structure:3I1S , PDB:Structure:3I1Z , PDB:Structure:3I21 , PDB:Structure:3IZV , PDB:Structure:3IZW , PDB:Structure:3J00 , PDB:Structure:3J0U , PDB:Structure:3J0V , PDB:Structure:3J0X , PDB:Structure:3J0Z , PDB:Structure:3J10 , PDB:Structure:3J13 , PDB:Structure:3J18 , PDB:Structure:3J36 , PDB:Structure:3KC4 , PDB:Structure:3OAQ , PDB:Structure:3OAR , PDB:Structure:3OFA , PDB:Structure:3OFB , PDB:Structure:3OFO , PDB:Structure:3OFP , PDB:Structure:3OFX , PDB:Structure:3OFY , PDB:Structure:3OR9 , PDB:Structure:3ORA , PDB:Structure:3SFS , PDB:Structure:3UOQ , PDB:Structure:4A2I , PDB:Structure:4ADV , PDB:Structure:4GAQ , PDB:Structure:4GAS , PDB:Structure:4GD1 , PDB:Structure:4GD2 , PDB:Structure:4KIY , PDB:Structure:4KJ0 , PDB:Structure:4KJ2 , PDB:Structure:4KJ4 , PDB:Structure:4KJ6 , PDB:Structure:4KJ8 , PDB:Structure:4KJA , PDB:Structure:4KJC , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01165 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00976 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD005521 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS01181

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Biological Process: GO:0006412 - translation Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Molecular Function: GO:0003735 - structural constituent of ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol Inferred from experiment Inferred by computational analysis [DiazMejia09, Ishihama08]
GO:0022627 - cytosolic small ribosomal subunit Inferred from experiment [Hindennach71a, WittmannLiebold73]
GO:0005622 - intracellular Inferred by computational analysis [GOA01a]
GO:0005840 - ribosome Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
GO:0030529 - ribonucleoprotein complex Inferred by computational analysis [UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: cell structure ribosomes
information transfer protein related ribosomal proteins
information transfer protein related translation

Essentiality data for rpsU knockouts: ?

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB Lennox No 37 Aerobic 7   No [Baba06, Yamamoto09]

Credits:
Last-Curated ? 27-Mar-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: 30S ribosomal subunit

Synonyms: ribosome, small subunit

Subunit composition of 30S ribosomal subunit = [RrsA][RpsA][RpsB][RpsC][RpsD][RpsE][RpsF][RpsG][RpsH][RpsI][RpsJ][RpsK][RpsL][RpsM][RpsN][RpsO][RpsP][RpsQ][RpsR][RpsS][RpsT][RpsU][Sra]
         16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
         30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)

Component of: ribosome (summary available)

Summary:
Assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit has been studied in real time. Initial assembly is linked to the formation of structured 16S rRNA regions, while later steps involve induced fit between ribosomal proteins and the rRNA [Adilakshmi08]. Discovery single-particle profiling was used to visualize assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit by indentifying and following changes among 14 subunit assembly intermediates over time [Mulder10]. The kinetically favored assembly pathway of the 30S preinitiation complex has been determined [Milon12].

The function of the ribosomal P site has been reviewed [Noller05].

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:1P6G , PDB:Structure:1P87 , PDB:Structure:2AVY

Enzymes activated by 30S ribosomal subunit, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: GTPase [Daigle04, Himeno04]

Credits:
Created 28-Mar-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Subunit of: ribosome

