Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: acetate

Synonyms: acetic acid, ethanoic acid

Superclasses: an acid all carboxy acids a carboxylate a monocarboxylate

Component of: sodium acetate

Chemical Formula: C2H3O2

Molecular Weight: 59.044 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 60.0211293726 Daltons

SMILES: CC([O-])=O

InChI: InChI=1S/C2H4O2/c1-2(3)4/h1H3,(H,3,4)/p-1

InChIKey: InChIKey=QTBSBXVTEAMEQO-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Unification Links: CAS:64-19-7 , CAS:71-50-1 , ChEBI:30089 , ChemSpider:170 , DrugBank:DB03166 , HMDB:HMDB00042 , IAF1260:33590 , KEGG:C00033 , MetaboLights:MTBLC30089 , PubChem:175

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -57.768696 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA , chitin degradation to ethanol , cis-genanyl-CoA degradation , ethanol degradation II , ethanol degradation IV , oxidative ethanol degradation III :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

citrate lyase activation :
[a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate + ATP → an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + AMP + diphosphate

malonate degradation II (biotin-dependent) :
[a holo malonate decarboxylase acyl-carrier-protein] + ATP + acetate → an acetyl-[holo malonate decarboxylase acyl-carrier protein] + AMP + diphosphate

methyl ketone biosynthesis :
a carboxylate + ATP + coenzyme A → an acyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

Not in pathways:
an acyl-protein synthetase + a carboxylate + ATP → an acyl-protein thioester + AMP + diphosphate
a carboxylate + GTP + coenzyme A → an acyl-CoA + GDP + phosphate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

