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MetaCyc Compound: acetyl-CoA

Synonyms: acetyl coenzyme-A, ac-CoA, acetylcoenzyme-A, acetyl-S-CoA, ac-S-CoA

Superclasses: an ester a thioester a coenzyme A-activated compound

Chemical Formula: C23H34N7O17P3S

Molecular Weight: 805.54 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 809.1257730519 Daltons

acetyl-CoA compound structure

SMILES: CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)C(O)C(C)(C)COP(=O)(OP(=O)(OCC1(C(OP([O-])(=O)[O-])C(O)C(O1)N3(C2(=C(C(N)=NC=N2)N=C3))))[O-])[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/p-4/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-J

Unification Links: CAS:72-89-9 , ChEBI:57288 , HMDB:HMDB01206 , IAF1260:33558 , KEGG:C00024 , KNApSAcK:C00007259 , MetaboLights:MTBLC57288 , PubChem:45266541 , UMBBD-Compounds:c0031

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -506.8639 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis :
trans-coutarate + acetyl-CoA → 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate + coenzyme A

3-hydroxy-L-homotyrosine biosynthesis :
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , candicidin biosynthesis , glyoxylate assimilation , jadomycin biosynthesis , octanoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) :
ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+

3-methylbutanol biosynthesis , L-leucine biosynthesis :
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

4-aminobutanoate degradation V , succinate fermentation to butanoate :
4-hydroxybutanoate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetate

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification :
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A + H+

5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis :
ardeemin + acetyl-CoA → 5-N-acetylardeemin + coenzyme A

6-methoxymellein biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 5 H+ → 6-hydroxymellein + 4 CO2 + 5 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O
acetyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ → triacetate lactone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A

acetan biosynthesis :
β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A
β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A

acetylaszonalenin biosynthesis :
aszonalenin + acetyl-CoA → acetylaszonalenin + coenzyme A

aerobactin biosynthesis :
N6-Hydroxy-L-lysine + acetyl-CoAN6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine + coenzyme A

aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle :
2-oxo-5-methylthiopentanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(3'-methylthio)propylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-6-methylthiohexanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4'-methylthio)butylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-7-methylthioheptanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(5'-methylthio)pentylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-8-methylthiooctanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(6'-methylthio)hexylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
2-oxo-9-methylthiononanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(7'-methylthio)heptylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

aloesone biosynthesis I :
acetyl-CoA + 6 malonyl-CoA + 6 H+ → aloesone + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + H2O

α-cyclopiazonate biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+ → an acetoacetyl-[acp] + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

anditomin biosynthesis :
andilesin A + acetyl-CoA → acetyl-andilesin A + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine → 3,5-dimethylorsellinate + 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A

anhydromuropeptides recycling , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I :
D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+

apicidin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA → L-2-aminodecanoate

apicidin F biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA → 2-oxooctanoate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(+)-camphor degradation , (-)-camphor degradation :
Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H2O + H+ → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + an reduced unknown electron acceptor

(8E,10E)-dodeca-8,10-dienol biosynthesis :
lauroyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-myristoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A

10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast) :
10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-cis-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-cis, 3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-cis-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
4-trans-3-oxo-undecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 2-trans-nonenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-trans-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-trans-3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-trans-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

3-oxoadipate degradation , benzoyl-CoA degradation I (aerobic) :
succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

3-phenylpropanoate degradation , benzoate biosynthesis I (CoA-dependent, β-oxidative) , benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis , ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic) :
3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic) :
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-propanoyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA

4-ethylphenol degradation (anaerobic) :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) :
4-coumaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

4-methylcatechol degradation (ortho cleavage) :
(2S)-methylsuccinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-methyl-3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA degradation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) :
9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis, 7-trans-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
5-cis, 7-trans-3-oxo-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-cis, 5-trans-dodecadienoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate biosynthesis , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , glutaryl-CoA degradation , ketolysis , polyhydroxybutanoate biosynthesis , pyruvate fermentation to butanol II :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) :
acetyl-CoA + (R)-lactate ↔ acetate + (R)-lactoyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + (S)-lactate ↔ acetate + (S)-lactoyl-CoA

