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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
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MetaCyc Compound: acetyl-CoA

Synonyms: acetyl coenzyme-A, ac-CoA, acetylcoenzyme-A, acetyl-S-CoA, ac-S-CoA

Superclasses: an ester a thioester a coenzyme A-activated compound

Chemical Formula: C23H34N7O17P3S

Molecular Weight: 805.54 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 809.1257730519 Daltons

SMILES: CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)C(O)C(C)(C)COP(=O)(OP(=O)(OCC1(C(OP([O-])(=O)[O-])C(O)C(O1)N3(C2(=C(C(N)=NC=N2)N=C3))))[O-])[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/p-4/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-J

Unification Links: CAS:72-89-9 , ChEBI:57288 , HMDB:HMDB01206 , IAF1260:33558 , KEGG:C00024 , KNApSAcK:C00007259 , MetaboLights:MTBLC57288 , PubChem:45266541 , UMBBD-Compounds:c0031

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -506.8639 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis :
trans-coutarate + acetyl-CoA → 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate + coenzyme A

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , glyoxylate assimilation , jadomycin biosynthesis , octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) :
ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

3-methylbutanol biosynthesis , leucine biosynthesis :
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

4-aminobutyrate degradation V , succinate fermentation to butyrate :
4-hydroxybutanoate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetate

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification :
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A + H+

5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis :
ardeemin + acetyl-CoA → 5-N-acetylardeemin + coenzyme A

6-methoxymellein biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 5 H+ → 6-hydroxymellein + 4 CO2 + 5 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O
acetyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ → triacetate lactone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A

acetan biosynthesis :
β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A
β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A

acetylaszonalenin biosynthesis :
aszonalenin + acetyl-CoA → acetylaszonalenin + coenzyme A

aerobactin biosynthesis :
N6-Hydroxy-L-lysine + acetyl-CoAN6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine + coenzyme A

aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle :
2-oxo-5-methylthiopentanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(3'-methylthio)propylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-6-methylthiohexanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4'-methylthio)butylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-7-methylthioheptanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(5'-methylthio)pentylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-8-methylthiooctanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(6'-methylthio)hexylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-9-methylthiononanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(7'-methylthio)heptylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

aloesone biosynthesis I :
acetyl-CoA + 6 malonyl-CoA + 6 H+ → aloesone + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + H2O

α-cyclopiazonate biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+ → acetoacetyl-ACP + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

anhydromuropeptides recycling , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I :
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+

biotin-carboxyl carrier protein assembly :
ATP + acetyl-CoA + a carboxylated-biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + H2O → malonyl-CoA + a biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + ADP + phosphate + H+

chitin degradation to ethanol , glycolate and glyoxylate degradation II , L-arabinose degradation IV , xylose degradation IV :
acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I :
GDP-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+
GDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-N-acetylglucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + coenzyme A + H+

CMP-N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis :
UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → 4-O-acetyl-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine + coenzyme A

CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis :
UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + acetyl-CoA → UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + coenzyme A + H+

cocaine biosynthesis :
1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → 4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation + acetyl-CoA → 1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetyl-CoA

coenzyme B biosynthesis :
trihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxopimelate + acetyl-CoA + H2O
dihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxoadipate + acetyl-CoA + H2O

colchicine biosynthesis :
deacetylcolchicine + acetyl-CoA → colchicine + coenzyme A + H+

crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) :
crotonate + acetyl-CoA → crotonyl-CoA + acetate

cysteine biosynthesis I , D-cycloserine biosynthesis , seleno-amino acid biosynthesis :
L-serine + acetyl-CoAO-acetyl-L-serine + coenzyme A

desferrioxamine B biosynthesis :
N-hydroxycadaverine + acetyl-CoAN-hydroxy-N-acetylcadaverine + coenzyme A + H+

dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose → dTDP-3-acetamido-α-D-fucose + coenzyme A + H+

dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose biosynthesis :
dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + acetyl-CoA → dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + coenzyme A + H+

dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis :
dTDP-thomosamine + acetyl-CoA → dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine + coenzyme A + H+

dTDP-N-acetylviosamine biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + dTDP-viosamine → dTDP-N-acetylviosamine + coenzyme A + H+

eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis IV (bacteria) :
acetyl-CoA + 9 malonyl-CoA + 13 NADPH + 21 H+ → (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate + 9 CO2 + 10 coenzyme A + 13 NADP+ + 8 H2O

epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis :
4-coumaryl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → coumaryl acetate + coenzyme A

ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered) , glutamine biosynthesis III , itaconate biosynthesis , mixed acid fermentation , TCA cycle I (prokaryotic) , TCA cycle II (plants and fungi) , TCA cycle III (animals) , TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) , TCA cycle VIII (helicobacter) :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+

eugenol and isoeugenol biosynthesis :
coniferyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → coniferyl acetate + coenzyme A

fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I :
acetyl-CoA + a malonyl-[acp] + H+ → an acetoacetyl-[acp] + CO2 + coenzyme A
ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) :
acetyl-CoA + 2 H2O → glyoxylate + coenzyme A + 5 H+

FR-900098 and FR-33289 antibiotics biosynthesis :
CMP-5'-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate + acetyl-CoA → CMP-5'-3-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxy)aminopropylphosphonate + coenzyme A
3-phosphonopyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-phosphonomethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

fumigaclavine biosynthesis :
fumigaclavine B + acetyl-CoA → fumigaclavine A + coenzyme A

geranyl acetate biosynthesis :
geraniol + acetyl-CoA → geranyl acetate + coenzyme A

glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) :
(R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acetyl-CoA + 4 H+ → (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA + acetate

glutathione-mediated detoxification I :
an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + acetyl-CoA → a mercapturate + coenzyme A + H+

glyoxylate cycle :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

grixazone biosynthesis :
3-amino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA → 3-acetylamino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + coenzyme A + H+
3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate + acetyl-CoA → 3-acetylamino-4-hydroxybenzoate + coenzyme A

homomethionine biosynthesis :
2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(2'-methylthio)ethylmalic-acid + coenzyme A + H+

hypoglycin biosynthesis :
2-oxohexa-4,5-cyclopropyl-5-enoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 3-hydroxy-3-carboxy-4,5-cyclopropylhex-5-enoate + coenzyme A + H+

isoleucine biosynthesis II :
acetyl-CoA + pyruvate + H2O → (R)-citramalate + coenzyme A + H+

L-homophenylalanine biosynthesis :
2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-benzyl-2-hydroxybutanedioate + coenzyme A + H+

lovastatin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + 2-methylbutanoate polyketide synthase + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ → (S)-2-methylbutanoyl-[2-methylbutanoate polyketide synthase] + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + H2O
acetyl-CoA + 8 malonyl-CoA + lovastatin nonaketide synthase + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 11 NADPH + 18 H+ → dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 8 CO2 + 9 coenzyme A + 11 NADP+ + 6 H2O

lysine biosynthesis II :
acetyl-CoA + (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + H2O → L-2-acetamido-6-oxoheptanedioate + coenzyme A

lysine degradation III :
L-lysine + acetyl-CoAN6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+

methanofuran biosynthesis :
trans-homoaconitate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA
trans-homoaconitate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → pentane-1,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate + coenzyme A + H+

methylaspartate cycle :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

mithramycin biosynthesis :
a polyketide synthase containing an [acp] domain + acetyl-CoA + 9 malonyl-CoA + 5 NADPH + 5 H+ → 2-[4,5,7,10-tetrahydroxy-3-(3-oxobutanoyl)anthracen-2-yl]acetyl-[PKS-acp] + 9 CO2 + 10 coenzyme A + 5 NADP+ + 3 H2O

morphine biosynthesis :
salutaridinol + acetyl-CoA → 7-O-acetylsalutaridinol + coenzyme A

mycothiol biosynthesis :
desacetylmycothiol + acetyl-CoA → mycothiol + coenzyme A + H+