2,6-dinitrotoluene degradation : 2-hydroxy-5-nitro-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate + H2O → 2-hydroxy-5-nitropenta-2,4-dienoate + acetate + H+ 2-nitrotoluene degradation , toluene degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate (via 4-methylcatechol) , toluene degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate (via toluene-cis-diol) , toluene degradation to 2-oxopent-4-enoate I (via o-cresol) : cis,cis-2-hydroxy-6-oxohepta-2,4-dienoate + H2O → 2-oxopent-4-enoate + acetate + H+ 3-(4-sulfophenyl)butyrate degradation : 4-sulfophenyl acetate + H2O → 4-sulfophenol + acetate + H+ 4-aminobutyrate degradation V , succinate fermentation to butyrate : 4-hydroxybutanoate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetate 4-hydroxyacetophenone degradation : 4-hydroxyphenylacetate + H2O → acetate + benzene-1,4-diol 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis IV , vanillin biosynthesis I : 4-coumarate + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetate ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis : 17-O-acetylnorajmaline + H2O → norajmaline + acetate + H+ 17-O-acetylajmaline + H2O → ajmaline + acetate + 2 H+ anhydromuropeptides recycling , chitin derivatives degradation , N-acetylglucosamine degradation I : N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + H2O → D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetate arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) : N-acetyl-L-citrulline + H2O → L-citrulline + acetate arsonoacetate degradation : arsonoacetate + a reduced electron acceptor → arsenite + acetate + an oxidized electron acceptor bacillithiol biosynthesis : malyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O → malyl-D-glucosamine + acetate benzoate biosynthesis II (CoA-independent, non-β-oxidative) : 3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropionate → benzaldehyde + acetate β-pyrazole-1-ylalanine biosynthesis : O-acetyl-L-serine + pyrazole → 3-(pyrazol-1-yl)-L-alanine + acetate + H+ chitin degradation I (archaea) : N,N'-diacetylchitobiose + H2O → 2-acetamido-4-O-(2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-D-glucose + acetate chitin degradation to ethanol : chitin + n H2O → chitosan + n acetate chitobiose degradation : N,N'-diacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + H2O → N-monoacetylchitobiose 6'-phosphate + acetate cis-genanyl-CoA degradation : 3-hydroxy-3-(4-methylpent-3-en-1-yl)glutaryl-CoA → 7-methyl-3-oxooct-6-enoyl-CoA + acetate citrate degradation : citrate + an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] → a citryl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate citrate lyase activation : an acetyl-[holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + 6 H2O → [a holo citrate lyase acyl-carrier protein] + 6 acetate cob(II)yrinate a,c-diamide biosynthesis II (late cobalt incorporation) : precorrin-5 + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + H2O → precorrin-6A + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + acetate + 2 H+ creatinine degradation III : creatinine + 2 H+ + H2O → methylguanidine + acetate crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) : crotonate + acetyl-CoA → crotonyl-CoA + acetate D-cycloserine biosynthesis : O-acetyl-L-serine + hydroxyurea → O-ureido-L-serine + acetate + H+ D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine degradation , N-acetyl-D-galactosamine degradation : N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 6-phosphate + H2O → acetate + D-galactosamine 6-phosphate ephedrine biosynthesis : trans-cinnamate + NAD+ + 2 H2O → benzoate + acetate + NADH + 2 H+ epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis , t-anethole biosynthesis : trans-anol + acetate + NADP+ ← coumaryl acetate + NADPH ethanol degradation II , ethanol degradation IV , hypotaurine degradation , oxidative ethanol degradation III : acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → acetate + NADH + 2 H+ eugenol and isoeugenol biosynthesis : isoeugenol + acetate + NADP+ ← coniferyl acetate + NADPH eugenol + acetate + NADP+ ← coniferyl acetate + NADPH geranyl acetate biosynthesis : geranyl acetate + H2O → geraniol + acetate + H+ glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) : (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acetyl-CoA + 4 H+ → (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA + acetate heme biosynthesis III (from siroheme) : 12,18-didecarboxysiroheme + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2 H+ → Fe-coproporphyrin III + 2 5'-deoxyadenosine + 2 L-methionine + 2 acetate heparan sulfate biosynthesis (late stages) : [heparan sulfate]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + H2O → [heparan sulfate]-α-D-glucosamine + acetate + H+ indole-3-acetate degradation VIII (bacterial) : 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-indole-3-acetate + 2 H+ → 3-hydroxyindolin-2-one + acetate kanamycin biosynthesis , paromamine biosynthesis I , paromamine biosynthesis II : 2'-N-acetylparomamine + H2O → paromamine + acetate leucine degradation II : β-ketoisocaproate + H2O → isobutyrate + acetate + H+ lipid IVA biosynthesis : UDP-3-O-[(3R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + H2O → UDP-3-O-(3-hydroxymyristoyl)-α-D-glucosamine + acetate lupinate biosynthesis : trans-zeatin + O-acetyl-L-serine → acetate + lupinate + H+ lysine biosynthesis II : N-acetyl-L,L-2,6-diaminopimelate + H2O → L,L-diaminopimelate + acetate lysine degradation III : 5-acetamidovalerate + H2O → 5-aminopentanoate + acetate malonate degradation I (biotin-independent) , malonate degradation II (biotin-dependent) : an acetyl-[holo malonate decarboxylase acyl-carrier protein] + malonate → a malonyl-[holo malonate decarboxylase acyl-carrier protein] + acetate melatonin degradation II : melatonin + H2O → 5-methoxytryptamine + acetate + H+ mimosine biosynthesis : O-acetyl-L-serine + 3,4-dihydroxypyridin → (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-4-oxo-4h-pyridin-1-yl)propanoate + acetate + 2 H+ morphine biosynthesis : 7-O-acetylsalutaridinol → thebaine + acetate + H+ mycothiol biosynthesis : 1-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1D-myo-inositol + H2O → 1-(2-amino-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-1D-myo-inositol + acetate NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH cytosolic interconversion (yeast) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VIII : acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → acetate + NADPH + 2 H+ neomycin biosynthesis : 2'''-acetyl-6'''-deamino-6'''-hydroxyneomycin C + H2O → 6'''-deamino-6'''-hydroxyneomycin C + acetate orcinol degradation : acetylpyruvate + H2O → pyruvate + acetate + H+ 2,4,6-trioxoheptanoate + H2O → acetylpyruvate + acetate + H+ oxalate biosynthesis : oxaloacetate + H2O → oxalate + acetate + H+ paromomycin biosynthesis : 2'''-acetyl-6'''-hydroxyparomomycin + H2O → 6'''-hydroxyparomomycin + acetate phenylethyl acetate biosynthesis : phenylethyl acetate + H2O → 2-phenylethanol + acetate + H+ phenylmercury acetate degradation : mercuriphenyl acetate + H+ → Hg2+ + benzene + acetate phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis : N-acetyl-phophinothricin tripeptide + H2O → phophinothricin tripeptide + acetate polyvinyl alcohol degradation : (oxidized polyvinyl alcohol)n + H2O → (oxidized polyvinyl alcohol)n-1 + acetate puromycin biosynthesis : N-acetylpuromycin + H2O → puromycin + acetate putrescine degradation III : 4-acetamidobutanoate + H2O → 4-aminobutanoate + acetate pyruvate oxidation pathway , pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer , pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer : pyruvate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane] rhamnogalacturonan type I degradation I (fungi) : a 2-O-acetylated rhamnogalacturonan I + n H2O → a rhamnogalacturonan type I + n acetate a 3-O-acetylated rhamnogalacturonan I + n H2O → a rhamnogalacturonan type I + n acetate S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation II : O-acetyl-L-homoserine + methanethiol → L-methionine + acetate + H+ seleno-amino acid biosynthesis : O-acetyl-L-serine + hydrogen selenide → L-selenocysteine + acetate + H+ sophorolipid degradation : a sophorosyloxyfatty acid 6',6''-diacetate + H2O → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + acetate + H+ a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + H2O → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid + acetate + H+ tetramethylpyrazine degradation : N-(3-hydroxybutan-2-yl)acetamide + H2O → 3-amino-2-butanol + acetate versicolorin B biosynthesis : versiconol acetate + H2O → versiconol + acetate versiconal hemiacetal acetate + H2O → versiconal + acetate + H+ vitamin B6 degradation : 2-(acetamidomethylene)succinate + H+ + 2 H2O → ammonium + CO2 + succinate semialdehyde + acetate willardiine and isowillardiine biosynthesis : uracil + O-acetyl-L-serine → L-willardiine + acetate + H+ O-acetyl-L-serine + uracil → L-isowillardiine + acetate + H+ Not in pathways: aspirin + H2O → acetate + salicylate + H+ cephalosporin-C + H2O → acetate + deacetylcephalosporin-C + H+ 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate + H2O → acetate + 4-methylumbelliferone + H+ 5-(3,4-diacetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene + H2O → acetate + 5-(3-hydroxy-4-acetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene + H+ 6-acetyl-D-glucose + H2O → acetate + β-D-glucose + H+ acetylcholine + H2O → acetate + choline + H+ 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate + H2O → 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + acetate + H+ 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + H2O → 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate + acetate + H+ 5-(4-acetoxybut-1-ynyl)-2-2'-bithiophene + H2O → acetate + 5-(4-hydroxybut-1-ynyl)-2,2'-bithiophene + H+ 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol + H2O → acetate + 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerol + H+ acetaldehyde + oxygen + H2O → acetate + hydrogen peroxide + H+ (S)-lactate + oxygen → acetate + CO2 + H2O acetylacetone + oxygen → acetate + methylglyoxal + H+ acetylxylan + n H2O → xylan + n acetate a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O → acetate + a 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+ 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone + NADPH + oxygen → androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + acetate + NADP+ + H2O N-acetyl-O-acetylneuraminate + H2O → N-acetylneuraminate + acetate + H+ N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminate + H2O → N-acetylneuraminate + acetate + H+ a phenyl acetate + H2O → a phenol + acetate + H+ acetyl-CoA + H2O → acetate + coenzyme A + H+ an acetic ester + H2O → an alcohol + acetate + H+ N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate + H2O → N-acetylneuraminate + acetate + H+ citrate → acetate + oxaloacetate N-acetyl-α-D-galactosalaminyl-[glycoprotein] + H2O → α-D-galactosamine-[glycoprotein] + acetate 3,3'-thiodipropionate degradation : 3-sulfinopropionate + an acyl-CoA → 3-sulfinopropanoyl-CoA + a carboxylate dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation II (cleavage) : dimethylsulfoniopropanoate + an acyl-CoA → dimethylsulfoniopropioyl-CoA + a carboxylate NAD/NADP-NADH/NADPH mitochondrial interconversion (yeast) : an aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADPH + 2 H+ an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ phosphatidylcholine resynthesis via glycerophosphocholine : a phosphatidylcholine + 2 H2O → sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2 a carboxylate + 2 H+ an acyl-CoA + H2O → a carboxylate + coenzyme A + H+ an L-1-phosphatidyl-inositol + H2O → 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-D-myo-inositol + a carboxylate + H+ a carboxylic ester + H2O → an alcohol + a carboxylate + H+ an aldehyde + oxygen + H2O → a carboxylate + hydrogen peroxide + H+ a 1-lysophosphatidylcholine[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space]a carboxylate[periplasmic space] + sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space] an aldehyde + FMNH2 + oxygen → hν + a carboxylate + FMN + H2O + 2 H+ an acylcholine + H2O → choline + a carboxylate + H+ a 1,2-diacyl-3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + 2 H2O → 2 a carboxylate + 3-β-D-galactosyl-sn-glycerol + 2 H+ an acyl phosphate + H2O → a carboxylate + phosphate + H+ an S-acylglutathione + H2O → a carboxylate + glutathione an N-acyl-L-aspartate + H2O → L-aspartate + a carboxylate

