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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
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MetaCyc Reactions Class: Electron-Transfer-Reactions

Summary:
Electron transfer reactions (ETRs) describe reactions that transfer electrons between substrates, which are thus involved in redox processes that oxidize and reduce some of the substrates. ETRs usually take place at membranes, because a key purpose of ETRs is to use the electron energy to build up a proton gradient across the membrane, which can then be used for energy generation by the cell, using ATP synthesis driven by the proton gradient. ETRs very often involve the pool of membrane-bound quinone substrates, which can shuttle electrons to or from an ETR.

All ETRs are composite reactions, because they involve at least two redox half reactions. These half reactions involve explicit electrons, which cannot occur freely. Thus, the half reactions have to be paired up, with the result that the electrons are used only internally to connect the half reactions, and are not visible as substrates of the ETR.

Sometimes, a proton transport reaction can also be a sub-reaction of the ETR, to represent so-called vectoral proton movement. In the vectoral case, protons are actively pumped across the membrane, using energy extracted from the redox processes. The proton transport reaction is not directly connected to the redox half reactions in the pathway representation of the composite reaction.

Because ETRs tend to occur at membranes, substrates that are not in the default compartment (the cytoplasm) need to have compartment information associated by means of value annotations. The exception to this are the membrane-bound quinone substrates, which are always assumed to reside in the membrane itself.

