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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: L-alanine biosynthesis III
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: L-alanine biosynthesis III

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for L-alanine biosynthesis III

Superclasses: BiosynthesisAmino Acids BiosynthesisProteinogenic Amino Acids BiosynthesisL-alanine Biosynthesis

Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.

At least three pathways ( L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II, and L-alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. Alanine biosynthesis III is carried out in a single step by cysteine desulfurase, in a reaction that is critical for generation of iron-sulfur clusters, thiouridine groups in tRNAs, and a number of other sulfur- and selenium-containing proteins. Although this pathway does generate alanine, a major role in generating the cellular supply of alanine has not been demonstrated.

Superpathways: superpathway of L-alanine biosynthesis

Variants: L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II

Created 11-Mar-2004 by Ingraham JL, UC Davis
Last-Curated 12-Mar-2007 by Shearer A, SRI International


Kambampati00: Kambampati R, Lauhon CT (2000). "Evidence for the transfer of sulfane sulfur from IscS to ThiI during the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA." J Biol Chem 2000;275(15);10727-30. PMID: 10753862

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Agar00: Agar JN, Krebs C, Frazzon J, Huynh BH, Dean DR, Johnson MK (2000). "IscU as a scaffold for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: sequential assembly of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters in IscU." Biochemistry 39(27);7856-62. PMID: 10891064

An12: An X, Xiong W, Yang Y, Li F, Zhou X, Wang Z, Deng Z, Liang J (2012). "A novel target of IscS in Escherichia coli: participating in DNA phosphorothioation." PLoS One 7(12);e51265. PMID: 23240007

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Bolstad10: Bolstad HM, Wood MJ (2010). "An in vivo method for characterization of protein interactions within sulfur trafficking systems of E. coli." J Proteome Res 9(12);6740-51. PMID: 20936830

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

CuppVickery03: Cupp-Vickery JR, Urbina H, Vickery LE (2003). "Crystal structure of IscS, a cysteine desulfurase from Escherichia coli." J Mol Biol 330(5);1049-59. PMID: 12860127

Dai12: Dai Y, Outten FW (2012). "The E. coli SufS-SufE sulfur transfer system is more resistant to oxidative stress than IscS-IscU." FEBS Lett 586(22);4016-22. PMID: 23068614

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Ding04a: Ding H, Clark RJ, Ding B (2004). "IscA mediates iron delivery for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters in IscU under the limited accessible free iron conditions." J Biol Chem 279(36);37499-504. PMID: 15247288

Ding05: Ding H, Harrison K, Lu J (2005). "Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU." J Biol Chem 280(34);30432-7. PMID: 15985427

Djaman04: Djaman O, Outten FW, Imlay JA (2004). "Repair of oxidized iron-sulfur clusters in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 279(43):44590-9. PMID: 15308657

Ellis01: Ellis KE, Clough B, Saldanha JW, Wilson RJ (2001). "Nifs and Sufs in malaria." Mol Microbiol 41(5);973-81. PMID: 11555280

Flint96: Flint DH (1996). "Escherichia coli contains a protein that is homologous in function and N-terminal sequence to the protein encoded by the nifS gene of Azotobacter vinelandii and that can participate in the synthesis of the Fe-S cluster of dihydroxy-acid dehydratase." J Biol Chem 1996;271(27);16068-74. PMID: 8663056

Fontecave05: Fontecave M, Choudens SO, Py B, Barras F (2005). "Mechanisms of iron-sulfur cluster assembly: the SUF machinery." J Biol Inorg Chem 10(7);713-21. PMID: 16211402

Forlani05: Forlani F, Cereda A, Freuer A, Nimtz M, Leimkuhler S, Pagani S (2005). "The cysteine-desulfurase IscS promotes the production of the rhodanese RhdA in the persulfurated form." FEBS Lett 579(30);6786-90. PMID: 16310786

Frazzon01: Frazzon J, Dean DR (2001). "Feedback regulation of iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(26);14751-3. PMID: 11752417

Fujii00b: Fujii T, Maeda M, Mihara H, Kurihara T, Esaki N, Hata Y (2000). "Structure of a NifS homologue: X-ray structure analysis of CsdB, an Escherichia coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1263-73. PMID: 10684605

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

GOA06: GOA, SIB (2006). "Electronic Gene Ontology annotations created by transferring manual GO annotations between orthologous microbial proteins."

Showing only 20 references. To show more, press the button "Show all references".

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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