Synonyms: a mucopolysaccharide
|Superclasses:||all carbohydrates → a carbohydrate → a glycan|
Glycosaminoglycans (also known as mucopolysaccharides) are important components of connective tissues. They are composed of long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating units consist of an N-acetyl-hexosamine and a hexose or hexuronic acid, either or both of which are often sulfated. Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. β-D-glucuronate, α-L-iduronate, galactose, N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine).
Glycosaminoglycans are divided into four main classes: chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate; heparin and heparan sulfate; hyaluronan; and keratan sulfate. With the exception of hyaluronan, the polysaccharide chains are linked covalently at the reducing end to a core protein through an O-glycosidic linkage to a serine residue, thus forming proteoglycans.
In Reactions of unknown directionality:
Hovingh70: Hovingh P, Linker A (1970). "The enzymatic degradation of heparin and heparitin sulfate. 3. Purification of a heparitinase and a heparinase from flavobacteria." J Biol Chem 245(22);6170-5. PMID: 5484472
Murphy04: Murphy KJ, Merry CL, Lyon M, Thompson JE, Roberts IS, Gallagher JT (2004). "A new model for the domain structure of heparan sulfate based on the novel specificity of K5 lyase." J Biol Chem 279(26);27239-45. PMID: 15047699
Rosenberg97: Rosenberg RD, Shworak NW, Liu J, Schwartz JJ, Zhang L (1997). "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the cardiovascular system. Specific structures emerge but how is synthesis regulated?." J Clin Invest 99(9);2062-70. PMID: 9151776
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