Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: acetyl-CoA

Synonyms: acetyl coenzyme-A, ac-CoA, acetylcoenzyme-A, acetyl-S-CoA, ac-S-CoA

Superclasses: an ester a thioester a coenzyme A-activated compound

Chemical Formula: C23H34N7O17P3S

Molecular Weight: 805.54 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 809.1257730519 Daltons

SMILES: CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)C(O)C(C)(C)COP(=O)(OP(=O)(OCC1(C(OP([O-])(=O)[O-])C(O)C(O1)N3(C2(=C(C(N)=NC=N2)N=C3))))[O-])[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C23H38N7O17P3S/c1-12(31)51-7-6-25-14(32)4-5-26-21(35)18(34)23(2,3)9-44-50(41,42)47-49(39,40)43-8-13-17(46-48(36,37)38)16(33)22(45-13)30-11-29-15-19(24)27-10-28-20(15)30/h10-11,13,16-18,22,33-34H,4-9H2,1-3H3,(H,25,32)(H,26,35)(H,39,40)(H,41,42)(H2,24,27,28)(H2,36,37,38)/p-4/t13-,16-,17-,18+,22-/m1/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=ZSLZBFCDCINBPY-ZSJPKINUSA-J

Unification Links: CAS:72-89-9 , ChEBI:57288 , HMDB:HMDB01206 , IAF1260:33558 , KEGG:C00024 , KNApSAcK:C00007259 , MetaboLights:MTBLC57288 , PubChem:45266541 , UMBBD-Compounds:c0031

