Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer
Author statement

Pathway diagram: succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyElectron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyRespirationAerobic Respiration

In the aerobic respiratory chain formed by succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome bd oxidase the transfer of electrons from succinate to cytochrome bd oxidase is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force (pmf) across the cytoplasmic membrane. Succinate dehydrogenase does not contribute to the generation of proton potential (see [Simon08]); cytochrome bd oxidase translocates 1 H+/e- by means of an oriented redox loop [Puustinen91]. Cytochrome bd oxidase is expressed under oxygen-limiting conditions [Cotter90, Tseng96] unlike cytochrome bo oxidase which is expressed when oxygen levels are high [Kita84]. E. coli K-12 also contains a second bd-type cytochrome not shown in this pathway ( cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase - encoded by the appBC genes). The physiological role of cytochrome bd-II is uncertain although it is able to generate PMF via a mechanism similar to cytochrome bd-I [Borisov11]. The expression of succinate dehydrogenase is maximal during aerobic growth; repression under anaerobiosis is mediated by the global regulators ArcA and Fnr (reviewed in [Gunsalus94]). Electron transport from succinate to oxygen is dependent on the presence of ubiquinone (Q8) [Wallace77].

Created 17-Aug-2008 by Nolan L, Macquarie University
Revised 10-Dec-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University
Last-Curated 10-Dec-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


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Cotter90: Cotter PA, Chepuri V, Gennis RB, Gunsalus RP (1990). "Cytochrome o (cyoABCDE) and d (cydAB) oxidase gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by oxygen, pH, and the fnr gene product." J Bacteriol 172(11);6333-8. PMID: 2172211

Gunsalus94: Gunsalus RP, Park SJ (1994). "Aerobic-anaerobic gene regulation in Escherichia coli: control by the ArcAB and Fnr regulons." Res Microbiol 145(5-6);437-50. PMID: 7855430

Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Puustinen91: Puustinen A, Finel M, Haltia T, Gennis RB, Wikstrom M (1991). "Properties of the two terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 30(16);3936-42. PMID: 1850294

Simon08: Simon J, van Spanning RJ, Richardson DJ (2008). "The organisation of proton motive and non-proton motive redox loops in prokaryotic respiratory systems." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1480-90. PMID: 18930017

Tseng96: Tseng CP, Albrecht J, Gunsalus RP (1996). "Effect of microaerophilic cell growth conditions on expression of the aerobic (cyoABCDE and cydAB) and anaerobic (narGHJI, frdABCD, and dmsABC) respiratory pathway genes in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(4);1094-8. PMID: 8576043

Unden97: Unden G, Bongaerts J (1997). "Alternative respiratory pathways of Escherichia coli: energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors." Biochim Biophys Acta 1320(3);217-34. PMID: 9230919

Wallace77: Wallace BJ, Young IG (1977). "Role of quinones in electron transport to oxygen and nitrate in Escherichia coli. Studies with a ubiA- menA- double quinone mutant." Biochim Biophys Acta 461(1);84-100. PMID: 195602

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Al12: Al Mamun AA, Lombardo MJ, Shee C, Lisewski AM, Gonzalez C, Lin D, Nehring RB, Saint-Ruf C, Gibson JL, Frisch RL, Lichtarge O, Hastings PJ, Rosenberg SM (2012). "Identity and function of a large gene network underlying mutagenic repair of DNA breaks." Science 338(6112);1344-8. PMID: 23224554

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Bebbington01: Bebbington KJ, Williams HD (2001). "A role for DNA supercoiling in the regulation of the cytochrome bd oxidase of Escherichia coli." Microbiology 147(Pt 3);591-8. PMID: 11238966

Bekker09: Bekker M, de Vries S, Ter Beek A, Hellingwerf KJ, de Mattos MJ (2009). "Respiration of Escherichia coli can be fully uncoupled via the nonelectrogenic terminal cytochrome bd-II oxidase." J Bacteriol 191(17);5510-7. PMID: 19542282