Parent Classes:
Composite Reactions

Instances:
1.1.5.2: D-glucopyranose[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] → D-glucono-1,5-lactone[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] ,
1.1.5.3: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + a menaquinone[inner membrane] → dihydroxyacetone phosphate + a menaquinol[inner membrane] ,
1.1.5.3: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] → dihydroxyacetone phosphate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.1.5.3: sn-glycerol 3-phosphate[in] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] → dihydroxyacetone phosphate[in] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.1.5.6: formate[periplasmic space] + a menaquinone[inner membrane] + 2 H+ → CO2[periplasmic space] + a menaquinol[inner membrane] + H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.1.5.9: D-glucopyranose[out] + an electron-transfer-related quinone + 2 H+[in] → D-glucono-1,5-lactone[out] + an electron-transfer-related quinol + 2 H+[out] ,
1.1.5.-: (R)-lactate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] → pyruvate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] ,
1.2.5.1: pyruvate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] ,
1.3.5.1: succinate[in] + caldariellaquinone → fumarate[in] + caldariellaquinol ,
1.3.5.1: succinate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] → fumarate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.3.5.1: succinate[in] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] → fumarate[in] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.3.5.2: (S)-dihydroorotate + an electron-transfer-related quinone[inner membrane] → orotate + an electron-transfer-related quinol[inner membrane] ,
1.3.5.2: (S)-dihydroorotate[in] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] → orotate[in] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.3.5.2: (S)-dihydroorotate + a menaquinone[inner membrane] → orotate + a menaquinol[inner membrane] ,
1.3.5.4: fumarate[in] + a menaquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ↔ succinate[in] + a menaquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.3.5.4: fumarate[mitochondrial lumen] + a rhodoquinol[CCO-MIT-IM-SPC-CCO-MIT-LUM] → succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + a rhodoquinone[CCO-MIT-IM-SPC-CCO-MIT-LUM] ,
1.3.5.4: succinate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ← fumarate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.4.5.1: a D-amino acid[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + H2O[in] → a 2-oxo carboxylate[in] + ammonium[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.4.5.-: D-alanine + an electron-transfer-related quinone[inner membrane] + H2O → ammonium + pyruvate + an electron-transfer-related quinol[inner membrane] ,
1.5.5.2: L-proline + an electron-transfer-related quinone[inner membrane] → (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + an electron-transfer-related quinol[inner membrane] + H+ ,
1.5.5.2: L-proline + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] → (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] + H+ ,
1.5.5.-: trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone → pyrroline-hydroxy-carboxylate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol + H+[in] ,
1.6.5.3: NADH[in] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + 5 H+[in] ↔ NAD+[in] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + 4 H+[out] ,
1.6.5.9: NADH[in] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + H+[in] → NAD+[in] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] ,
1.6.5.-: NADH + a menaquinone[inner membrane] + 5 H+ → NAD+ + a menaquinol[inner membrane] + 4 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.7.2.3: trimethylamine N-oxide[periplasmic space] + a menaquinol[inner membrane] + H+[periplasmic space] → trimethylamine[periplasmic space] + a menaquinone[inner membrane] + H2O[periplasmic space] ,
1.7.2.4: 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] + nitrous oxide + 2 H+ → 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] + N2 + H2O ,
1.7.2.6: 4 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + hydroxylamine[in] + H2O[in] → 4 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + nitrite[in] + 5 H+[in] ,
1.7.2.-: 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + nitrate[in] + 2 H+[in] ← 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + nitrite[in] + H2O[in] ,
1.7.5.1: nitrate[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinol ↔ nitrite[in] + an electron-transfer-related quinone + H2O[in] ,
1.7.5.1: nitrate + a menaquinol[inner membrane] + 2 H+ → nitrite + a menaquinone[inner membrane] + H2O + 2 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.7.99.4: nitrate[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] → nitrite[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O[periplasmic space] ,
1.8.2.2: 2 thiosulfate[periplasmic space] + 4 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] → tetrathionate[periplasmic space] + 4 a reduced c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.8.5.3: dimethyl sulfoxide[periplasmic space] + a menaquinol[inner membrane] → dimethyl sulfide[periplasmic space] + a menaquinone[inner membrane] + H2O[periplasmic space] ,
1.9.3.1: 4 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + oxygen[in] + 8 H+[in] → 4 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + 4 H+[out] + 2 H2O[in] ,
1.9.3.1: 4 a reduced Cyc1 cytochrome + 8 H+ + oxygen → 4 an oxidized Cyc1 cytochrome + 4 H+[periplasmic space] + 2 H2O ,
1.9.6.1: 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + nitrate[in] + 2 H+[in] → 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + nitrite[in] + H2O[in] ,
1.10.2.2: 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + an ubiquinol[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + 2 H+[in] ↔ 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + an ubiquinone[CCO-OUT-CCO-IN] + 4 H+[in] ,
1.10.2.2: 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + a menaquinol → 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + a menaquinone + 2 H+[in] ,
1.10.2.2: 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[out] + an electron-transfer-related quinol → 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[out] + an electron-transfer-related quinone + 2 H+[in] ,
1.10.2.2: 2 a reduced CycA1 cytochrome[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + 4 H+ → 2 an oxidized CycA1 cytochrome[periplasmic space] + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.10.3.9: 2 a plastoquinol[chloroplast thylakoid membrane] + oxygen[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + 4 H+[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] ← hν + 2 a plastoquinone[chloroplast thylakoid membrane] + 2 H2O[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + 4 H+[chloroplast stroma] ,
1.10.3.10: 2 an ubiquinol[inner membrane] + 8 H+ + oxygen → 2 an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + 2 H2O + 8 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.10.3.11: 2 an ubiquinol[mitochondrial inner membrane] + oxygen[mitochondrial lumen] → 2 an ubiquinone[mitochondrial inner membrane] + 2 H2O[mitochondrial lumen] ,
1.10.3.12: 2 a menaquinol + oxygen[in] + 8 H+[in] → 2 a menaquinone + 8 H+[out] + 2 H2O[in] ,
1.10.3.13: 2 caldariellaquinol + 5 H+[in] + oxygen[in] → 2 caldariellaquinone + 5 H+[out] + 2 H2O[in] ,
1.10.3.14: 2 an ubiquinol[inner membrane] + 4 H+ + oxygen → 2 an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + 4 H+[periplasmic space] + 2 H2O ,
1.10.9.1: 2 an oxidized plastocyanin[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + a plastoquinol[chloroplast thylakoid membrane] + 2 H+[chloroplast stroma] → 2 a reduced plastocyanin[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + a plastoquinone[chloroplast thylakoid membrane] + 4 H+[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] ,
1.12.99.6: a menaquinone[inner membrane] + 2 H+ + H2[periplasmic space] → a menaquinol[inner membrane] + 2 H+[periplasmic space] ,
1.14.99.39: ammonia[in] + a reduced electron acceptor[in] + oxygen[in] → hydroxylamine[in] + an oxidized electron acceptor[in] + H2O[in] ,
1.16.5.1: L-ascorbate[in] + Fe3+[out] → monodehydroascorbate radical[in] + Fe2+[out] ,
1.16.9.1: Fe3+[extracellular space] + a reduced rusticyanin[periplasmic space] ← Fe2+[extracellular space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasmic space] ,
1.20.2.1: 2 a reduced c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] + arsenate + 3 H+ ← 2 an oxidized c-type cytochrome[periplasmic space] + arsenite + H2O ,
1.20.9.1: 2 a reduced azurin[periplasmic space] + arsenate[extracellular space] + 3 H+[extracellular space] ← 2 an oxidized azurin[periplasmic space] + arsenite[extracellular space] + H2O[extracellular space] ,
a reduced CycA1 cytochrome[periplasmic space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasmic space] ← a reduced rusticyanin[periplasmic space] + an oxidized CycA1 cytochrome[periplasmic space] ,
an oxidized plastocyanin[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + a reduced ferredoxin[chloroplast stroma] ← hν + a reduced plastocyanin[chloroplast thylakoid lumen] + an oxidized ferredoxin[chloroplast stroma] ,
an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasmic space] + a reduced Cyc1 cytochrome[periplasmic space] ← a reduced rusticyanin[periplasmic space] + an oxidized Cyc1 cytochrome[periplasmic space]


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Dec 21, 2014, biocyc14.