N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide biosynthesis :
2 L-glutamine + acetyl-CoAN-acetylglutaminylglutamine + coenzyme A + H2O + H+

oleandomycin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 6 (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + 6 NADPH + 12 H+ → 8,8a-deoxyoleandolide + 6 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + 6 NADP+ + H2O

patulin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 3 H+ → 6-methylsalicylate + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O

phenylethyl acetate biosynthesis :
2-phenylethanol + acetyl-CoA → phenylethyl acetate + coenzyme A

phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis :
phosphinopyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → phosphinomethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
demethyl-phosphinothricin + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl demethylphosphinothricin + coenzyme A + H+

plumbagin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 8 H+ + oxygen → naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid precursor + 6 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O

puromycin biosynthesis :
N6,N6,O-tridemethylpuromycin + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-N6,N6,O-tridemethylpuromycin + coenzyme A + H+

putrescine degradation III :
acetyl-CoA + putrescine → N-acetylputrescine + coenzyme A + H+

pyruvate fermentation to hexanol :
butanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → 3-oxohexanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A

rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis :
N4-hydroxy-1-aminopropane + acetyl-CoA → N4-acetyl-N4-hydroxy-1-aminopropane + coenzyme A

rifamycin B biosynthesis :
27-O-demethyl-25-O-desacetyl-rifamycin SV + acetyl-CoA → 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV + coenzyme A

salinosporamide A biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + chloroethylmalonyl-CoA + L-3-cyclohex-2'-enylalanine → salinosporamide A + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A + H+

serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + serotonin → N-acetyl-serotonin + coenzyme A + H+

sophorolipid biosynthesis :
a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + acetyl-CoA → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid 6',6''-diacetate + coenzyme A
a sophorosyloxyfatty acid + acetyl-CoA → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + coenzyme A

spermine and spermidine degradation I :
acetyl-CoA + spermine → N1-acetylspermine + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + spermidine → N1-acetylspermidine + coenzyme A + H+

taxol biosynthesis :
10-deacetylbaccatin III + acetyl-CoA → baccatin III + coenzyme A

TCA cycle IV (2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase) :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase) :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

traumatin and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + (3Z)-hex-3-en-ol → (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-yl acetate + coenzyme A

UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronate biosynthesis :
UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate + acetyl-CoA → UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate + coenzyme A + H+

UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine biosynthesis :
UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine + acetyl-CoA → UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine + coenzyme A + H+

UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis II , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis II :
D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+

vindoline and vinblastine biosynthesis :
17-O-deacetylvindoline + acetyl-CoA → vindoline + coenzyme A

volatile benzenoid biosynthesis I (ester formation) :
benzyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → benzyl acetate + coenzyme A

volatile esters biosynthesis (during fruit ripening) :
ethanol + acetyl-CoA → ethyl acetate + coenzyme A
n-butanol + acetyl-CoA → butyl acetate + coenzyme A

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(+)-camphor degradation , (-)-camphor degradation :
Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + H2O → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + H+

10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast) :
10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-cis-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-cis, 3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-cis-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
4-trans-3-oxo-undecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 2-trans-nonenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-trans-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-trans-3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-trans-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

3-oxoadipate degradation , benzoyl-CoA degradation I (aerobic) :
succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

3-phenylpropionate degradation , benzoate biosynthesis I (CoA-dependent, β-oxidative) , benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis , ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic) :
3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic) :
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-propanoyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA

4-ethylphenol degradation (anaerobic) :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) :
4-coumaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

