Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
twitter

MetaCyc Compound Class: a glycosaminoglycan

Synonyms: a mucopolysaccharide

Superclasses: all carbohydrates a carbohydrate a glycan a polysaccharide

Summary:
Glycosaminoglycans (also known as mucopolysaccharides) are important components of connective tissues. They are composed of long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating units consist of an N-acetyl-hexosamine and a hexose or hexuronic acid, either or both of which are often sulfated. Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. β-D-glucuronate, α-L-iduronate, galactose, N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine, N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine).

Glycosaminoglycans are divided into four main classes: chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate; heparin and heparan sulfate; hyaluronan; and keratan sulfate. With the exception of hyaluronan, the polysaccharide chains are linked covalently at the reducing end to a core protein through an O-glycosidic linkage to a serine residue, thus forming proteoglycans.

Child Classes: a D-galactosylglycosaminoglycan (0) , a keratan (0) , chondroitin (0) , chondroitin sulfate (0) , dermatan sulfate (0) , heparan sulfate (0) , heparin (0) , hyaluronan (0) , N-acetyl-β-D-galactosaminide-[chondroitin/dermatan] (0)

Instances:
hyaluronate

SMILES: C([R1])C2(OC(COS(O)(=O)=O)C(O)C(OC1(OC(C(=O)O)C(O)C(O[R2])C(O)1))C(NC(=O)C)2)

Unification Links: KEGG:C02545

Reactions known to consume the compound:

Not in pathways:
a polysaccharide + H2O → an oligosaccharide

Reactions known to produce the compound:

cellulose and hemicellulose degradation (cellulolosome) :
a feruloyl-polysaccharide + H2O → ferulate + a polysaccharide + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
an N-acetyl-β-D-galactosalaminyl-[glycan] + H2O → a glycan + N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
UDP-α-D-galactose + a glycosaminoglycan = a D-galactosylglycosaminoglycan + UDP + H+

Credits:
Revised 04-Aug-2010 by Caspi R , SRI International


References

Casu89: Casu, B. (1989). "in Heparin: Chemical and Biological Properties, Clinical Applications." Lane, D. A., and Lindahl, U., Eds, pp 25-49, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Gatti79: Gatti, G., Casu, B., Hamer, G. K., Pelin, A. S. (1979). Macromolecules 12:1001-1007.

Girish07: Girish KS, Kemparaju K (2007). "The magic glue hyaluronan and its eraser hyaluronidase: a biological overview." Life Sci 80(21);1921-43. PMID: 17408700

Murphy04: Murphy KJ, Merry CL, Lyon M, Thompson JE, Roberts IS, Gallagher JT (2004). "A new model for the domain structure of heparan sulfate based on the novel specificity of K5 lyase." J Biol Chem 279(26);27239-45. PMID: 15047699

Rosenberg97: Rosenberg RD, Shworak NW, Liu J, Schwartz JJ, Zhang L (1997). "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans of the cardiovascular system. Specific structures emerge but how is synthesis regulated?." J Clin Invest 99(9);2062-70. PMID: 9151776

Trowbridge02: Trowbridge JM, Gallo RL (2002). "Dermatan sulfate: new functions from an old glycosaminoglycan." Glycobiology 12(9);117R-25R. PMID: 12213784


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Dec 21, 2014, biocyc11.