If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Electron Transfer|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Respiration → Aerobic Respiration|
In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-I) and cytochrome bd oxidase the transfer of electrons from NADH to oxygen is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. By analogy to the related enzyme from mitochondria, NDH-I is thought to function as a proton pump translocating 4H+ per NADH oxidised (2e-) [H+/e- = 2] however a lower ratio of 3H+/2e- has also been proposed [Bogachev96, Wikstrom12]. Cytochrome bd oxidase translocates 1 H+/e- by means of an oriented redox loop [Puustinen91].
During glucose limited aerobic growth E. coli directs electron flux through both NADH dehydrogenase II (NDH-II) and NDH-I [Calhoun93a]. Electron transport from NADH to oxygen is not affected in a strain lacking NDH-I but is significantly reduced in a strain lacking NDH-II which suggests that NDH-II is used preferentially in aerobic respiration [Tran97].
Cytochrome bd oxidase is expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions [Cotter90, Tseng96] unlike cytochrome bo oxidase which is expressed when oxygen levels are high [Kita84]. E. coli K-12 also contains a second bd-type cytochrome (cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase) encoded by the appBC genes. The physiological role of cytochrome bd-II is uncertain although it is able to generate PMF via a mechanism similar to cytochrome bd-I [Borisov11].
Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824
Borisov11: Borisov VB, Murali R, Verkhovskaya ML, Bloch DA, Han H, Gennis RB, Verkhovsky MI (2011). "Aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli is not allowed to work in fully uncoupled mode." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(42);17320-4. PMID: 21987791
Calhoun93a: Calhoun MW, Oden KL, Gennis RB, de Mattos MJ, Neijssel OM (1993). "Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain." J Bacteriol 175(10);3020-5. PMID: 8491720
Cotter90: Cotter PA, Chepuri V, Gennis RB, Gunsalus RP (1990). "Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 172(11);6333-8. PMID: 2172211
Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921
Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459
Tseng96: Tseng CP, Albrecht J, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Effect of microaerophilic cell growth conditions on expression of the aerobic (cyoABCDE and cydAB) and anaerobic (narGHJI, frdABCD, and dmsABC) respiratory pathway genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(4);1094-8. PMID: 8576043
Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901
Baranova07: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874
Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196
Bekker09: Bekker M, de Vries S, Ter Beek A, Hellingwerf KJ, de Mattos MJ (2009). "Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase." J Bacteriol 191(17);5510-7. PMID: 19542282
Belevich05: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Zhang J, Yang K, Konstantinov AA, Gennis RB, Verkhovsky MI (2005). "Time-resolved electrometric and optical studies on cytochrome bd suggest a mechanism of electron-proton coupling in the di-heme active site." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(10);3657-62. PMID: 15728392
Belevich07: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Verkhovsky MI (2007). "Discovery of the true peroxy intermediate in the catalytic cycle of terminal oxidases by real-time measurement." J Biol Chem 282(39);28514-9. PMID: 17690093
Belevich07a: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562
Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017
Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280
Bongaerts95: Bongaerts J, Zoske S, Weidner U, Unden G (1995). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators." Mol Microbiol 16(3);521-34. PMID: 7565112
Borisov02: Borisov VB, Liebl U, Rappaport F, Martin JL, Zhang J, Gennis RB, Konstantinov AA, Vos MH (2002). "Interactions between heme d and heme b595 in quinol oxidase bd from Escherichia coli: a photoselection study using femtosecond spectroscopy." Biochemistry 41(5);1654-62. PMID: 11814360
Borisov08: Borisov VB, Belevich I, Bloch DA, Mogi T, Verkhovsky MI (2008). "Glutamate 107 in subunit I of cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is part of a transmembrane intraprotein pathway conducting protons from the cytoplasm to the heme b595/heme d active site." Biochemistry 47(30);7907-14. PMID: 18597483
Borisov11a: Borisov VB, Forte E, Sarti P, Giuffre A (2011). "Catalytic intermediates of cytochrome bd terminal oxidase at steady-state: ferryl and oxy-ferrous species dominate." Biochim Biophys Acta 1807(5);503-9. PMID: 21352800
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