If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Locations of Mapped Genes:
|Superclasses:||Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Electron Transfer|
|Generation of Precursor Metabolites and Energy → Respiration → Anaerobic Respiration|
In the respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to DMSO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane.
Two electrons are transferred from the formate oxidation site to the DMSO reduction site by a menaquinone pool. Neither formate dehydrogenase nor DMSO reductase catalyse vectorial proton translocation however, the reduction of DMSO and many other amine-N-oxides and methyl-sulfoxides, including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), contributes two protons to the proton-motive force.
Two of E. coli's formate dehydrogenases, N and O, catalyse the oxidation of formate. Expression of formate dehydrogenase N (Fdh-N) is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03a, Berg90] whereas aerobic conditions, and to a lesser extent nitrate under anaerobic conditions, induce expression of formate dehydrogenase O (Fdh-O) [Abaibou95].
DMSO reductase is functionally similar to the TMAO reductases but genetically distinct [Bilous88]. This enzyme functions under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of nitrate (a preferred electron acceptor) [Cotter89]. DMSO is the preferred substrate for this enzyme [Weiner88].
Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521
Wang03a: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080
Weiner88: Weiner JH, MacIsaac DP, Bishop RE, Bilous PT (1988). "Purification and properties of Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase, an iron-sulfur molybdoenzyme with broad substrate specificity." J Bacteriol 1988;170(4);1505-10. PMID: 3280546
Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699
Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151
Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007
Berg91: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669
Bilous88a: Bilous PT, Cole ST, Anderson WF, Weiner JH (1988). "Nucleotide sequence of the dmsABC operon encoding the anaerobic dimethylsulphoxide reductase of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 2(6);785-95. PMID: 3062312
Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043
Cammack90: Cammack R, Weiner JH (1990). "Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1990;29(36);8410-6. PMID: 2174699
DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114
Enoch74: Enoch HG, Lester RL (1974). "The role of a novel cytochrome b-containing nitrate reductase and quinone in the in vitro reconstruction of formate-nitrate reductase activity of E. coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 61(4);1234-41. PMID: 4616697
Fujimoto12: Fujimoto N., Kosaka T., Yamada M. (2012). "Menaquinone as Well as Ubiquinone as a Crucial Component in the Escherichia coli Respiratory Chain." Chapter 10 in Chemical Biology, edited by D Ekinci, ISBN 978-953-51-0049-2.
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