Belevich05: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Zhang J, Yang K, Konstantinov AA, Gennis RB, Verkhovsky MI (2005). "Time-resolved electrometric and optical studies on cytochrome bd suggest a mechanism of electron-proton coupling in the di-heme active site." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(10);3657-62. PMID: 15728392

Belevich07: Belevich I, Borisov VB, Verkhovsky MI (2007). "Discovery of the true peroxy intermediate in the catalytic cycle of terminal oxidases by real-time measurement." J Biol Chem 282(39);28514-9. PMID: 17690093

Borisov02: Borisov VB, Liebl U, Rappaport F, Martin JL, Zhang J, Gennis RB, Konstantinov AA, Vos MH (2002). "Interactions between heme d and heme b595 in quinol oxidase bd from Escherichia coli: a photoselection study using femtosecond spectroscopy." Biochemistry 41(5);1654-62. PMID: 11814360

Borisov08: Borisov VB, Belevich I, Bloch DA, Mogi T, Verkhovsky MI (2008). "Glutamate 107 in subunit I of cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is part of a transmembrane intraprotein pathway conducting protons from the cytoplasm to the heme b595/heme d active site." Biochemistry 47(30);7907-14. PMID: 18597483

Borisov11a: Borisov VB, Forte E, Sarti P, Giuffre A (2011). "Catalytic intermediates of cytochrome bd terminal oxidase at steady-state: ferryl and oxy-ferrous species dominate." Biochim Biophys Acta 1807(5);503-9. PMID: 21352800

Borisov11b: Borisov VB, Gennis RB, Hemp J, Verkhovsky MI (2011). "The cytochrome bd respiratory oxygen reductases." Biochim Biophys Acta 1807(11);1398-413. PMID: 21756872

Borisov13: Borisov VB, Verkhovsky MI (2013). "Accommodation of CO in the di-heme active site of cytochrome bd terminal oxidase from Escherichia coli." J Inorg Biochem 118;65-7. PMID: 23123340

Brandsch89: Brandsch R, Bichler V (1989). "Covalent cofactor binding to flavoenzymes requires specific effectors." Eur J Biochem 1989;182(1);125-8. PMID: 2659351

Cammack86: Cammack R, Patil DS, Weiner JH (1986). "Evidence that centre 2 in Escherichia coli fumarate reductase is a [4Fe-4S]cluster." Biochim Biophys Acta 870(3);545-51. PMID: 3008846

Cecchini02: Cecchini G, Schroder I, Gunsalus RP, Maklashina E (2002). "Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1553(1-2);140-57. PMID: 11803023

Cecchini03: Cecchini G, Maklashina E, Yankovskaya V, Iverson TM, Iwata S (2003). "Variation in proton donor/acceptor pathways in succinate:quinone oxidoreductases." FEBS Lett 545(1);31-8. PMID: 12788489

Cheng06: Cheng VW, Ma E, Zhao Z, Rothery RA, Weiner JH (2006). "The iron-sulfur clusters in Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase direct electron flow." J Biol Chem 281(37);27662-8. PMID: 16864590

Condon85: Condon C, Cammack R, Patil DS, Owen P (1985). "The succinate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. Immunochemical resolution and biophysical characterization of a 4-subunit enzyme complex." J Biol Chem 1985;260(16);9427-34. PMID: 2991245

Cotter92: Cotter PA, Darie S, Gunsalus RP (1992). "The effect of iron limitation on expression of the aerobic and anaerobic electron transport pathway genes in Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 79(1-3);227-32. PMID: 1478458

Cotter97: Cotter PA, Melville SB, Albrecht JA, Gunsalus RP (1997). "Aerobic regulation of cytochrome d oxidase (cydAB) operon expression in Escherichia coli: roles of Fnr and ArcA in repression and activation." Mol Microbiol 25(3);605-15. PMID: 9302022

Creaghan78: Creaghan IT, Guest JR (1978). "Succinate dehydrogenase-dependent nutritional requirement for succinate in mutants of Escherichia coli K12." J Gen Microbiol 107(1);1-13. PMID: 366070

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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