Subunit composition of ribosome = [(RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra)][(RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)]
         30S ribosomal subunit = (RrsA)(RpsA)(RpsB)(RpsC)(RpsD)(RpsE)(RpsF)(RpsG)(RpsH)(RpsI)(RpsJ)(RpsK)(RpsL)(RpsM)(RpsN)(RpsO)(RpsP)(RpsQ)(RpsR)(RpsS)(RpsT)(RpsU)(Sra) (summary available)
                 16S ribosomal RNA (rrsA) = RrsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S1 = RpsA (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S2 = RpsB (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S3 = RpsC (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S4 = RpsD (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S5 = RpsE (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S6 = RpsF (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S7 = RpsG (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S8 = RpsH (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S9 = RpsI (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S10 = RpsJ (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S11 = RpsK (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S12 = RpsL (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S13 = RpsM (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S14 = RpsN (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S15 = RpsO (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S16 = RpsP (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S17 = RpsQ (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S18 = RpsR (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S19 = RpsS (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S20 = RpsT (extended summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S21 = RpsU (summary available)
                 30S ribosomal subunit protein S22 = Sra (summary available)
         50S ribosomal subunit = (RrlA)(RrfA)(RplA)(RplB)(RplC)(RplD)(RplE)(RplF)([RplJ][(RplL)2]2)(RplI)(RplK)(RplM)(RplN)(RplO)(RplP)(RplQ)(RplR)(RplS)(RplT)(RplU)(RplV)(RplW)(RplX)(RplY)(RpmA)(RpmB)(RpmC)(RpmD)(RpmE)(RpmF)(RpmG)(RpmH)(RpmI)(RpmJ)
                 23S ribosomal RNA (rrlA) = RrlA (extended summary available)
                 5S ribosomal RNA (rrfA) = RrfA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L1 = RplA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L2 = RplB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L3 = RplC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L4 = RplD (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L5 = RplE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L6 = RplF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal protein complex L8 = (RplJ)([RplL]2)2 (summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L10 = RplJ (extended summary available)
                         50S ribosomal subunit protein L7/L12 dimer = (RplL)2
                                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L12 = RplL
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L9 = RplI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L11 = RplK (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L13 = RplM (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L14 = RplN (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L15 = RplO (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L16 = RplP (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L17 = RplQ (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L18 = RplR (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L19 = RplS (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L20 = RplT (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L21 = RplU (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L22 = RplV (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L23 = RplW (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L24 = RplX (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L25 = RplY (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L27 = RpmA (extended summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L28 = RpmB (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L29 = RpmC (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L30 = RpmD (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L31 = RpmE (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L32 = RpmF (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L33 = RpmG (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L34 = RpmH (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L35 = RpmI (summary available)
                 50S ribosomal subunit protein L36 = RpmJ (summary available)

Summary:
The ribosome is a complex machinery that translates the genetic code.

A crystal structure of the E. coli ribosome has been determined at 3.5 Å resolution [Schuwirth05]. Additional crystal structures of the ribosome with tRNA bound in two functionally distinct states reveal how a ratchet-like motion of the small and large subunits contributes to translocation, termination of translation, and ribosome recycling [Zhang09a, Dunkle11].

Approximately eight molecules of Zn2+ are bound to the ribosome; therefore, it appears that a large fraction of intracellular Zn2+ is ribosome-associated [Hensley11].

Selected reviews: [Ramakrishnan02, Yonath05, Ogle05, Kaczanowska07]

Citations: [Kuhlenkoetter11]

Relationship Links: PDB:Structure:3R8N , PDB:Structure:3R8O , PDB:Structure:3R8S , PDB:Structure:3R8T

Credits:
Created 15-Jun-2006 by Keseler I , SRI International


Sequence Features

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Cleavage-of-Initial-Methionine 1
[Vandekerckhove75, UniProt11]
UniProt: Removed.
Chain 2 -> 71
[UniProt09]
UniProt: 30S ribosomal protein S21;


Gene Local Context (not to scale): ?

Transcription Units:

Notes:

History:
10/20/97 Gene b3065 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10920; confirmed by SwissProt match.


References

Adilakshmi08: Adilakshmi T, Bellur DL, Woodson SA (2008). "Concurrent nucleation of 16S folding and induced fit in 30S ribosome assembly." Nature 455(7217);1268-72. PMID: 18784650

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

Brandt92: Brandt R, Gualerzi CO (1992). "Ribosomal localization of the mRNA in the 30S initiation complex as revealed by UV crosslinking." FEBS Lett 311(3);199-202. PMID: 1397315

Burton83: Burton ZF, Gross CA, Watanabe KK, Burgess RR (1983). "The operon that encodes the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase also encodes ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase in E. coli K12." Cell 1983;32(2);335-49. PMID: 6186393

Cooperman81: Cooperman BS, Expert-Bezancon A, Kahan L, Dondon J, Grunberg-Manago M (1981). "IF-3 crosslinking to Escherichia coli ribosomal 30 S subunits by three different light-dependent procedures: identification of 30 S proteins crosslinked to IF-3--utilization of a new two-stage crosslinking reagent, p-nitrobenzylmaleimide." Arch Biochem Biophys 208(2);554-62. PMID: 7020604

