If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Biosynthesis → Amino Acids Biosynthesis → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Biosynthesis → L-alanine Biosynthesis|
Alanine is an essential component of protein (as L-alanine) and peptidoglycan (as a roughly 3:1 mix of D- and L-alanine). Only about a tenth of total alanine synthesized is incorporated into peptidoglycan.
At least three pathways ( L-alanine biosynthesis I, L-alanine biosynthesis II, and L-alanine biosynthesis III) contribute to the synthesis of alanine. Alanine biosynthesis III is carried out in a single step by cysteine desulfurase, in a reaction that is critical for generation of iron-sulfur clusters, thiouridine groups in tRNAs, and a number of other sulfur- and selenium-containing proteins. Although this pathway does generate alanine, a major role in generating the cellular supply of alanine has not been demonstrated.
Superpathways: superpathway of L-alanine biosynthesis
Kambampati00: Kambampati R, Lauhon CT (2000). "Evidence for the transfer of sulfane sulfur from IscS to ThiI during the in vitro biosynthesis of 4-thiouridine in Escherichia coli tRNA." J Biol Chem 2000;275(15);10727-30. PMID: 10753862
Agar00: Agar JN, Krebs C, Frazzon J, Huynh BH, Dean DR, Johnson MK (2000). "IscU as a scaffold for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: sequential assembly of [2Fe-2S] and [4Fe-4S] clusters in IscU." Biochemistry 39(27);7856-62. PMID: 10891064
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Ding04a: Ding H, Clark RJ, Ding B (2004). "IscA mediates iron delivery for assembly of iron-sulfur clusters in IscU under the limited accessible free iron conditions." J Biol Chem 279(36);37499-504. PMID: 15247288
Ding05: Ding H, Harrison K, Lu J (2005). "Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU." J Biol Chem 280(34);30432-7. PMID: 15985427
Flint96: Flint DH (1996). "Escherichia coli contains a protein that is homologous in function and N-terminal sequence to the protein encoded by the nifS gene of Azotobacter vinelandii and that can participate in the synthesis of the Fe-S cluster of dihydroxy-acid dehydratase." J Biol Chem 1996;271(27);16068-74. PMID: 8663056
Forlani05: Forlani F, Cereda A, Freuer A, Nimtz M, Leimkuhler S, Pagani S (2005). "The cysteine-desulfurase IscS promotes the production of the rhodanese RhdA in the persulfurated form." FEBS Lett 579(30);6786-90. PMID: 16310786
Fujii00b: Fujii T, Maeda M, Mihara H, Kurihara T, Esaki N, Hata Y (2000). "Structure of a NifS homologue: X-ray structure analysis of CsdB, an Escherichia coli counterpart of mammalian selenocysteine lyase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1263-73. PMID: 10684605
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