Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Polypeptide: leucine ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein

Gene: livK Accession Numbers: EG10540 (EcoCyc), b3458, ECK3442

Synonyms: hrbD, hrbC, hrbB

Regulation Summary Diagram

Regulation summary diagram for livK

Component of: leucine ABC transporter (extended summary available)

The crystal structure of LivK in both the apo- and ligand-bound form has been determined at 1.5 and 1.8 A resolution [Sack89, Magnusson04].

Gene Citations: [Adams90, Haney92]

Locations: periplasmic space

Map Position: [3,594,474 <- 3,595,583] (77.47 centisomes, 279°)
Length: 1110 bp / 369 aa

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 39.379 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: ASAP:ABE-0011292, CGSC:550, EchoBASE:EB0535, EcoGene:EG10540, EcoliWiki:b3458, ModBase:P04816, OU-Microarray:b3458, PortEco:livK, PR:PRO_000023098, Pride:P04816, Protein Model Portal:P04816, RefSeq:NP_417915, RegulonDB:EG10540, SMR:P04816, String:511145.b3458, UniProt:P04816

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000709, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR028081, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR028082, Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR30483:SF6, PDB:Structure:1USG, PDB:Structure:1USI, PDB:Structure:1USK, PDB:Structure:2LBP, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF13458, Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00337

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for livK

GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentGO:0015807 - L-amino acid transport [Adams90]
Inferred from experimentGO:0015820 - leucine transport [Adams90]
Inferred from experimentGO:0098655 - cation transmembrane transport [Adams90]
Inferred from experimentGO:1902475 - L-alpha-amino acid transmembrane transport [Adams90]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006810 - transport [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006865 - amino acid transport [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0015190 - L-leucine transmembrane transporter activity [Adams90]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [DiazMejia09, LopezCampistrou05]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0042597 - periplasmic space [UniProtGOA11, UniProtGOA11a]

MultiFun Terms: metabolismbiosynthesis of building blocksamino acidsleucine
transportChannel-type TransportersPyrophosphate Bond (ATP; GTP; P2) Hydrolysis-driven Active TransportersThe ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily + ABC-type Uptake PermeasesABC superfamily, periplasmic binding component

Essentiality data for livK knockouts:

Growth Medium Growth? T (°C) O2 pH Osm/L Growth Observations
LB enrichedYes 37 Aerobic 6.95   Yes [Gerdes03, Comment 1]
LB LennoxYes 37 Aerobic 7   Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
M9 medium with 1% glycerolYes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.35 Yes [Joyce06, Comment 3]
MOPS medium with 0.4% glucoseYes 37 Aerobic 7.2 0.22 Yes [Baba06, Comment 2]
Yes [Feist07, Comment 4]

Subunit of: leucine ABC transporter

Subunit composition of leucine ABC transporter = [LivK][LivM][LivH][LivG][LivF]
         leucine ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein = LivK (summary available)
         branched chain amino acid transporter - membrane subunit = LivM
         branched chain amino acid transporter - membrane subunit = LivH
         branched chain amino acid transporter - ATP binding subunit = LivG
         branched chain amino acid ABC transporter - ATP binding subunit = LivF

LivFGHMJ and LivFGHMK are two ATP-dependent high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport system and are members of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily of transporters [Igarashi99]. The two systems are responsible for the high affinity transport of branched-chain amino acids in E. coli. They have shared membrane and ATP-binding components but have distinctive periplasmic binding proteins. Due to the different periplasmic binding components, the two complexes differ in their binding specificity: LivFGHMK is specific for the transport of leucine, while LivFGHMJ is a transporter for leucine, isoleucine, and valine [Nazos85]. Based on sequence similarity and hydrophobicity analysis, LivJ and LivK are the two periplasmic animo acid-binding proteins, LivH and LivM are the membrane components, and LivG and LivF are the ATP-binding component of the ABC transport complexes [Adams90]. Deletions each of the liv genes resulted in the inability to transport leucine [Adams90]. In addition, a deletion strain that does not express any of the liv genes was unable to carry out high-affinity transport of leucine unless one of the binding protein genes and all of the membrane complex genes were provided on a plasmid [Adams90]. In a separate experiment, liv gene mutants were found to be resistant to a toxic analog of leucine, azaleucine, due to its inability in branched-chain amino acid transport [Nazos85].

Enzymatic reaction of: leucine transporter (leucine ABC transporter)

Inferred by computational analysisInferred from experiment

Synonyms: Transport of L-leucine

Transport reaction diagram for leucine transporter

Sequence Features

Protein sequence of leucine ABC transporter - periplasmic binding protein with features indicated

Feature Class Location Citations Comment
Signal-Sequence 1 -> 23
Inferred from experiment[Link97]
Sequence-Conflict 3
Inferred by curator[Oxender80, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 7; CAA23579).
Chain 24 -> 369
Author statement[UniProt15]
UniProt: Leucine-specific-binding protein.
Pfam PF13458 26 -> 363
Inferred by computational analysis[Finn14]
Peripla_BP_6 : Periplasmic binding protein
Sequence-Conflict 43
Inferred by curator[Adams90, Antonucci85, Landick85, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1, 2 and 3).
Sequence-Conflict 50
Inferred by curator[Adams90, Antonucci85, Landick85, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1, 2 and 3).
Disulfide-Bond-Site 76, 101
Inferred by computational analysis[UniProt15]
Sequence-Conflict 126
Inferred by curator[Adams90, Antonucci85, Landick85, UniProt15]
UniProt: (in Ref. 1, 2 and 3).