Czworkowski91: Czworkowski J, Odom OW, Hardesty B (1991). "Fluorescence study of the topology of messenger RNA bound to the 30S ribosomal subunit of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 30(19);4821-30. PMID: 2029524

Daigle04: Daigle DM, Brown ED (2004). "Studies of the interaction of Escherichia coli YjeQ with the ribosome in vitro." J Bacteriol 186(5);1381-7. PMID: 14973029

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Dunkle11: Dunkle JA, Wang L, Feldman MB, Pulk A, Chen VB, Kapral GJ, Noeske J, Richardson JS, Blanchard SC, Cate JH (2011). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome in classical and hybrid states of tRNA binding." Science 332(6032);981-4. PMID: 21596992

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Gu05: Gu SQ, Jockel J, Beinker P, Warnecke J, Semenkov YP, Rodnina MV, Wintermeyer W (2005). "Conformation of 4.5S RNA in the signal recognition particle and on the 30S ribosomal subunit." RNA 11(9);1374-84. PMID: 16043501

Held74: Held WA, Nomura M, Hershey JW (1974). "Ribosomal protein S21 is required for full activity in the initiation of protein synthesis." Mol Gen Genet 128(1);11-22. PMID: 4595779

Hensley11: Hensley MP, Tierney DL, Crowder MW (2011). "Zn(II) binding to Escherichia coli 70S ribosomes." Biochemistry 50(46);9937-9. PMID: 22026583

Himeno04: Himeno H, Hanawa-Suetsugu K, Kimura T, Takagi K, Sugiyama W, Shirata S, Mikami T, Odagiri F, Osanai Y, Watanabe D, Goto S, Kalachnyuk L, Ushida C, Muto A (2004). "A novel GTPase activated by the small subunit of ribosome." Nucleic Acids Res 32(17);5303-9. PMID: 15466596

Hindennach71a: Hindennach I, Stoffler G, Wittmann HG (1971). "Ribosomal proteins. Isolation of the proteins from 30S ribosomal subunits of Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 23(1);7-11. PMID: 4942549

Ishihama08: Ishihama Y, Schmidt T, Rappsilber J, Mann M, Hartl FU, Kerner MJ, Frishman D (2008). "Protein abundance profiling of the Escherichia coli cytosol." BMC Genomics 9;102. PMID: 18304323

Kaczanowska07: Kaczanowska M, Ryden-Aulin M (2007). "Ribosome biogenesis and the translation process in Escherichia coli." Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71(3);477-94. PMID: 17804668

Kuhlenkoetter11: Kuhlenkoetter S, Wintermeyer W, Rodnina MV (2011). "Different substrate-dependent transition states in the active site of the ribosome." Nature 476(7360);351-4. PMID: 21804565

Lupski83: Lupski JR, Smiley BL, Godson GN (1983). "Regulation of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon and the initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 1983;189(1);48-57. PMID: 6222240

Lupski84: Lupski JR, Ruiz AA, Godson GN (1984). "Promotion, termination, and anti-termination in the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon of E. coli K-12." Mol Gen Genet 1984;195(3);391-401. PMID: 6206376

Lupski84a: Lupski JR, Godson GN (1984). "The rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon of E. coli." Cell 39(2 Pt 1);251-2. PMID: 6388849

MacKeen80: MacKeen LA, Kahan L, Wahba AJ, Schwartz I (1980). "Photochemical cross-linking of initiation factor-3 to Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits." J Biol Chem 255(21);10526-31. PMID: 7000779

Milon12: Milon P, Maracci C, Filonava L, Gualerzi CO, Rodnina MV (2012). "Real-time assembly landscape of bacterial 30S translation initiation complex." Nat Struct Mol Biol 19(6);609-15. PMID: 22562136

Mulder10: Mulder AM, Yoshioka C, Beck AH, Bunner AE, Milligan RA, Potter CS, Carragher B, Williamson JR (2010). "Visualizing ribosome biogenesis: parallel assembly pathways for the 30S subunit." Science 330(6004);673-7. PMID: 21030658

Noller05: Noller HF, Hoang L, Fredrick K (2005). "The 30S ribosomal P site: a function of 16S rRNA." FEBS Lett 579(4);855-8. PMID: 15680962

