Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Reaction:

Superclasses: Reactions Classified By Conversion TypeSimple ReactionsChemical ReactionsComposite ReactionsElectron-Transfer-Reactions
Reactions Classified By SubstrateSmall-Molecule Reactions

EC Number:

Enzymes and Genes:
fumarate reductaseInferred from experiment: frdA, frdB, frdC, frdD

In Pathway: mixed acid fermentation, NADH to fumarate electron transfer, hydrogen to fumarate electron transfer, glycerol-3-phosphate to fumarate electron transfer

Note that this reaction equation differs from the official Enzyme Commission reaction equations for this EC number.

Transport reaction diagram

Reaction Locations: inner membrane (sensu Gram-negative Bacteria)

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Mass balance status: Balanced.

Enzyme Commission Primary Name: fumarate reductase (quinol)

Enzyme Commission Synonyms: FRD, menaquinol-fumarate oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase (menaquinone), succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductase, fumarate reductase (menaquinone), complex II (ambiguous)

Enzyme Commission Summary:
The enzyme, which is found in anaerobic and facultative organisms such as bacteria, parasitic helminthes, and lower marine organisms, utilizes low potential quinols, such as menaquinol and rhodoquinol, to reduce fumarate as the final step of an anaerobic respiratory chain. The enzyme is known as complex II of the electron transfer chain, similarly to EC, succinate dehydrogenase, to which it is closely related.

Citations: [Iverson99, Cecchini02, Iverson02, Van94a, vanHellemond03]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Relationship Links: BRENDA:EC:, ENZYME:EC:, IUBMB-ExplorEnz:EC:


Cecchini02: Cecchini G, Schroder I, Gunsalus RP, Maklashina E (2002). "Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1553(1-2);140-57. PMID: 11803023

Iverson02: Iverson TM, Luna-Chavez C, Croal LR, Cecchini G, Rees DC (2002). "Crystallographic studies of the Escherichia coli quinol-fumarate reductase with inhibitors bound to the quinol-binding site." J Biol Chem 277(18);16124-30. PMID: 11850430

Iverson99: Iverson TM, Luna-Chavez C, Cecchini G, Rees DC (1999). "Structure of the Escherichia coli fumarate reductase respiratory complex." Science 1999;284(5422);1961-6. PMID: 10373108

Van94a: Van Hellemond JJ, Tielens AG (1994). "Expression and functional properties of fumarate reductase." Biochem J 304 ( Pt 2);321-31. PMID: 7998964

vanHellemond03: van Hellemond JJ, van der Klei A, van Weelden SW, Tielens AG (2003). "Biochemical and evolutionary aspects of anaerobically functioning mitochondria." Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 358(1429);205-13; discussion 213-5. PMID: 12594928

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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