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) :
acetyl-CoA + (S)-lactate ↔ acetate + (S)-lactoyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + (R)-lactate ↔ acetate + (R)-lactoyl-CoA

2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis , pyruvate fermentation to propionate II (acrylate pathway) :
acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA

4-aminobutyrate degradation V , acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II , glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , acetylene degradation , Bifidobacterium shunt , lysine fermentation to acetate and butyrate , methanogenesis from acetate , mixed acid fermentation , purine nucleobases degradation I (anaerobic) , purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate II , pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV , superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) :
ATP + acetate ↔ ADP + acetyl phosphate

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II , pyruvate fermentation to acetate III :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA III (succinate) , anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) :
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) , pyruvate fermentation to acetone :
acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA

chitin degradation I (archaea) :
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O ↔ D-glucosamine + acetate

cysteine biosynthesis I :
O-acetyl-L-serine + hydrogen sulfide ↔ L-cysteine + acetate + H+

gallate degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ 3-hydroxy-5- oxohexanoyl-CoA + acetate
ATP + acetate ↔ ADP + acetyl phosphate
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA

glutamate degradation VI (to pyruvate) :
(S)-citramalate ↔ pyruvate + acetate

homocysteine and cysteine interconversion :
O-acetyl-L-homoserine + L-cysteine ↔ L-cystathionine + acetate + H+

homocysteine biosynthesis :
O-acetyl-L-homoserine + hydrogen sulfide ↔ L-homocysteine + acetate + H+

ornithine biosynthesis :
N-acetyl-L-ornithine + H2O ↔ L-ornithine + acetate

succinate fermentation to butyrate :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

Not in pathways:
5-acetamidovalerate + 2-oxoglutarate + H2O ↔ L-glutamate + glutarate semialdehyde + acetate
glutaconate + acetyl-CoA ↔ (E)-glutaconyl-CoA + acetate
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetate ↔ a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + acetyl-CoA

sphingolipid recycling and degradation (yeast) :
a dihydroceramide + H2O ↔ sphinganine + a carboxylate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

glycolate degradation II :
6 glycolate + H+ = acetate + 2 succinate + 2 CO2 + 4 H2O

phosphonoacetate degradation :
phosphonoacetate + H2O = acetate + phosphate + H+

Not in pathways:
N-Acetyl-β-alanine + H2O = β-alanine + acetate
N-acetylputrescine + H2O = putrescine + acetate
N8-acetylspermidine + H2O = spermidine + acetate
(S)-citramalate + acetyl-CoA = (3S)-citramalyl-CoA + acetate
malonate + acetyl-CoA = malonyl-CoA + acetate
L-ascorbate + acetyl phosphate = 2-phospho-L-ascorbate + acetate + H+
O-acetyl-L-serine + thiosulfate = S-sulfo-L-cysteine + acetate + H+
3-oxo-2-(cis-2'-pentenyl)-cyclopentane-1-octanoate + 3 oxygen = (+)-7-iso-jasmonate + 3 acetate + 3 H+
4-acetamidobutanoyl-CoA + H2O = 4-aminobutanoyl-coA + acetate
N-acetylphenylethylamine + H2O = acetate + 2-phenylethylamine
5-hydroxypentanoate + acetyl-CoA = 5-hydroxypentanoyl-CoA + acetate
acetol + NADPH + oxygen = acetate + formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + H2O = partially N-deacetylated poly-β-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + acetate + H+
an N-acetylarylalkylamine + H2O = acetate + an arylalkylamine + H+
N,N'-diacetylchitobiose + H2O = N-monoacetylchitobiose + acetate
N-monoacetylchitobiose + H2O = chitobiose + acetate
chitotriose + H2O = N,N''-diacetylchitotriose + acetate
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + H2O = 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetate
N-acetyl-L-aspartate + H2O = L-aspartate + acetate
an O-acetyl-ADP-ribose + H2O = ADP-D-ribose + acetate
acetyl-CoA + citrate = acetate + (3S)-citryl-CoA
malonate + H+ = acetate + CO2
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
a peptidoglycan + H2O = a deacetylated peptidoglycan + acetate
a 6-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol + H2O = acetate + 6-(α-D-glucosaminyl)-1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol
acetamide + H2O = acetate + ammonium
2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(acetamidomethylene)succinate + H+ + 2 H2O = 2-hydroxymethyl-4-oxobutanoate + acetate + CO2 + ammonium
a [histone]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + H2O = a [histone]-L-lysine + acetate
a mercapturate + H2O = an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + acetate
O-acetyl-L-serine + isoxazolin-5-one = 3-(5-oxoisoxazolin-2-yl)-L-alanine + acetate + H+
O-acetyl-L-serine + isoxazolin-5-one = 3-(5-oxoisoxazolin-4-yl)-L-alanine + acetate + H+
pentanoyl-CoA + acetate = pentanoate + acetyl-CoA
indole + acetate = indole-3-acetate + 2 H+
citramalate lyase, inactive + acetate + ATP = citramalate lyase, active + AMP + diphosphate
acetate + diphosphate = acetyl phosphate + phosphate


