Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer I
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer I

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer I

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyElectron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyRespirationAerobic Respiration

In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-I) and cytochrome bd oxidase the transfer of electrons from NADH to oxygen is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. By analogy to the related enzyme from mitochondria, NDH-I is thought to function as a proton pump translocating 4H+ per NADH oxidised (2e-) [H+/e- = 2] however a lower ratio of 3H+/2e- has also been proposed [Bogachev96, Wikstrom12]. Cytochrome bd oxidase translocates 1 H+/e- by means of an oriented redox loop [Puustinen91].

During glucose limited aerobic growth E. coli directs electron flux through both NADH dehydrogenase II (NDH-II) and NDH-I [Calhoun93]. Electron transport from NADH to oxygen is not affected in a strain lacking NDH-I but is significantly reduced in a strain lacking NDH-II which suggests that NDH-II is used preferentially in aerobic respiration [Tran97].

Cytochrome bd oxidase is expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions [Cotter90, Tseng96] unlike cytochrome bo oxidase which is expressed when oxygen levels are high [Kita84]. E. coli K-12 also contains a second bd-type cytochrome ( cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase) encoded by the appBC genes. The physiological role of cytochrome bd-II is uncertain although it is able to generate PMF via a mechanism similar to cytochrome bd-I [Borisov11a].

Citations: [Ingledew84, Unden97]

Created 26-Jun-2008 by Krummenacker M, SRI International
Revised 01-Sep-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824

Borisov11a: Borisov VB, Murali R, Verkhovskaya ML, Bloch DA, Han H, Gennis RB, Verkhovsky MI (2011). "Aerobic respiratory chain of Escherichia coli is not allowed to work in fully uncoupled mode." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(42);17320-4. PMID: 21987791

Calhoun93: Calhoun MW, Oden KL, Gennis RB, de Mattos MJ, Neijssel OM (1993). "Energetic efficiency of Escherichia coli: effects of mutations in components of the aerobic respiratory chain." J Bacteriol 175(10);3020-5. PMID: 8491720

Cotter90: Cotter PA, Chepuri V, Gennis RB, Gunsalus RP (1990). "Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 172(11);6333-8. PMID: 2172211

Ingledew84: Ingledew WJ, Poole RK (1984). "The respiratory chains of Escherichia coli." Microbiol Rev 48(3);222-71. PMID: 6387427

Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Puustinen91: Puustinen A, Finel M, Haltia T, Gennis RB, Wikstrom M (1991). "Properties of the two terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 30(16);3936-42. PMID: 1850294

Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459

Tseng96: Tseng CP, Albrecht J, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Effect of microaerophilic cell growth conditions on expression of the aerobic (cyoABCDE and cydAB) and anaerobic (narGHJI, frdABCD, and dmsABC) respiratory pathway genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(4);1094-8. PMID: 8576043

Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919

Wikstrom12: Wikstrom M, Hummer G (2012). "Stoichiometry of proton translocation by respiratory complex I and its mechanistic implications." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(12);4431-6. PMID: 22392981

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Allison11: Allison KR, Brynildsen MP, Collins JJ (2011). "Metabolite-enabled eradication of bacterial persisters by aminoglycosides." Nature 473(7346);216-20. PMID: 21562562

Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520

Amarneh10: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2010). "Transmembrane topology of subunit N of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) from Escherichia coli." J Bioenerg Biomembr 42(6);511-6. PMID: 21120593

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901

Baranova07: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196

Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874

Bebbington01: Bebbington KJ, Williams HD (2001). "A role for DNA supercoiling in the regulation of the cytochrome bd oxidase of Escherichia coli." Microbiology 147(Pt 3);591-8. PMID: 11238966

Bekker09: Bekker M, de Vries S, Ter Beek A, Hellingwerf KJ, de Mattos MJ (2009). "Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase." J Bacteriol 191(17);5510-7. PMID: 19542282

Belevich05: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Zhang J, Yang K, Konstantinov AA, Gennis RB, Verkhovsky MI (2005). "Time-resolved electrometric and optical studies on cytochrome bd suggest a mechanism of electron-proton coupling in the di-heme active site." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(10);3657-62. PMID: 15728392

Belevich07: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Verkhovsky MI (2007). "Discovery of the true peroxy intermediate in the catalytic cycle of terminal oxidases by real-time measurement." J Biol Chem 282(39);28514-9. PMID: 17690093

Belevich07a: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562

Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017

Belevich14: Belevich N, Belevich G, Verkhovskaya M (2014). "Real-time optical studies of respiratory Complex I turnover." Biochim Biophys Acta 1837(12);1973-1980. PMID: 25283488

Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280

Bongaerts95: Bongaerts J, Zoske S, Weidner U, Unden G (1995). "Transcriptional regulation of the proton translocating NADH dehydrogenase genes (nuoA-N) of Escherichia coli by electron acceptors, electron donors and gene regulators." Mol Microbiol 16(3);521-34. PMID: 7565112

Borisov02: Borisov VB, Liebl U, Rappaport F, Martin JL, Zhang J, Gennis RB, Konstantinov AA, Vos MH (2002). "Interactions between heme d and heme b595 in quinol oxidase bd from Escherichia coli: a photoselection study using femtosecond spectroscopy." Biochemistry 41(5);1654-62. PMID: 11814360

Borisov08: Borisov VB, Belevich I, Bloch DA, Mogi T, Verkhovsky MI (2008). "Glutamate 107 in subunit I of cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is part of a transmembrane intraprotein pathway conducting protons from the cytoplasm to the heme b595/heme d active site." Biochemistry 47(30);7907-14. PMID: 18597483

Borisov11: Borisov VB, Forte E, Sarti P, Giuffre A (2011). "Catalytic intermediates of cytochrome bd terminal oxidase at steady-state: ferryl and oxy-ferrous species dominate." Biochim Biophys Acta 1807(5);503-9. PMID: 21352800

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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