Gene Local Context (not to scale -- see Genome Browser for correct scale)

Gene local context diagram

Transcription Units

Transcription-unit diagram

Transcription-unit diagram


10/20/97 Gene b3458 from Blattner lab Genbank (v. M52) entry merged into EcoCyc gene EG10540; confirmed by SwissProt match.


Adams90: Adams MD, Wagner LM, Graddis TJ, Landick R, Antonucci TK, Gibson AL, Oxender DL (1990). "Nucleotide sequence and genetic characterization reveal six essential genes for the LIV-I and LS transport systems of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1990;265(20);11436-43. PMID: 2195019

Antonucci85: Antonucci TK, Landick R, Oxender DL (1985). "The leucine binding proteins of Escherichia coli as models for studying the relationships between protein structure and function." J Cell Biochem 29(3);209-16. PMID: 4077929

Baba06: Baba T, Ara T, Hasegawa M, Takai Y, Okumura Y, Baba M, Datsenko KA, Tomita M, Wanner BL, Mori H (2006). "Construction of Escherichia coli K-12 in-frame, single-gene knockout mutants: the Keio collection." Mol Syst Biol 2;2006.0008. PMID: 16738554

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Feist07: Feist AM, Henry CS, Reed JL, Krummenacker M, Joyce AR, Karp PD, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V, Palsson BO (2007). "A genome-scale metabolic reconstruction for Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 that accounts for 1260 ORFs and thermodynamic information." Mol Syst Biol 3;121. PMID: 17593909

Finn14: Finn RD, Bateman A, Clements J, Coggill P, Eberhardt RY, Eddy SR, Heger A, Hetherington K, Holm L, Mistry J, Sonnhammer EL, Tate J, Punta M (2014). "Pfam: the protein families database." Nucleic Acids Res 42(Database issue);D222-30. PMID: 24288371

Gerdes03: Gerdes SY, Scholle MD, Campbell JW, Balazsi G, Ravasz E, Daugherty MD, Somera AL, Kyrpides NC, Anderson I, Gelfand MS, Bhattacharya A, Kapatral V, D'Souza M, Baev MV, Grechkin Y, Mseeh F, Fonstein MY, Overbeek R, Barabasi AL, Oltvai ZN, Osterman AL (2003). "Experimental determination and system level analysis of essential genes in Escherichia coli MG1655." J Bacteriol 185(19);5673-84. PMID: 13129938

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Haney92: Haney SA, Platko JV, Oxender DL, Calvo JM (1992). "Lrp, a leucine-responsive protein, regulates branched-chain amino acid transport genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);108-15. PMID: 1729203

Igarashi99: Igarashi K, Kashiwagi K (1999). "Polyamine transport in bacteria and yeast." Biochem J 1999;344 Pt 3;633-42. PMID: 10585849

Joyce06: Joyce AR, Reed JL, White A, Edwards R, Osterman A, Baba T, Mori H, Lesely SA, Palsson BO, Agarwalla S (2006). "Experimental and computational assessment of conditionally essential genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 188(23);8259-71. PMID: 17012394

Landick85: Landick R, Oxender DL (1985). "The complete nucleotide sequences of the Escherichia coli LIV-BP and LS-BP genes. Implications for the mechanism of high-affinity branched-chain amino acid transport." J Biol Chem 260(14);8257-61. PMID: 3891753

Link97: Link AJ, Robison K, Church GM (1997). "Comparing the predicted and observed properties of proteins encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli K-12." Electrophoresis 18(8);1259-313. PMID: 9298646

LopezCampistrou05: Lopez-Campistrous A, Semchuk P, Burke L, Palmer-Stone T, Brokx SJ, Broderick G, Bottorff D, Bolch S, Weiner JH, Ellison MJ (2005). "Localization, annotation, and comparison of the Escherichia coli K-12 proteome under two states of growth." Mol Cell Proteomics 4(8);1205-9. PMID: 15911532

Magnusson04: Magnusson U, Salopek-Sondi B, Luck LA, Mowbray SL (2004). "X-ray structures of the leucine-binding protein illustrate conformational changes and the basis of ligand specificity." J Biol Chem 279(10);8747-52. PMID: 14672931

Nazos85: Nazos PM, Mayo MM, Su TZ, Anderson JJ, Oxender DL (1985). "Identification of livG, a membrane-associated component of the branched-chain amino acid transport in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1985;163(3);1196-202. PMID: 2993238

Oxender80: Oxender DL, Anderson JJ, Daniels CJ, Landick R, Gunsalus RP, Zurawski G, Yanofsky C (1980). "Amino-terminal sequence and processing of the precursor of the leucine-specific binding protein, and evidence for conformational differences between the precursor and the mature form." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77(4);2005-9. PMID: 6990419

Sack89: Sack JS, Trakhanov SD, Tsigannik IH, Quiocho FA (1989). "Structure of the L-leucine-binding protein refined at 2.4 A resolution and comparison with the Leu/Ile/Val-binding protein structure." J Mol Biol 206(1);193-207. PMID: 2649683

UniProt15: UniProt Consortium (2015). "UniProt version 2015-08 released on 2015-07-22." Database.

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Other References Related to Gene Regulation

Landick80: Landick R, Anderson JJ, Mayo MM, Gunsalus RP, Mavromara P, Daniels CJ, Oxender DL (1980). "Regulation of high-affinity leucine transport in Escherichia coli." J Supramol Struct 1980;14(4);527-37. PMID: 7017282

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sun May 1, 2016, biocyc13.