4-methylcatechol degradation (ortho cleavage) :
methylsuccinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-methyl-3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA degradation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) :
9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis, 7-trans-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
5-cis, 7-trans-3-oxo-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-cis, 5-trans-dodecadienoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
5-trans-3-oxo-dodecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-trans-decenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA , chitin degradation to ethanol , ethanol degradation II , ethanol degradation IV , oxidative ethanol degradation III :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

acetoin degradation :
acetoin + coenzyme A + NAD+ → acetaldehyde + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis III (from citrate) , reductive TCA cycle I :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate ← citrate + ATP + coenzyme A

acrylate degradation :
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NAD(P)H

androstenedione degradation :
3-[(3aS,4S,5R,7aS)-5-hydroxy-7a-methyl-1-oxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA + H2O → 3-[(3aS,4S,5R,7aS)-5-hydroxy-7a-methyl-1-oxo-octahydro-1H-indene-4-carboxylate + acetyl-CoA

benzoate biosynthesis III (CoA-dependent, non-β-oxidative) :
3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA → benzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA

β-alanine degradation I , β-alanine degradation II , myo-inositol degradation I :
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

capsaicin biosynthesis , ferulate degradation :
4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA → acetyl-CoA + vanillin

cholesterol degradation to androstenedione I (cholesterol oxidase) , cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase) , sitosterol degradation to androstenedione :
3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3,22-dioxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A

cis-genanyl-CoA degradation :
7-methyl-3-oxooct-6-enoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 5-methylhex-4-enoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
5-methyl-3-oxo-4-hexenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

fatty acid β-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast) , fatty acid β-oxidation I , fatty acid β-oxidation II (peroxisome) , fatty acid β-oxidation VI (peroxisome) :
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetyl-CoA ↔ a 3-oxoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A

fatty acid salvage :
octanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxodecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A

gallate degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-hydroxy-5- oxohexanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

glyoxylate assimilation , itaconate degradation :
(3S)-citramalyl-CoA → pyruvate + acetyl-CoA

jasmonic acid biosynthesis :
jasmonoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC4-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A
OPC6-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC8-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A
OPC4-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC6-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A

ketogenesis , leucine degradation I , mevalonate degradation :
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → acetoacetate + acetyl-CoA

oleate β-oxidation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) :
oleoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 H+
2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + oxygen + H2O + H+ → 3-cis-dodecenoyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + acetyl-CoA + NADH

phenylacetate degradation I (aerobic) :
2,3-didehydroadipyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-5,6-didehydrosuberyl-CoA + coenzyme A
succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

Not in pathways:
pyruvate + coenzyme A + H+ + oxygen → CO2 + hydrogen peroxide + acetyl-CoA
malonyl-CoA + H+ → CO2 + acetyl-CoA

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , glutaryl-CoA degradation , ketolysis , polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis , pyruvate fermentation to butanol II :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) :
acetyl-CoA + (R)-lactate ↔ acetate + (R)-lactoyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + (S)-lactate ↔ acetate + (S)-lactoyl-CoA

1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis , photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis (engineered) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate V , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-oxopentenoate degradation , ethanol degradation I , threonine degradation IV , triethylamine degradation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis :
2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) :
(S)-malyl-CoA ↔ glyoxylate + acetyl-CoA

4-aminobutyrate degradation V , glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , sulfoacetaldehyde degradation I , sulfolactate degradation II :
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA III (succinate) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) :
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH

acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

acetylene degradation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis :
16-epivellosimine + acetyl-CoA ↔ vinorine + coenzyme A

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , ornithine biosynthesis :
L-glutamate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+

benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic) , benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

coenzyme B biosynthesis , lysine biosynthesis IV , lysine biosynthesis V :
2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2R)-homocitrate + coenzyme A + H+

crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) :
3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

ectoine biosynthesis :
L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + coenzyme A + H+

Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative) , gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , glutamate degradation VII (to butanoate) , incomplete reductive TCA cycle , pyruvate fermentation to acetate I , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII , reductive TCA cycle I :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+

ethylmalonyl pathway :
(S)-malyl-CoA ↔ glyoxylate + acetyl-CoA
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

fatty acid biosynthesis initiation II , superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis initiation (E. coli) :
acetyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] ↔ an acetyl-[acp] + coenzyme A

gallate degradation III (anaerobic) :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA
3-hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ 3-hydroxy-5- oxohexanoyl-CoA + acetate
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

glycerol degradation to butanol :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

heterolactic fermentation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

homocysteine biosynthesis :
L-homoserine + acetyl-CoAO-acetyl-L-homoserine + coenzyme A

isoleucine degradation I :
2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered) :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+

isopropanol biosynthesis :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

ketogenesis :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+

lysine fermentation to acetate and butyrate :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
(S)-5-amino-3-oxohexanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA + acetoacetate
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

methanogenesis from acetate :
acetyl-CoA + a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] ↔ carbon monoxide + a [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

mevalonate pathway I :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+

mevalonate pathway II (archaea) :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+

mevalonate pathway III (archaea) :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+

mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle :
L-carnitine + acetyl-CoAO-acetylcarnitine + coenzyme A

mixed acid fermentation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction) :
2-amino-4-oxopentanoate + coenzyme A ↔ D-alanine + acetyl-CoA

purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic) :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA :
acetyl-CoA + a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine ↔ a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-acetyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to acetate II :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to acetate III :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+

pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV :
formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to acetone :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA

pyruvate fermentation to butanoate :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to butanol I :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+

pyruvate fermentation to hexanol :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

pyruvate fermentation to propionate II (acrylate pathway) :
acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA

reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway :
acetyl-CoA + a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] ↔ carbon monoxide + a [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + coenzyme A

reductive monocarboxylic acid cycle :
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+
formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A

reductive TCA cycle II :
(3S)-citryl-CoA ↔ oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA
pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+

succinate fermentation to butyrate :
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA

superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

taxol biosynthesis :
taxa-4(20),11-dien-5α-ol + acetyl-CoA ↔ taxa-4(20),11-dien-5-α-yl acetate + coenzyme A

threonine degradation II :
glycine + acetyl-CoA ↔ 2-amino-3-oxobutanoate + coenzyme A + H+

Not in pathways:
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetate ↔ a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + acetyl-CoA
pyruvate + an oxidized flavodoxin + coenzyme A + H+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced flavodoxin
maltose + acetyl-CoA ↔ acetylmaltose + coenzyme A
glutaconate + acetyl-CoA ↔ (E)-glutaconyl-CoA + acetate
tetrahydrosarcinapterin + acetyl-CoA + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O ↔ 5-methyl-tetrahydrosarcinapterin + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + coenzyme A + 2 H+
a β-D-galactoside + acetyl-CoA ↔ a 6-acetyl-β-D-galactoside + coenzyme A

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

cephalosporin C biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + deacetylcephalosporin-C = cephalosporin-C + coenzyme A

fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast) :
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 4n H+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+

plumbagin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ + oxygen = hexaketide pyrone + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O