1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis , photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutanoate biosynthesis (engineered) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate V , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-oxopentenoate degradation , ethanol degradation I , L-threonine degradation IV , triethylamine degradation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

2-methylbutanoate biosynthesis :
2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) :
(S)-malyl-CoA ↔ glyoxylate + acetyl-CoA

4-aminobutanoate degradation V :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , sulfoacetaldehyde degradation I , sulfolactate degradation II :
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA III (succinate) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) :
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH

acetyl-CoA fermentation to butanoate II :
butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

acetylene degradation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis :
16-epivellosimine + acetyl-CoA ↔ vinorine + coenzyme A

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH
acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate

benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic) , benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

coenzyme B biosynthesis , L-lysine biosynthesis IV , L-lysine biosynthesis V :
2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2R)-homocitrate + coenzyme A + H+

crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) :
3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

cephalosporin C biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + deacetylcephalosporin-C = cephalosporin-C + coenzyme A

fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast) :
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 4n H+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+

Not in pathways:
(1-hydroxycyclohexan-1-yl)acetyl-CoA = cyclohexanone + acetyl-CoA
trans-homoaconitate + coenzyme A + H+ = 2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA
3-oxopropanoate + coenzyme A + NADP+ = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH
(3R)-citramalyl-CoA = pyruvate + acetyl-CoA
pentanoyl-CoA + acetate = pentanoate + acetyl-CoA
2-[(1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl]acetyl-coA + coenzyme A + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + 2 H2O = acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA + an reduced unknown electron acceptor + H+
acetyl-CoA + a [protein] N-terminal amino acid = an Nα-acetylated [protein] N-terminal amino acid + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + holothin = holomycin + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA = 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
blasticidin S + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylblasticidin S + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ = 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 7 H+ = 5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O
acetyl-CoA + an aliphatic α,ω-diamine = an aliphatic N-acetyl-diamine + coenzyme A + H+
an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-9 + coenzyme A
a [histone]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = a [histone]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
gentamicin C + acetyl-CoA = N3-acetylgentamicin C + coenzyme A + H+
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = citrate + coenzyme A + H+
D-tryptophan + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
acetyl-CoA + GDP-α-D-perosamine = GDP-4-acetamido-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-mannose + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid = an N-acetyl-D-amino acid + coenzyme A + H+
an [α-tubuline]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = an [α-tubulin]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A

Enzymes activated by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: citrate synthase , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [Izui81] , pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00] , malonyl-CoA:shisonin 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase [Chen99a] , malic enzyme (NAD) [Hatch74] , NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Petitdemange77, Petitdemange76]

Enzymes inhibited by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase [Joshi71, Comment 1] , acetoacetyl-CoA transferase , pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Williams87] , butanol dehydrogenase [Comment 2] , tiglyl-CoA hydrase [Roberts78]

Inhibitor (Uncompetitive) of: formyl-CoA transferase [Toyota08]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoglucomutase [Duckworth73, Sanwal72]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring [Takeo67, Sanwal70] , malate dehydrogenase [Sanwal68, Bologna07]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase [Suarez83] , 2-amino-4-oxopentanoate thiolase [Jeng74a, Comment 3] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , pyruvate dehydrogenase [Camp88] , malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: propionyl-CoA:succinate CoA transferase , CoA-dependent propionaldehyde dehydrogenase , acetyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:malonate [acyl-carrier protein] transferase , acyl-CoA hydrolase (short chain) , benzoyl-CoA:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase , 2-methylcitrate synthase , butyryl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase , methylmalonyl-CoA carboxyltransferase


References

Bologna07: Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2007). "Escherichia coli malic enzymes: two isoforms with substantial differences in kinetic properties, metabolic regulation, and structure." J Bacteriol 189(16);5937-46. PMID: 17557829

Camp88: Camp, Pamela J, Miernyk, Jan A, Randall, Douglas D (1988). "Some kinetic and regulatory properties of the pea chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 933:269-275.

