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Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655 Pathway: PhoRB Two-Component Signal Transduction System, phosphate-dependent
Inferred from experiment

Pathway diagram: PhoRB Two-Component Signal Transduction System, phosphate-dependent

Diagram Key:

Locations of Mapped Genes:

Schematic showing all replicons, marked with selected genes

Genetic Regulation Schematic

Genetic regulation schematic for PhoRB Two-Component Signal Transduction System, phosphate-dependent

Synonyms: phosphate regulatory system, PhoRB

Superclasses: Signal transduction pathways

In E.coli K-12, PhoRB is the two-component system for sensing and responding to variations in the level of extracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi). Pho RB regulates the expression of a large number of genes (the Pho regulon) which have a role in the assimilation of environmental Pi or the use of alternate Pi sources.

PhoR is the membrane associated sensor kinase which controls activity of the cytoplasmic response regulator and transcription factor PhoB. PhoR detects Pi only indirectly and its activity as a sensor kinase depends on its association with the phosphate transporter PstSCAB and/or PhoU. Accordingly signal transduction by Pi requires seven proteins (PhoR, PhoB, PstSCAB and PhoU) that interact in a membrane associated complex.

PhoRB signalling is believed to be a negative process - that is, activation of PhoB is the default state and excess environmental Pi is required to turn the system off. Under limiting environmental Pi, PhoR is believed to be in an active signalling conformation resulting in the phosphorylation and activation of PhoB and subsequent induction of the Pho regulon. Excess levels of Pi (>4uM) result in an inhibited form of PhoR which interferes with phosphorylation of PhoB and prevents its activity as a transcription factor. The Pst transporter and the chaperone like protein PhoU are both necessary for inhibition of the PhoRB system.

Reviews: [Hsieh10, Wanner96, Wanner93, Rao90, Torriani90, Tommassen]

Created 21-Jun-2010 by Mackie A, Macquarie University


Hsieh10: Hsieh YJ, Wanner BL (2010). "Global regulation by the seven-component Pi signaling system." Curr Opin Microbiol 13(2);198-203. PMID: 20171928

Makino89: Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Yamada M, Nakata A (1989). "Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins." J Mol Biol 1989;210(3);551-9. PMID: 2693738

Rao90: Rao NN, Torriani A (1990). "Molecular aspects of phosphate transport in Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 1990;4(7);1083-90. PMID: 1700257

Tommassen: Tommassen J, Lugtenberg B "PHO-regulon of Escherichia coli K12: a minireview." Ann Microbiol (Paris) 133(2);243-9. PMID: 7044214

Torriani90: Torriani A (1990). "From cell membrane to nucleotides: the phosphate regulon in Escherichia coli." Bioessays 1990;12(8);371-6. PMID: 2241934

Wanner93: Wanner BL (1993). "Gene regulation by phosphate in enteric bacteria." J Cell Biochem 1993;51(1);47-54. PMID: 8432742

Wanner96: Wanner BL (1996). "Signal transduction in the control of phosphate-regulated genes of Escherichia coli." Kidney Int 49(4);964-7. PMID: 8691745

Other References Related to Enzymes, Genes, Subpathways, and Substrates of this Pathway

Amemura90: Amemura M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A (1990). "Cross talk to the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli by PhoM protein: PhoM is a histidine protein kinase and catalyzes phosphorylation of PhoB and PhoM-open reading frame 2." J Bacteriol 1990;172(11);6300-7. PMID: 2228961

ArribasBosacoma07: Arribas-Bosacoma R, Kim SK, Ferrer-Orta C, Blanco AG, Pereira PJ, Gomis-Ruth FX, Wanner BL, Coll M, Sola M (2007). "The X-ray crystal structures of two constitutively active mutants of the Escherichia coli PhoB receiver domain give insights into activation." J Mol Biol 366(2);626-41. PMID: 17182055

Bachhawat05: Bachhawat P, Swapna GV, Montelione GT, Stock AM (2005). "Mechanism of activation for transcription factor PhoB suggested by different modes of dimerization in the inactive and active states." Structure 13(9);1353-63. PMID: 16154092

Baek06: Baek JH, Lee SY (2006). "Novel gene members in the Pho regulon of Escherichia coli." FEMS Microbiol Lett 264(1);104-9. PMID: 17020555

Baek07: Baek JH, Lee SY (2007). "Transcriptome analysis of phosphate starvation response in Escherichia coli." J Microbiol Biotechnol 17(2);244-52. PMID: 18051755

Blanco02: Blanco AG, Sola M, Gomis-Ruth FX, Coll M (2002). "Tandem DNA recognition by PhoB, a two-component signal transduction transcriptional activator." Structure 10(5);701-13. PMID: 12015152

Blanco11: Blanco AG, Canals A, Bernues J, Sola M, Coll M (2011). "The structure of a transcription activation subcomplex reveals how σ(70) is recruited to PhoB promoters." EMBO J 30(18);3776-85. PMID: 21829166

Carmany03: Carmany DO, Hollingsworth K, McCleary WR (2003). "Genetic and biochemical studies of phosphatase activity of PhoR." J Bacteriol 185(3);1112-5. PMID: 12533489

CreagerAllen13: Creager-Allen RL, Silversmith RE, Bourret RB (2013). "A link between dimerization and autophosphorylation of the response regulator PhoB." J Biol Chem 288(30);21755-69. PMID: 23760278

Crepin11: Crepin S, Chekabab SM, Le Bihan G, Bertrand N, Dozois CM, Harel J (2011). "The Pho regulon and the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli." Vet Microbiol 153(1-2);82-8. PMID: 21700403

Daley05: Daley DO, Rapp M, Granseth E, Melen K, Drew D, von Heijne G (2005). "Global topology analysis of the Escherichia coli inner membrane proteome." Science 308(5726);1321-3. PMID: 15919996

DiazMejia09: Diaz-Mejia JJ, Babu M, Emili A (2009). "Computational and experimental approaches to chart the Escherichia coli cell-envelope-associated proteome and interactome." FEMS Microbiol Rev 33(1);66-97. PMID: 19054114

Ellison00: Ellison DW, McCleary WR (2000). "The unphosphorylated receiver domain of PhoB silences the activity of its output domain." J Bacteriol 182(23);6592-7. PMID: 11073900

Gao08: Gao R, Tao Y, Stock AM (2008). "System-level mapping of Escherichia coli response regulator dimerization with FRET hybrids." Mol Microbiol 69(6);1358-72. PMID: 18631241

Gao13a: Gao R, Stock AM (2013). "Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system." PLoS Genet 9(10);e1003927. PMID: 24204322

Gao15: Gao R, Stock AM (2015). "Temporal hierarchy of gene expression mediated by transcription factor binding affinity and activation dynamics." MBio 6(3);e00686-15. PMID: 26015501

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Heyde83: Heyde M, Portalier R (1983). "Isolation and characterization of a new type of Escherichia coli K12 phoB mutants." Mol Gen Genet 190(1);122-7. PMID: 6343798

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of EcoCyc: Nucleic Acids Research 41:D605-12 2013
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