Not in pathways:
(1-hydroxycyclohexan-1-yl)acetyl-CoA = cyclohexanone + acetyl-CoA
2-[(1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl]acetyl-coA + coenzyme A + 2 H2O = acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA + 3 H+
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH
(3R)-citramalyl-CoA = pyruvate + acetyl-CoA
pentanoyl-CoA + acetate = pentanoate + acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ = 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 7 H+ = 5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O
acetyl-CoA + an aliphatic α,ω-diamine = an aliphatic N-acetyl-diamine + coenzyme A + H+
an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-9 + coenzyme A
a [histone]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = a [histone]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
gentamicin-C + acetyl-CoA = N3'-acetylgentamicin C + coenzyme A + H+
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = citrate + coenzyme A + H+
D-tryptophan + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+
N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + acetyl-CoA = N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
acetyl-CoA + GDP-α-D-perosamine = GDP-4-acetamido-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-mannose + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid = an N-acetyl-D-amino acid + coenzyme A + H+
an [α-tubuline]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = an [α-tubulin]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A
cinnamyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA = cinnamyl acetate + coenzyme A
3-cis-dodecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-keto-5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
hexanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
decanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxododecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
aminomethylphosphonate + acetyl-CoA = 2-N-acetamidomethylphosphonate + coenzyme A
lauroyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxo-myristoyl-CoA + coenzyme-A-group
L-methionine + acetyl-CoA = N-α-acetyl-L-methionine + coenzyme A + H+
an arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetylarylamine + coenzyme A
L-2-aminoadipate + acetyl-CoA = N2-acetyl-α-aminoadipate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + citrate = acetate + (3S)-citryl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide = S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA = 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + a peptide = an Nα-acetyl-peptide + coenzyme A
a monoterpenol + acetyl-CoA + H+ = a monoterpenol acetate ester + coenzyme A
D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+
α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 2n H+ = a long-chain fatty acid + n CO2 + (n+1) coenzyme A + 2n NADP+
acetyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA = β-ketovaleryl-CoA + coenzyme A
streptothricin F + acetyl-CoA = Nβ-acetylstreptothricin F + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ = acetoacetyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A
an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-7 + coenzyme A
phosphinothricin + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylphosphinothricin + coenzyme A + H+
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = (R)-2-Ethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
5-hydroxypentanoate + acetyl-CoA = 5-hydroxypentanoyl-CoA + acetate
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero 3-phosphate + coenzyme A
10-desacetyltaxuyunnanin C + acetyl-CoA = taxuyunnanin C + coenzyme A
13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate + acetyl-CoA = 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + coenzyme A
13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + acetyl-CoA = 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate + coenzyme A
L-phenylalanine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine + coenzyme A + H+
gentamicin C1a + acetyl-CoA = N2'-acetylgentamicin C1A + coenzyme A + H+
L-aspartate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-aspartate + coenzyme A + H+
chloramphenicol + acetyl-CoA = chloramphenicol 3-acetate + coenzyme A
a 2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + acetyl-CoA = an N3'-acetyl-2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + coenzyme A
kanamycin B + acetyl-CoA = N6'-acetylkanamycin-B + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + coenzyme A
an N-hydroxy-arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetoxyarylamine + coenzyme A
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
choline + acetyl-CoA = acetylcholine + coenzyme A
cortisol + acetyl-CoA = cortisol 21-acetate + coenzyme A
L-histidine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-histidine + coenzyme A + H+
hydrogen sulfide + acetyl-CoA = thioacetate + coenzyme A + H+
1H-imidazole + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylimidazole + coenzyme A
L-leucine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-leucine + coenzyme A + H+
cysteamine + acetyl-CoA = S-acetylthioethanolamine + coenzyme A
malonate + acetyl-CoA = malonyl-CoA + acetate
(S)-citramalate + acetyl-CoA = (3S)-citramalyl-CoA + acetate

Enzymes activated by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: citrate synthase , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [Izui81] , pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00] , malonyl-CoA:shisonin 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01b]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase [Chen99] , malic enzyme (NAD) [Hatch74] , NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Petitdemange77, Petitdemange76]

Enzymes inhibited by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase [Joshi71, Comment 1] , acetoacetyl-CoA transferase , pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Williams87] , butanol dehydrogenase [Comment 2] , tiglyl-CoA hydrase [Roberts78]

Inhibitor (Uncompetitive) of: formyl-CoA transferase [Toyota08]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoglucomutase [Duckworth73, Sanwal72]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring [Takeo67, Sanwal70] , malate dehydrogenase [Sanwal68, Bologna07]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase [Suarez83] , 2-amino-4-oxopentanoate thiolase [Jeng74, Comment 3] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , pyruvate dehydrogenase [Camp88] , malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01b] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04]


References

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Camp88: Camp, Pamela J, Miernyk, Jan A, Randall, Douglas D (1988). "Some kinetic and regulatory properties of the pea chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 933:269-275.