Chen99a: Chen W, Komuniecki PR, Komuniecki R (1999). "Nematode pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases: role of the C-terminus in binding to the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochem J 339 ( Pt 1);103-9. PMID: 10085233

Duckworth73: Duckworth HW, Barber BH, Sanwal BD (1973). "The interaction of phosphoglucomutase with nucleotide inhibitors." J Biol Chem 248(4);1431-5. PMID: 4568817

Hatch74: Hatch MD, Mau SL, Kagawa T (1974). "Properties of leaf NAD malic enzyme from plants with C4 pathway photosynthesis." Arch Biochem Biophys 165(1);188-200. PMID: 4155265

Izui81: Izui K, Taguchi M, Morikawa M, Katsuki H (1981). "Regulation of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by multiple effectors in vivo. II. Kinetic studies with a reaction system containing physiological concentrations of ligands." J Biochem 90(5);1321-31. PMID: 7040354

Jeng74a: Jeng IM, Somack R, Barker HA (1974). "Ornithine degradation in Clostridium sticklandii; pyridoxal phosphate and coenzyme A dependent thiolytic cleavage of 2-amino-4-ketopentanoate to alanine and acetyl coenzyme A." Biochemistry 1974;13(14);2898-903. PMID: 4407783

Joshi71: Joshi VC, Wakil SJ (1971). "Studies on the mechanism of fatty acid synthesis. XXVI. Purification and properties of malonyl-coenzyme A--acyl carrier protein transacylase of Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1971;143(2);493-505. PMID: 4934182

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mukhopadhyay00: Mukhopadhyay B, Purwantini E (2000). "Pyruvate carboxylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis: stabilization, rapid purification, molecular and biochemical characterization and regulation of the cellular level." Biochim Biophys Acta 1475(3);191-206. PMID: 10913817

Petitdemange76: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Raval R, Gay R (1976). "Regulation of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductases in clostridia of the butyric group." Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;421(2);334-7. PMID: 3218

Petitdemange77: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Bengone JM, Gay R (1977). "[Study of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activities in Clostridium acetobutylicum]." Can J Microbiol 1977;23(2);152-60. PMID: 13922

Roberts78: Roberts CM, Conrad RS, Sokatch JR (1978). "The role of enoyl-coa hydratase in the metabolism of isoleucine by Pseudomonas putida." Arch Microbiol 117(1);99-108. PMID: 678016

Sanwal68: Sanwal BD, Wright JA, Smando R (1968). "Allosteric control of the activity of malic enzyme in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 31(4);623-7. PMID: 4385340

Sanwal70: Sanwal BD (1970). "Regulatory characteristics of the diphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific malic enzyme of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1970;245(5);1212-6. PMID: 4313705

Sanwal72: Sanwal BD, Duckworth HW, Hollier ML (1972). "Regulation of phosphoglucomutase." Biochem J 128(1);26P-27P. PMID: 4563765

Stabler85: Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Allen RH (1985). "Isolation and characterization of DL-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A racemase from rat liver." Arch Biochem Biophys 241(1);252-64. PMID: 2862845

Suarez83: Suarez de Mata Z, Zarranz ME, Lizardo R, Saz HJ (1983). "2-Methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase from Ascaris muscle: purification and properties." Arch Biochem Biophys 226(1);84-93. PMID: 6357089

Suzuki01: Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukui Y, Nakamura N, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi MA, Kusumi T, Nishino T (2001). "Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization." J Biol Chem 276(52);49013-9. PMID: 11598135

Suzuki04: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Takeo67: Takeo K, Murai T, Nagai J, Katsuki H (1967). "Allosteric activation of DPN-linked malic enzyme from Escherichia coli by aspartate." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1967;29(5);717-22. PMID: 4294855

Toyota08: Toyota CG, Berthold CL, Gruez A, Jonsson S, Lindqvist Y, Cambillau C, Richards NG (2008). "Differential substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase." J Bacteriol 190(7):2556-64. PMID: 18245280

Welch89: Welch RW, Rudolph FB, Papoutsakis ET (1989). "Purification and characterization of the NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824)." Arch Biochem Biophys 1989;273(2);309-18. PMID: 2673038

Williams87: Williams K, Lowe PN, Leadlay PF (1987). "Purification and characterization of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the anaerobic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis." Biochem J 246(2);529-36. PMID: 3500709


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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