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for maintenance.
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites MAYBE down
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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: putrescine degradation II

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Genetic Regulation Schematic: ?

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation Amines and Polyamines Degradation Putrescine Degradation

Summary:
General Backround

Polyamines (the most common of which are putrescine, spermidine, and spermine), a group of positively charged small molecules present in virtually all living organisms, have been implicated in many biological processes, including binding to nucleic acids, stabilizing membranes, and stimulating several enzymes [Tabor85, Abraham68, Frydman92, Huang90a]. Although polyamines are clearly necessary for optimal cell growth, a surplus of polyamines can cause inhibition of growth and protein synthesis [He93a], and thus a balance is desired between the production and breakdown of polyamines.

Putrescine catabolism appears to be important for responding to a variety of stresses. An E. coli strain that lacks both putrescine degradation I and putrescine degradation II pathways has a severe growth defect under oxidative stress conditions, and shows impaired growth at high temperature or sublethal antibiotic concentrations [Schneider13].

About This Pathway

Several metabolic pathways for putrescine degradation as a source of nitrogen for E. coli K-12 are known. The first putrescine degradation pathway was found in in 1985 [Shaibe85] (see putrescine degradation I). That pathway is dedicated to the degradation of intracellular putrescine. A second pathway was found in E. coli K-12 twenty years later. This pathway seems to be dedicated to the degradation of extracellular putrescine [Kurihara05].

The pathway was discovered following the discovery of a cluster of seven unassigned genes on the E. coli K-12 chromosome. In addition to a putrescine transporter, encoded by the puuP gene, the cluster contains four genes that encode the enzymes involved in this pathway, and two additional genes (puuE and puuR) that encode an enzyme involved in the catabolism of GABA (see superpathway of 4-aminobutyrate degradation) and a regulator [Kurihara05].

In this pathway, putrescine is γ-glutamylated at the expense of an ATP molecule. The resulting γ-glutamyl-putrescine is oxidized to γ-glutamyl-γ-aminobutyraldehyde, which is then dehydrogenated into 4-(glutamylamino) butanoate. In the last step, the γ-glutamyl group is removed by hydrolysis, generating 4-aminobutyrate.

The key difference between this pathway and putrescine degradation I is the γ-glutamylation of putrescine. In the other pathway, putrescine is degraded directly to 4-amino-butanal [Kurihara05].

Wild type E. coli cells are unable to utilize putrescine as the sole source of carbon at temperatures above 30°C [Schneider12]. It is possible to select for mutants that possess this ability; these mutants contain elevated levels of the enzymes in this pathway [PrietoSantos86].

Superpathways: superpathway of arginine, putrescine, and 4-aminobutyrate degradation , superpathway of ornithine degradation , superpathway of arginine and ornithine degradation

Variants: putrescine degradation I

Credits:
Created 10-May-2005 by Keseler I , SRI International
Revised 13-Oct-2005 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Abraham68: Abraham KA (1968). "Studies on DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli. 1. The mechanism of polyamine induced stimulation of enzyme activity." Eur J Biochem 5(1);143-6. PMID: 4873311

Frydman92: Frydman L, Rossomando PC, Frydman V, Fernandez CO, Frydman B, Samejima K (1992). "Interactions between natural polyamines and tRNA: an 15N NMR analysis." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(19);9186-90. PMID: 1409623

He93a: He Y, Kashiwagi K, Fukuchi J, Terao K, Shirahata A, Igarashi K (1993). "Correlation between the inhibition of cell growth by accumulated polyamines and the decrease of magnesium and ATP." Eur J Biochem 217(1);89-96. PMID: 8223591

Huang90a: Huang SC, Panagiotidis CA, Canellakis ES (1990). "Transcriptional effects of polyamines on ribosomal proteins and on polyamine-synthesizing enzymes in Escherichia coli." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87(9);3464-8. PMID: 2185470

Kurihara05: Kurihara S, Oda S, Kato K, Kim HG, Koyanagi T, Kumagai H, Suzuki H (2005). "A novel putrescine utilization pathway involves gamma-glutamylated intermediates of Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem 280(6);4602-8. PMID: 15590624

PrietoSantos86: Prieto-Santos MI, Martin-Checa J, Balana-Fouce R, Garrido-Pertierra A (1986). "A pathway for putrescine catabolism in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1986;880(2-3);242-4. PMID: 3510672

Schneider12: Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2012). "Pathway and enzyme redundancy in putrescine catabolism in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 194(15);4080-8. PMID: 22636776

Schneider13: Schneider BL, Hernandez VJ, Reitzer L (2013). "Putrescine catabolism is a metabolic response to several stresses in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 88(3);537-50. PMID: 23531166

Shaibe85: Shaibe E, Metzer E, Halpern YS (1985). "Metabolic pathway for the utilization of L-arginine, L-ornithine, agmatine, and putrescine as nitrogen sources in Escherichia coli K-12." J Bacteriol 163(3);933-7. PMID: 3897201

Tabor85: Tabor CW, Tabor H (1985). "Polyamines in microorganisms." Microbiol Rev 1985;49(1);81-99. PMID: 3157043

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Heim91: Heim R, Strehler EE (1991). "Cloning an Escherichia coli gene encoding a protein remarkably similar to mammalian aldehyde dehydrogenases." Gene 1991;99(1);15-23. PMID: 1840553

Jo08: Jo JE, Mohan Raj S, Rathnasingh C, Selvakumar E, Jung WC, Park S (2008). "Cloning, expression, and characterization of an aldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12 that utilizes 3-Hydroxypropionaldehyde as a substrate." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 81(1);51-60. PMID: 18668238

Jovanovic97a: Jovanovic G, Model P (1997). "The RIB element in the goaG-pspF intergenic region of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 179(10);3095-102. PMID: 9150200

Kurihara06: Kurihara S, Oda S, Kumagai H, Suzuki H (2006). "gamma-Glutamyl-gamma-aminobutyrate hydrolase in the putrescine utilization pathway of Escherichia coli K-12." FEMS Microbiol Lett 256(2);318-23. PMID: 16499623

Kurihara08: Kurihara S, Oda S, Tsuboi Y, Kim HG, Oshida M, Kumagai H, Suzuki H (2008). "gamma -glutamylputrescine synthetase in the putrescine utilization pathway of Escherichia coli K-12." J Biol Chem. PMID: 18495664

Partridge06: Partridge JD, Scott C, Tang Y, Poole RK, Green J (2006). "Escherichia coli transcriptome dynamics during the transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions." J Biol Chem 281(38);27806-15. PMID: 16857675

Steward49: Steward, F.C., Thosmpson, J.F., Dent, C.E. (1949). "γ-aminobutyric acid: a constituent of the potato tuber?." Science 110 (2861):439-440.

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA12: UniProt-GOA (2012). "Gene Ontology annotation based on UniPathway vocabulary mapping."


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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