Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: formate to dimethyl sulfoxide electron transfer
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: formate to dimethyl sulfoxide electron transfer

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for formate to dimethyl sulfoxide electron transfer

Superclasses: Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyElectron Transfer
Generation of Precursor Metabolites and EnergyRespirationAnaerobic Respiration

In the respiratory chain formed by formate dehydrogenase and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase the transfer of electrons from formate to DMSO is coupled to the generation of a proton-motive force across the cytoplasmic membrane. Weak, but measurable proton translocation can be demonstrated in whole cells of E. coli HB101 with formate as electron donor and DMSO as acceptor [Bilous85].

E. coli K-12 contains two respiratory formate dehydrogenases. Formate dehydrogenase N is induced by anaerobiosis and the presence of nitrate [Wang03a, Berg90]. Formate dehydrogenase O (FdhO) is expressed aerobically and may be important during aerobic to anaerobic transition [Abaibou95]. Formate dehydrogenase N contributes to the generation of proton potential (H+/e- = 1) by means of a redox loop mechanism [Jormakka02] .

DMSO reductase functions under anaerobic conditions and in the absence of nitrate (a preferred electron acceptor) [Cotter89]. DMSO reductase does not contribute to proton potential ( [Tran97] and see review by [Simon08]). Menaquinone serves as the redox mediator during anaerobic respiration with DMSO [Wissenbach90].

Created 17-Aug-2008 by Nolan L, Macquarie University
Revised 03-Dec-2014 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Abaibou95: Abaibou H, Pommier J, Benoit S, Giordano G, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1995). "Expression and characterization of the Escherichia coli fdo locus and a possible physiological role for aerobic formate dehydrogenase." J Bacteriol 177(24);7141-9. PMID: 8522521

Berg90: Berg BL, Stewart V (1990). "Structural genes for nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12." Genetics 1990;125(4);691-702. PMID: 2168848

Bilous85: Bilous PT, Weiner JH (1985). "Proton translocation coupled to dimethyl sulfoxide reduction in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli HB101." J Bacteriol 163(1);369-75. PMID: 2989249

Cotter89: Cotter PA, Gunsalus RP (1989). "Oxygen, nitrate, and molybdenum regulation of dmsABC gene expression in Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 171(7);3817-23. PMID: 2544558

Jormakka02: Jormakka M, Tornroth S, Byrne B, Iwata S (2002). "Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N." Science 295(5561);1863-8. PMID: 11884747

Simon08: Simon J, van Spanning RJ, Richardson DJ (2008). "The organisation of proton motive and non-proton motive redox loops in prokaryotic respiratory systems." Biochim Biophys Acta 1777(12);1480-90. PMID: 18930017

Tran97: Tran QH, Bongaerts J, Vlad D, Unden G (1997). "Requirement for the proton-pumping NADH dehydrogenase I of Escherichia coli in respiration of NADH to fumarate and its bioenergetic implications." Eur J Biochem 244(1);155-60. PMID: 9063459

Wang03a: Wang H, Gunsalus RP (2003). "Coordinate regulation of the Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase fdnGHI and fdhF genes in response to nitrate, nitrite, and formate: roles for NarL and NarP." J Bacteriol 185(17);5076-85. PMID: 12923080

Wissenbach90: Wissenbach U, Kroger A, Unden G (1990). "The specific functions of menaquinone and demethylmenaquinone in anaerobic respiration with fumarate, dimethylsulfoxide, trimethylamine N-oxide and nitrate by Escherichia coli." Arch Microbiol 154(1);60-6. PMID: 2204318

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Bairoch93: Bairoch A, Boeckmann B (1993). "The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank, recent developments." Nucleic Acids Res. 21:3093-3096. PMID: 8332529

Barker00: Barker HC, Kinsella N, Jaspe A, Friedrich T, O'Connor CD (2000). "Formate protects stationary-phase Escherichia coli and Salmonella cells from killing by a cationic antimicrobial peptide." Mol Microbiol 35(6);1518-29. PMID: 10760151

Benoit98: Benoit S, Abaibou H, Mandrand-Berthelot MA (1998). "Topological analysis of the aerobic membrane-bound formate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1998;180(24);6625-34. PMID: 9852007

Berg91: Berg BL, Li J, Heider J, Stewart V (1991). "Nitrate-inducible formate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12. I. Nucleotide sequence of the fdnGHI operon and evidence that opal (UGA) encodes selenocysteine." J Biol Chem 1991;266(33);22380-5. PMID: 1834669

Bilous88: Bilous PT, Weiner JH (1988). "Molecular cloning and expression of the Escherichia coli dimethyl sulfoxide reductase operon." J Bacteriol 170(4);1511-8. PMID: 2832366

Bilous88a: Bilous PT, Cole ST, Anderson WF, Weiner JH (1988). "Nucleotide sequence of the dmsABC operon encoding the anaerobic dimethylsulphoxide reductase of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 2(6);785-95. PMID: 3062312

Bogachev96: Bogachev AV, Murtazina RA, Skulachev VP (1996). "H+/e- stoichiometry for NADH dehydrogenase I and dimethyl sulfoxide reductase in anaerobically grown Escherichia coli cells." J Bacteriol 178(21);6233-7. PMID: 8892824

Boxer82: Boxer D, Malcolm A, Graham A (1982). "Escherichia coli formate to nitrate respiratory pathway: structural analysis." Biochem Soc Trans 10(6);480-1. PMID: 6759195

BRENDA14: BRENDA team (2014). Imported from BRENDA version existing on Aug 2014.

Butland05: Butland G, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Li J, Yang W, Yang X, Canadien V, Starostine A, Richards D, Beattie B, Krogan N, Davey M, Parkinson J, Greenblatt J, Emili A (2005). "Interaction network containing conserved and essential protein complexes in Escherichia coli." Nature 433(7025);531-7. PMID: 15690043

Cammack90: Cammack R, Weiner JH (1990). "Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase of Escherichia coli." Biochemistry 1990;29(36);8410-6. PMID: 2174699

Chan08: Chan CS, Winstone TM, Chang L, Stevens CM, Workentine ML, Li H, Wei Y, Ondrechen MJ, Paetzel M, Turner RJ (2008). "Identification of residues in DmsD for twin-arginine leader peptide binding, defined through random and bioinformatics-directed mutagenesis." Biochemistry 47(9);2749-59. PMID: 18247574

Chan09: Chan CS, Chang L, Rommens KL, Turner RJ (2009). "Differential interactions between Tat-specific redox enzyme peptides and their chaperones." J Bacteriol 191(7):2091-101. PMID: 19151138

Chan10a: Chan CS, Chang L, Winstone TM, Turner RJ (2010). "Comparing system-specific chaperone interactions with their Tat dependent redox enzyme substrates." FEBS Lett 584(22);4553-8. PMID: 20974141

Charlson87: Charlson, RJ, Lovelock, JE, Andreae, MO, Warren, SG (1987). "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate." Nature 326:655-661.

Cheng05: Cheng VW, Rothery RA, Bertero MG, Strynadka NC, Weiner JH (2005). "Investigation of the environment surrounding iron-sulfur cluster 4 of Escherichia coli dimethylsulfoxide reductase." Biochemistry 44(22);8068-77. PMID: 15924426

Collins81a: Collins MD, Jones D (1981). "Distribution of isoprenoid quinone structural types in bacteria and their taxonomic implication." Microbiol Rev 45(2);316-54. PMID: 7022156

Cox81: Cox JC, Edwards ES, DeMoss JA (1981). "Resolution of distinct selenium-containing formate dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 145(3);1317-24. PMID: 7009577

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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