Odom84: Odom OW, Deng HY, Dabbs ER, Hardesty B (1984). "Binding of S21 to the 50S subunit and the effect of the 50S subunit on nonradiative energy transfer between the 3' end of 16S RNA and S21." Biochemistry 23(21);5069-76. PMID: 6388639

Ogle05: Ogle JM, Ramakrishnan V (2005). "Structural insights into translational fidelity." Annu Rev Biochem 74;129-77. PMID: 15952884

Ramakrishnan02: Ramakrishnan V (2002). "Ribosome structure and the mechanism of translation." Cell 108(4);557-72. PMID: 11909526

Schuwirth05: Schuwirth BS, Borovinskaya MA, Hau CW, Zhang W, Vila-Sanjurjo A, Holton JM, Cate JH (2005). "Structures of the bacterial ribosome at 3.5 A resolution." Science 310(5749);827-34. PMID: 16272117

Stern88: Stern S, Powers T, Changchien LM, Noller HF (1988). "Interaction of ribosomal proteins S5, S6, S11, S12, S18 and S21 with 16 S rRNA." J Mol Biol 201(4);683-95. PMID: 2459389

UniProt09: UniProt Consortium (2009). "UniProt version 15.8 released on 2009-10-01 00:00:00." Database.

UniProt11: UniProt Consortium (2011). "UniProt version 2011-06 released on 2011-06-30 00:00:00." Database.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Van81: Van Duin J, Wijnands R (1981). "The function of ribosomal protein S21 in protein synthesis." Eur J Biochem 118(3);615-9. PMID: 7028483

Vandekerckhove75: Vandekerckhove J, Rombauts W, Peeters B, Wittmann-Liebold B (1975). "Determination of the complete amino acid sequence of protein S21 from Escherichia coli ribosomes." Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 356(12);1955-76. PMID: 765257

WittmannLiebold73: Wittmann-Liebold B (1973). "Studies on the primary structure of 20 proteins from Escherichia coli ribosomes by means of an improved protein sequenator." FEBS Lett 36(3);247-9. PMID: 4587209

Yajnik93: Yajnik V, Godson GN (1993). "Selective decay of Escherichia coli dnaG messenger RNA is initiated by RNase E." J Biol Chem 1993;268(18);13253-60. PMID: 7685758

Yamamoto09: Yamamoto N, Nakahigashi K, Nakamichi T, Yoshino M, Takai Y, Touda Y, Furubayashi A, Kinjyo S, Dose H, Hasegawa M, Datsenko KA, Nakayashiki T, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2009). "Update on the Keio collection of Escherichia coli single-gene deletion mutants." Mol Syst Biol 5;335. PMID: 20029369

Yonath05: Yonath A (2005). "Antibiotics targeting ribosomes: resistance, selectivity, synergism and cellular regulation." Annu Rev Biochem 74;649-79. PMID: 16180279

Zhang09a: Zhang W, Dunkle JA, Cate JH (2009). "Structures of the ribosome in intermediate states of ratcheting." Science 325(5943);1014-7. PMID: 19696352

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Burton81: Burton Z, Burgess RR, Lin J, Moore D, Holder S, Gross CA (1981). "The nucleotide sequence of the cloned rpoD gene for the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from E coli K12." Nucleic Acids Res 1981;9(12);2889-903. PMID: 6269063

Lemke11: Lemke JJ, Sanchez-Vazquez P, Burgos HL, Hedberg G, Ross W, Gourse RL (2011). "Direct regulation of Escherichia coli ribosomal protein promoters by the transcription factors ppGpp and DksA." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(14);5712-7. PMID: 21402902

Maciag11: Maciag A, Peano C, Pietrelli A, Egli T, De Bellis G, Landini P (2011). "In vitro transcription profiling of the {sigma}S subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase: re-definition of the {sigma}S regulon and identification of {sigma}S-specific promoter sequence elements." Nucleic Acids Res 39(13);5338-55. PMID: 21398637

Nesin88: Nesin M, Lupski JR, Godson GN (1988). "Role of the 5' upstream sequence and tandem promoters in regulation of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon." J Bacteriol 170(12);5759-64. PMID: 2848013

Versalovic93: Versalovic J, Koeuth T, Britton R, Geszvain K, Lupski JR (1993). "Conservation and evolution of the rpsU-dnaG-rpoD macromolecular synthesis operon in bacteria." Mol Microbiol 8(2);343-55. PMID: 8316085


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Nov 22, 2014, biocyc13.