If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
Synonyms: NADH to nitrate electron transfer
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Inorganic Nutrients Metabolism → Nitrogen Compounds Metabolism → Nitrate Reduction|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Electron Transfer|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Respiration → Anaerobic Respiration|
In the respiratory chain formed by NADH dehydrogenase I (NDH-1) and nitrate reductase the transfer of electrons from NADH to nitrate is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane.
Two electrons are transferred from the NADH oxidation site to the nitrate reduction site by a menaquinone pool. The number of protons pumped across the membrane by NDH-1 is currently unknown [Yagi03] however the H+/e- ratio for NDH-1 is at least 1.5 [Bogachev96].
Two of the nitrate reductases, A and Z, in E. coli are membrane-bound and act as terminal electron acceptors. Expression of nitrate reductase A (NRA) occurs in response to high levels of nitrate in the environment whereas expression of nitrate reductase Z (NRZ) is not dependent on nitrate levels or anaerobiosis [Wang99a].
Variants: nitrate reduction III (dissimilatory)
Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824
Wang99a: Wang H, Tseng CP, Gunsalus RP (1999). "The napF and narG nitrate reductase operons in Escherichia coli are differentially expressed in response to submicromolar concentrations of nitrate but not nitrite." J Bacteriol 181(17);5303-8. PMID: 10464201
Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554
Amarneh03: Amarneh B, Vik SB (2003). "Mutagenesis of subunit N of the Escherichia coli complex I. Identification of the initiation codon and the sensitivity of mutants to decylubiquinone." Biochemistry 42(17);4800-8. PMID: 12718520
AriasCartin10: Arias-Cartin R, Lyubenova S, Ceccaldi P, Prisner T, Magalon A, Guigliarelli B, Grimaldi S (2010). "HYSCORE evidence that endogenous mena- and ubisemiquinone bind at the same Q site (Q(D)) of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A." J Am Chem Soc 132(17);5942-3. PMID: 20387886
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Augier93: Augier V, Guigliarelli B, Asso M, Bertrand P, Frixon C, Giordano G, Chippaux M, Blasco F (1993). "Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the beta subunit of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase. Physiological, biochemical, and EPR characterization of the mutated enzymes." Biochemistry 32(8);2013-23. PMID: 8383531
Augier93a: Augier V, Asso M, Guigliarelli B, More C, Bertrand P, Santini CL, Blasco F, Chippaux M, Giordano G (1993). "Removal of the high-potential [4Fe-4S] center of the beta-subunit from Escherichia coli nitrate reductase. Physiological, biochemical, and EPR characterization of site-directed mutated enzymes." Biochemistry 32(19);5099-108. PMID: 8388253
Auriol11: Auriol C, Bestel-Corre G, Claude JB, Soucaille P, Meynial-Salles I (2011). "Stress-induced evolution of Escherichia coli points to original concepts in respiratory cofactor selectivity." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(4);1278-83. PMID: 21205901
Avazeri97: Avazeri C, Turner RJ, Pommier J, Weiner JH, Giordano G, Vermeglio A (1997). "Tellurite reductase activity of nitrate reductase is responsible for the basal resistance of Escherichia coli to tellurite." Microbiology 143 ( Pt 4);1181-9. PMID: 9141681
Banci05: Banci L, Bertini I, Ciofi-Baffoni S, Chasapis CT, Hadjiliadis N, Rosato A (2005). "An NMR study of the interaction between the human copper(I) chaperone and the second and fifth metal-binding domains of the Menkes protein." FEBS J 272(3);865-71. PMID: 15670166
Baranova07: Baranova EA, Morgan DJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Single particle analysis confirms distal location of subunits NuoL and NuoM in Escherichia coli complex I." J Struct Biol 159(2);238-42. PMID: 17360196
Baranova07a: Baranova EA, Holt PJ, Sazanov LA (2007). "Projection structure of the membrane domain of Escherichia coli respiratory complex I at 8 A resolution." J Mol Biol 366(1);140-54. PMID: 17157874
Belevich07a: Belevich G, Euro L, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2007). "Role of the conserved arginine 274 and histidine 224 and 228 residues in the NuoCD subunit of complex I from Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 46(2);526-33. PMID: 17209562
Belevich11: Belevich G, Knuuti J, Verkhovsky MI, Wikstrom M, Verkhovskaya M (2011). "Probing the mechanistic role of the long α-helix in subunit L of respiratory Complex I from Escherichia coli by site-directed mutagenesis." Mol Microbiol 82(5);1086-95. PMID: 22060017
Berks95: Berks BC, Ferguson SJ, Moir JW, Richardson DJ (1995). "Enzymes and associated electron transport systems that catalyse the respiratory reduction of nitrogen oxides and oxyanions." Biochim Biophys Acta 1232(3);97-173. PMID: 8534676
Berks95a: Berks BC, Page MD, Richardson DJ, Reilly A, Cavill A, Outen F, Ferguson SJ (1995). "Sequence analysis of subunits of the membrane-bound nitrate reductase from a denitrifying bacterium: the integral membrane subunit provides a prototype for the dihaem electron-carrying arm of a redox loop." Mol Microbiol 15(2);319-31. PMID: 7746153
Berrisford08: Berrisford JM, Thompson CJ, Sazanov LA (2008). "Chemical and NADH-induced, ROS-dependent, cross-linking between subunits of complex I from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus." Biochemistry 47(39);10262-70. PMID: 18771280
Bertero03: Bertero MG, Rothery RA, Palak M, Hou C, Lim D, Blasco F, Weiner JH, Strynadka NC (2003). "Insights into the respiratory electron transfer pathway from the structure of nitrate reductase A." Nat Struct Biol 10(9);681-7. PMID: 12910261
Bertero05: Bertero MG, Rothery RA, Boroumand N, Palak M, Blasco F, Ginet N, Weiner JH, Strynadka NC (2005). "Structural and biochemical characterization of a quinol binding site of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A." J Biol Chem 280(15);14836-43. PMID: 15615728
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