MetaCyc Protein Class: a glycosaminoglycan

Synonyms: a mucopolysaccharide

Superclasses: a protein a modified protein a proteoglycan
a small molecule all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a proteoglycan

Glycosaminoglycans (also known as mucopolysaccharides) are important components of connective tissues. They are composed of long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating units consist of an N-acetyl-hexosamine and a hexose or hexuronic acid, either or both of which are often sulfated. Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. β-D-glucuronate, α-L-iduronate, galactose, N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine).

Glycosaminoglycans are divided into four main classes: chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate; heparin and heparan sulfate; hyaluronan; and keratan sulfate. With the exception of hyaluronan, the polysaccharide chains are linked covalently at the reducing end to a core protein through an O-glycosidic linkage to a serine residue, thus forming proteoglycans.

a glycosaminoglycan compound structure

Child Classes: a D-galactosylglycosaminoglycan (0) , a keratan (0) , chondroitin (0) , chondroitin sulfate (0) , dermatan sulfate (0) , heparan (0) , heparan sulfate (0) , heparin (0) , hyaluronan (0) , N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminide-[chondroitin/dermatan] (0)

SMILES: C([R1])C2(OC(COS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)C(OC1(OC(C(=O)O)C(O)C(O[R2])C(O)1))C(NC(=O)C)2)

Unification Links: KEGG:C02545

Reactions known to produce the compound:

Not in pathways:
an N-acetyl-β-D-galactosalaminyl-[glycan] + H2O → a glycan + N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
UDP-α-D-galactose + a glycosaminoglycan = a D-galactosylglycosaminoglycan + UDP + H+

Revised 04-Aug-2010 by Caspi R , SRI International


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Trowbridge02: Trowbridge JM, Gallo RL (2002). "Dermatan sulfate: new functions from an old glycosaminoglycan." Glycobiology 12(9);117R-25R. PMID: 12213784

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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