Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Reaction: 1.1.99.1

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion Type Simple Reactions Chemical Reactions
Reactions Classified By Substrate Small-Molecule Reactions

EC Number: 1.1.99.1

Enzymes and Genes:
choline dehydrogenase Inferred from experiment : betA

In Pathway: glycine betaine biosynthesis I (Gram-negative bacteria)

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: choline dehydrogenase

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: choline oxidase, choline-cytochrome c reductase, choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase, choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase

Summary:
This is the first reaction in the betaine biosynthetic pathway.

Enzyme Commission Summary:
A quinoprotein. In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC 1.14.15.7, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) or soluble choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) [Waditee03]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.

Citations: [Gadda03, EBISUZAKI55]

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:1.1.99.1 , ENZYME:EC:1.1.99.1 , IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:1.1.99.1


References

EBISUZAKI55: EBISUZAKI K, WILLIAMS JN (1955). "Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria." Biochem J 60(4);644-6. PMID: 13249959

Gadda03: Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE (2003). "Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(4);2126-32. PMID: 12676692

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Nov 23, 2014, BIOCYC14B.