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MetaCyc Protein Class: an apo-[acyl-carrier protein]

Abbrev Name: an acyl-carrier protein

Synonyms: an apo-[acp]

Superclasses: a polypeptideall acyl-carrier proteins
a proteinall acyl-carrier proteins

This class includes all the acyl-carrier proteins, which consist of the acyl-carrier proteins (ACPs) of fatty acid synthases, ACPs of polyketide synthases (PKSs), and peptidyl carrier proteins (PCPs) and aryl carrier proteins of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs).

Acyl carrier proteins exist as either a distinct domain within a large multifunctional protein, or as discrete soluble single-domain proteins.

ACP proteins are synthesized in their "apo" inactive form, and are activated by attachment of a 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety, removed from coenzyme A, to a serine residue, in a reaction catalyzed by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase [Byers07].

an apo-[acyl-carrier protein] compound structure

Child Classes: 3O,4-dimethyl,5-hydroxy L-tyrosinyl-[SfmC peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), a glycyl-[SfmB peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), a holo-[SfmA peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), a holo-[SfmB peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), a holo-[SfmC peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an acyl-L-alanyl-glycyl-[SfmB peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an acyl-[SfmA peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[aryl-carrier protein] (3), an apo-[CmaA peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[CmaD peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[fatty acid synthase acyl-carrier protein] (1), an apo-[LYS2 peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[PigJ acyl-carrier protein] (0), an apo-[SfmA peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[SfmB peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), an apo-[SfmC peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), L-2-aminoadipyl-[LYS2 peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0), L-alanyl-[SfmA peptidyl-carrier-protein] (0)

apo-[acyl carrier protein] (Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655)

Alternative forms of an apo-[acyl-carrier protein]:
3-hydroxyquinaldyl-D-cysteinyl-glycyl-[non-ribosomal peptide synthase]
3-hydroxyquinaldyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
quinoxaline-2-carboxyl-D-seryl-L-alanyl-[non-ribosomal peptide synthase]
quinoxaline-2-carboxyl-[acyl-carrier protein]
a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] (extended summary available)
a (2R)-2-hydroxymalonyl-[acp]
a (2R)-2-hydroxy-3-oxopropanoyl-[acp]
a D-glyceryl-[acp]
a propanoyl-[acp]
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-[acp]
an acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] (summary available)
a (3R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-[acp]
a (3R)-3-hydroxydodecanoyl-[acp]
a (3R)-3-hydroxyhexanoyl-[acp]
a (3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl-[acp]
a (3R)-3-hydroxyoctanoyl-[acp]
an acetoacetyl-[acp]
a (3R)-3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acp]
an arachidoyl-[acp]
an octanoyl-[acp]
a malonyl-[acp]
an acetyl-[acp]

SMILES: C(O)C(N[an apo-[acyl-carrier protein]])C(=O)[an apo-[acyl-carrier protein]]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

acyl carrier protein activation , acyl carrier protein metabolism :
an acyl-carrier protein + coenzyme A → adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

acyl carrier protein metabolism :
a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H2O → 4'-phosphopantetheine + an acyl-carrier protein + H+

Enzymes inhibited by an apo-[acyl-carrier protein], sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: acyl-CoA:1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 2-O-acyltransferase [Rock81, Comment 1] Inhibitor (Other types) of: acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Davis01]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Instance reactions of [an acyl-carrier protein + coenzyme A → adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+] (
i1: AsbD acyl-carrier protein + coenzyme A → adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a holo-[AsbD acyl-carrier protein] + H+ (no EC#)

i2: [EntB aryl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A → a holo-[EntB isochorismatase/aryl-carrier protein] + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + H+ (

Revised 12-Sep-2008 by Caspi R, SRI International


Byers07: Byers DM, Gong H (2007). "Acyl carrier protein: structure-function relationships in a conserved multifunctional protein family." Biochem Cell Biol 85(6);649-62. PMID: 18059524

Davis01: Davis MS, Cronan, Jr. JE (2001). "Inhibition of Escherichia coli acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase by acyl-acyl carrier protein." J Bacteriol. 183(4):1499-503. PMID: 11157970

Harris04: Harris AK, Williamson NR, Slater H, Cox A, Abbasi S, Foulds I, Simonsen HT, Leeper FJ, Salmond GP (2004). "The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation." Microbiology 150(Pt 11);3547-60. PMID: 15528645

Koketsu12: Koketsu K, Minami A, Watanabe K, Oguri H, Oikawa H (2012). "The Pictet-Spengler mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinoline antitumor antibiotics: a novel function for a nonribosomal peptide synthetase." Methods Enzymol 516;79-98. PMID: 23034225

Rock81: Rock CO, Goelz SE, Cronan JE (1981). "Phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Characteristics of fatty acid transfer from acyl-acyl carrier protein to sn-glycerol 3-phosphate." J Biol Chem 1981;256(2);736-42. PMID: 7005223

Strieter07: Strieter ER, Vaillancourt FH, Walsh CT (2007). "CmaE: a transferase shuttling aminoacyl groups between carrier protein domains in the coronamic acid biosynthetic pathway." Biochemistry 46(25);7549-57. PMID: 17530782

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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