Chen99: Chen W, Komuniecki PR, Komuniecki R (1999). "Nematode pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases: role of the C-terminus in binding to the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochem J 339 ( Pt 1);103-9. PMID: 10085233

Duckworth73: Duckworth HW, Barber BH, Sanwal BD (1973). "The interaction of phosphoglucomutase with nucleotide inhibitors." J Biol Chem 248(4);1431-5. PMID: 4568817

Hatch74: Hatch MD, Mau SL, Kagawa T (1974). "Properties of leaf NAD malic enzyme from plants with C4 pathway photosynthesis." Arch Biochem Biophys 165(1);188-200. PMID: 4155265

Izui81: Izui K, Taguchi M, Morikawa M, Katsuki H (1981). "Regulation of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by multiple effectors in vivo. II. Kinetic studies with a reaction system containing physiological concentrations of ligands." J Biochem 90(5);1321-31. PMID: 7040354

Jeng74: Jeng IM, Somack R, Barker HA (1974). "Ornithine degradation in Clostridium sticklandii; pyridoxal phosphate and coenzyme A dependent thiolytic cleavage of 2-amino-4-ketopentanoate to alanine and acetyl coenzyme A." Biochemistry 1974;13(14);2898-903. PMID: 4407783

Joshi71: Joshi VC, Wakil SJ (1971). "Studies on the mechanism of fatty acid synthesis. XXVI. Purification and properties of malonyl-coenzyme A--acyl carrier protein transacylase of Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1971;143(2);493-505. PMID: 4934182

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mukhopadhyay00: Mukhopadhyay B, Purwantini E (2000). "Pyruvate carboxylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis: stabilization, rapid purification, molecular and biochemical characterization and regulation of the cellular level." Biochim Biophys Acta 1475(3);191-206. PMID: 10913817

Petitdemange76: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Raval R, Gay R (1976). "Regulation of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductases in clostridia of the butyric group." Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;421(2);334-7. PMID: 3218

Petitdemange77: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Bengone JM, Gay R (1977). "[Study of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activities in Clostridium acetobutylicum]." Can J Microbiol 1977;23(2);152-60. PMID: 13922

Roberts78: Roberts CM, Conrad RS, Sokatch JR (1978). "The role of enoyl-coa hydratase in the metabolism of isoleucine by Pseudomonas putida." Arch Microbiol 117(1);99-108. PMID: 678016

Sanwal68: Sanwal BD, Wright JA, Smando R (1968). "Allosteric control of the activity of malic enzyme in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 31(4);623-7. PMID: 4385340

Sanwal70: Sanwal BD (1970). "Regulatory characteristics of the diphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific malic enzyme of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1970;245(5);1212-6. PMID: 4313705

Sanwal72: Sanwal BD, Duckworth HW, Hollier ML (1972). "Regulation of phosphoglucomutase." Biochem J 128(1);26P-27P. PMID: 4563765

Stabler85: Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Allen RH (1985). "Isolation and characterization of DL-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A racemase from rat liver." Arch Biochem Biophys 241(1);252-64. PMID: 2862845

Suarez83: Suarez de Mata Z, Zarranz ME, Lizardo R, Saz HJ (1983). "2-Methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase from Ascaris muscle: purification and properties." Arch Biochem Biophys 226(1);84-93. PMID: 6357089

Suzuki01b: Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukui Y, Nakamura N, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi MA, Kusumi T, Nishino T (2001). "Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization." J Biol Chem 276(52);49013-9. PMID: 11598135

Suzuki04: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Takeo67: Takeo K, Murai T, Nagai J, Katsuki H (1967). "Allosteric activation of DPN-linked malic enzyme from Escherichia coli by aspartate." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1967;29(5);717-22. PMID: 4294855

Toyota08: Toyota CG, Berthold CL, Gruez A, Jonsson S, Lindqvist Y, Cambillau C, Richards NG (2008). "Differential substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase." J Bacteriol 190(7):2556-64. PMID: 18245280

Welch89: Welch RW, Rudolph FB, Papoutsakis ET (1989). "Purification and characterization of the NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824)." Arch Biochem Biophys 1989;273(2);309-18. PMID: 2673038

Williams87: Williams K, Lowe PN, Leadlay PF (1987). "Purification and characterization of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the anaerobic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis." Biochem J 246(2);529-36. PMID: 3500709


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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