|Superclasses:||Reactions Classified By Conversion Type → Simple Reactions → Chemical Reactions → Composite Reactions → Electron-Transfer-Reactions|
|Reactions Classified By Substrate → Small-Molecule Reactions|
EC Number: 22.214.171.124
Note that this reaction equation differs from the official Enzyme Commission reaction equations for this EC number.
Reaction Locations: inner membrane (sensu Gram-negative Bacteria)
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
Mass balance status: Balanced.
Enzyme Commission Primary Name: fumarate reductase (quinol)
Enzyme Commission Synonyms: FRD, menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase (menaquinone), succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase, fumarate reductase (menaquinone), complex II (ambiguous)
Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzyme, which is found in anaerobic and facultative organisms such as bacteria, parasitic helminthes, and lower marine organisms, utilizes low potential quinols, such as menaquinol and rhodoquinol, to reduce fumarate as the final step of an anaerobic respiratory chain. The enzyme is known as complex II of the electron transfer chain, similarly to EC 126.96.36.199, succinate dehydrogenase, to which it is closely related.
Iverson02: Iverson TM, Luna-Chavez C, Croal LR, Cecchini G, Rees DC (2002). "Crystallographic studies of the Escherichia coli quinol-fumarate reductase with inhibitors bound to the quinol-binding site." J Biol Chem 277(18);16124-30. PMID: 11850430
vanHellemond03: van Hellemond JJ, van der Klei A, van Weelden SW, Tielens AG (2003). "Biochemical and evolutionary aspects of anaerobically functioning mitochondria." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358(1429);205-13; discussion 213-5. PMID: 12594928
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