Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: D-malate degradation
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: D-malate degradation

If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Superclasses: Degradation/Utilization/AssimilationCarboxylates Degradation

Under aerobic conditions, E. coli is able to utilize D-malate as the sole source of carbon for growth. D-malate is transported into the cell by the proton motive force-dependent dicarboxylate transporter DctA. A D-malate-specific enzyme, D-malate / 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), decarboxylates D-malate to pyruvate while reducing NAD+. Pyruvate then enters central metabolism via pyruvate dehydrogenase. [Stern66, Reed06, Lukas10]

Under anaerobic conditions, fermentation of pyruvate via pyruvate-formate lyase and the pathway of mixed acid fermentation is theoretically feasible, but that route does not produce enough ATP to compensate for the loss of ATP by utilization of the proton motive force during D-malate transport. Thus, D-malate alone is unable to support growth as the sole source of carbon under anaerobic conditions [Lukas10].

Created 22-Mar-2010 by Keseler I, SRI International


Lukas10: Lukas H, Reimann J, Kim OB, Grimpo J, Unden G (2010). "The regulation of aerobic and anaerobic D-malate metabolism of Escherichia coli by the LysR-type regulator DmlR (former YeaT)." J Bacteriol 192(10):2503-11. PMID: 20233924

Reed06: Reed JL, Patel TR, Chen KH, Joyce AR, Applebee MK, Herring CD, Bui OT, Knight EM, Fong SS, Palsson BO (2006). "Systems approach to refining genome annotation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103(46);17480-4. PMID: 17088549

Stern66: Stern JR, Hegre CS (1966). "Inducible D-Malic Enzyme in Escherichia coli." Nature 212:1611-12. PMID: 21105539

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Easton06: Easton JA, Thompson P, Crowder MW (2006). "Time-dependent translational response of E. coli to excess Zn(II)." J Biomol Tech 17(5);303-7. PMID: 17122063

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

UniProtGOA11: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on the manual assignment of UniProtKB Subcellular Location terms in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Vorobieva14: Vorobieva AA, Khan MS, Soumillion P (2014). "Escherichia coli D-Malate Dehydrogenase: a Generalist Enzyme Active in the Leucine Biosynthesis Pathway." J Biol Chem. PMID: 25160617

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.5 on Fri Apr 29, 2016, BIOCYC11A.