a monocarboxylic-acid-amide + H2O = a monocarboxylate + ammonium


eugenol + a carboxylate + NADP+ = a coniferyl ester + NADPH
a penicillin + H2O = 6-aminopenicillanate + a carboxylate
an aldehyde[periplasmic space] + FAD[periplasmic space] + H2O[periplasmic space] = a carboxylate[periplasmic space] + FADH2[periplasmic space]
an aldehyde + pyrroloquinoline quinone + H2O = a carboxylate + pyrroloquinoline quinol + H+
a nitrile + 2 H2O = a carboxylate + ammonium
an aliphatic nitrile + 2 H2O = a carboxylate + ammonium
an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone + H2O = L-homoserine lactone + a carboxylate
an aldehyde + an oxidized electron acceptor + H2O = a carboxylate + a reduced electron acceptor + H+
an N-acylated aromatic-L-amino acid + H2O = a carboxylate + an aromatic L-amino acid
an N-acylated-D-amino acid + H2O = a D-amino acid + a carboxylate
an N-acylated aliphatic-L-amino acid + H2O = a carboxylate + an aliphatic L-amino acid
a D-hexose + an acyl phosphate = a D-hexose-phosphate + a carboxylate
an aldehyde + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O = a carboxylate + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + 3 H+
an aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O = a carboxylate + NAD(P)H + 2 H+
an N-acyl-D-glutamate + H2O = a carboxylate + D-glutamate
an anilide + H2O = aniline + a carboxylate + H+
a 5'-acylphosphoadenosine + H2O = a carboxylate + AMP + 2 H+
a 3-acylpyruvate + H2O = a carboxylate + pyruvate + H+
an N6acyl-L-lysine + H2O = a carboxylate + L-lysine
an N-acyl-D-aspartate + H2O = a carboxylate + D-aspartate

In Transport reactions:
acetate[cytosol]acetate[periplasmic space] ,
acetate[periplasmic space]acetate[cytosol] ,
acetate[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space]acetate[cytosol] + H+[cytosol]

In Redox half-reactions:
acetate[in] + CO2[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e- → pyruvate[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes activated by acetate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: chondro-6-sulfatase [Yamagata68]

Enzymes inhibited by acetate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase [Souza97] , acetylornithine deacetylase [Comment 1] , 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase [Chaudhuri86] , cyanase [Little87, Comment 2] , protocatechuate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase [Bull81]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: α-dehydro-β-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase [Fish66] , thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [Alexander87] , glycine-sarcosine methyltransferase [Waditee03] , sarcosine-dimethylglycine methyltransferase [Waditee03]


References

Alexander87: Alexander K, Volini M (1987). "Properties of an Escherichia coli rhodanese." J Biol Chem 262(14);6595-604. PMID: 3553189

Bull81: Bull C, Ballou DP (1981). "Purification and properties of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida. A new iron to subunit stoichiometry." J Biol Chem 256(24);12673-80. PMID: 6273403

Chaudhuri86: Chaudhuri S, Lambert JM, McColl LA, Coggins JR (1986). "Purification and characterization of 3-dehydroquinase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1986;239(3);699-704. PMID: 2950851

Fish66: Fish D, Blumenthal H "2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase." Meth Enz 1966;9:529-534.

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Little87: Little RM, Anderson PM (1987). "Structural properties of cyanase. Denaturation, renaturation, and role of sulfhydryls and oligomeric structure in catalytic activity." J Biol Chem 1987;262(21);10120-6. PMID: 3301828

Souza97: Souza JM, Plumbridge JA, Calcagno ML (1997). "N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase from Escherichia coli: purification and molecular and kinetic characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 1997;340(2);338-46. PMID: 9143339

Waditee03: Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T (2003). "Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica." J Biol Chem 278(7);4932-42. PMID: 12466265

Yamagata68: Yamagata T, Saito H, Habuchi O, Suzuki S (1968). "Purification and properties of bacterial chondroitinases and chondrosulfatases." J Biol Chem 243(7);1523-35. PMID: 5647268


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Mon Nov 24, 2014, biocyc14.