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -506.8639 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis : trans-coutarate + acetyl-CoA → 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate + coenzyme A 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , glyoxylate assimilation , jadomycin biosynthesis , octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) : ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+ 3-methylbutanol biosynthesis , leucine biosynthesis : 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 4-aminobutyrate degradation V , succinate fermentation to butyrate : 4-hydroxybutanoate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetate 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification : 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A + H+ 5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis : ardeemin + acetyl-CoA → 5-N-acetylardeemin + coenzyme A 6-methoxymellein biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 5 H+ → 6-hydroxymellein + 4 CO2 + 5 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O acetyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ → triacetate lactone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A acetan biosynthesis : β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A acetylaszonalenin biosynthesis : aszonalenin + acetyl-CoA → acetylaszonalenin + coenzyme A aerobactin biosynthesis : N6-Hydroxy-L-lysine + acetyl-CoAN6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine + coenzyme A aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle : 2-oxo-5-methylthiopentanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(3'-methylthio)propylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-6-methylthiohexanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4'-methylthio)butylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-7-methylthioheptanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(5'-methylthio)pentylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-8-methylthiooctanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(6'-methylthio)hexylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-9-methylthiononanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(7'-methylthio)heptylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ aloesone biosynthesis I : acetyl-CoA + 6 malonyl-CoA + 6 H+ → aloesone + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + H2O α-cyclopiazonate biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+ → acetoacetyl-ACP + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A anhydromuropeptides recycling , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I : D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+ biotin-carboxyl carrier protein assembly : ATP + acetyl-CoA + a carboxylated-biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + H2O → malonyl-CoA + a biotinylated [BCCP dimer] + ADP + phosphate + H+ chitin degradation to ethanol , glycolate and glyoxylate degradation II , L-arabinose degradation IV , xylose degradation IV : acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I : GDP-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+ GDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-N-acetylglucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + coenzyme A + H+ CMP-N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis : UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → 4-O-acetyl-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine + coenzyme A CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis : UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + acetyl-CoA → UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + coenzyme A + H+ cocaine biosynthesis : 1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → 4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A N-methyl-Δ1-pyrrolinium cation + acetyl-CoA → 1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetyl-CoA coenzyme B biosynthesis : trihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxopimelate + acetyl-CoA + H2O dihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxoadipate + acetyl-CoA + H2O colchicine biosynthesis : deacetylcolchicine + acetyl-CoA → colchicine + coenzyme A + H+ crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) : crotonate + acetyl-CoA → crotonyl-CoA + acetate cysteine biosynthesis I , D-cycloserine biosynthesis , seleno-amino acid biosynthesis : L-serine + acetyl-CoAO-acetyl-L-serine + coenzyme A desferrioxamine B biosynthesis : N-hydroxycadaverine + acetyl-CoAN-hydroxy-N-acetylcadaverine + coenzyme A + H+ dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactose biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-galactopyranose → dTDP-3-acetamido-α-D-fucose + coenzyme A + H+ dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucose biosynthesis : dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + acetyl-CoA → dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + coenzyme A + H+ dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine biosynthesis : dTDP-thomosamine + acetyl-CoA → dTDP-N-acetylthomosamine + coenzyme A + H+ dTDP-N-acetylviosamine biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + dTDP-viosamine → dTDP-N-acetylviosamine + coenzyme A + H+ eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis IV (bacteria) : acetyl-CoA + 9 malonyl-CoA + 13 NADPH + 21 H+ → (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate + 9 CO2 + 10 coenzyme A + 13 NADP+ + 8 H2O epoxypseudoisoeugenol-2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis : 4-coumaryl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → coumaryl acetate + coenzyme A ethylene biosynthesis V (engineered) , glutamine biosynthesis III , itaconate biosynthesis , mixed acid fermentation , TCA cycle I (prokaryotic) , TCA cycle II (plants and fungi) , TCA cycle III (animals) , TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) , TCA cycle VIII (helicobacter) : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+ eugenol and isoeugenol biosynthesis : coniferyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → coniferyl acetate + coenzyme A fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I : acetyl-CoA + a malonyl-[acp] + H+ → an acetoacetyl-[acp] + CO2 + coenzyme A ATP + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate → malonyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate + H+ formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) : acetyl-CoA + 2 H2O → glyoxylate + coenzyme A + 5 H+ FR-900098 and FR-33289 antibiotics biosynthesis : CMP-5'-N-hydroxy-3-aminopropylphosphonate + acetyl-CoA → CMP-5'-3-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxy)aminopropylphosphonate + coenzyme A 3-phosphonopyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-phosphonomethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ fumigaclavine biosynthesis : fumigaclavine B + acetyl-CoA → fumigaclavine A + coenzyme A geranyl acetate biosynthesis : geraniol + acetyl-CoA → geranyl acetate + coenzyme A glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) : (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate + acetyl-CoA + 4 H+ → (R)-2-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA + acetate glutathione-mediated detoxification I : an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + acetyl-CoA → a mercapturate + coenzyme A + H+ glyoxylate cycle : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ grixazone biosynthesis : 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA → 3-acetylamino-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + coenzyme A + H+ 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoate + acetyl-CoA → 3-acetylamino-4-hydroxybenzoate + coenzyme A homomethionine biosynthesis : 2-oxo-4-methylthiobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(2'-methylthio)ethylmalic-acid + coenzyme A + H+ hypoglycin biosynthesis : 2-oxohexa-4,5-cyclopropyl-5-enoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 3-hydroxy-3-carboxy-4,5-cyclopropylhex-5-enoate + coenzyme A + H+ isoleucine biosynthesis II : acetyl-CoA + pyruvate + H2O → (R)-citramalate + coenzyme A + H+ L-homophenylalanine biosynthesis : 2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-benzyl-2-hydroxybutanedioate + coenzyme A + H+ lovastatin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + 2-methylbutanoate polyketide synthase + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ → (S)-2-methylbutanoyl-[2-methylbutanoate polyketide synthase] + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + H2O acetyl-CoA + 8 malonyl-CoA + lovastatin nonaketide synthase + S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 11 NADPH + 18 H+ → dihydromonacolin L-[lovastatin nonaketide synthase] + S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 8 CO2 + 9 coenzyme A + 11 NADP+ + 6 H2O lysine biosynthesis II : acetyl-CoA + (S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + H2O → L-2-acetamido-6-oxoheptanedioate + coenzyme A lysine degradation III : L-lysine + acetyl-CoAN6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+ methanofuran biosynthesis : trans-homoaconitate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA trans-homoaconitate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → pentane-1,3,4,5-tetracarboxylate + coenzyme A + H+ methylaspartate cycle : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ mithramycin biosynthesis : a polyketide synthase containing an [acp] domain + acetyl-CoA + 9 malonyl-CoA + 5 NADPH + 5 H+ → 2-[4,5,7,10-tetrahydroxy-3-(3-oxobutanoyl)anthracen-2-yl]acetyl-[PKS-acp] + 9 CO2 + 10 coenzyme A + 5 NADP+ + 3 H2O morphine biosynthesis : salutaridinol + acetyl-CoA → 7-O-acetylsalutaridinol + coenzyme A mycothiol biosynthesis : desacetylmycothiol + acetyl-CoA → mycothiol + coenzyme A + H+ N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide biosynthesis : 2 L-glutamine + acetyl-CoAN-acetylglutaminylglutamine + coenzyme A + H2O + H+ oleandomycin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 6 (S)-methylmalonyl-CoA + 6 NADPH + 12 H+ → 8,8a-deoxyoleandolide + 6 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + 6 NADP+ + H2O patulin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 3 H+ → 6-methylsalicylate + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O phenylethyl acetate biosynthesis : 2-phenylethanol + acetyl-CoA → phenylethyl acetate + coenzyme A phosphinothricin tripeptide biosynthesis : phosphinopyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → phosphinomethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ demethyl-phosphinothricin + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl demethylphosphinothricin + coenzyme A + H+ plumbagin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 8 H+ + oxygen → naphthylisoquinoline alkaloid precursor + 6 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O puromycin biosynthesis : N6,N6,O-tridemethylpuromycin + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-N6,N6,O-tridemethylpuromycin + coenzyme A + H+ putrescine degradation III : acetyl-CoA + putrescine → N-acetylputrescine + coenzyme A + H+ pyruvate fermentation to hexanol : butanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → 3-oxohexanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A rhizobactin 1021 biosynthesis : N4-hydroxy-1-aminopropane + acetyl-CoA → N4-acetyl-N4-hydroxy-1-aminopropane + coenzyme A rifamycin B biosynthesis : 27-O-demethyl-25-O-desacetyl-rifamycin SV + acetyl-CoA → 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV + coenzyme A salinosporamide A biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + chloroethylmalonyl-CoA + L-3-cyclohex-2'-enylalanine → salinosporamide A + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A + H+ serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + serotonin → N-acetyl-serotonin + coenzyme A + H+ sophorolipid biosynthesis : a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + acetyl-CoA → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid 6',6''-diacetate + coenzyme A a sophorosyloxyfatty acid + acetyl-CoA → a sophorosyloxyfatty acid O(6'')-acetate + coenzyme A spermine and spermidine degradation I : acetyl-CoA + spermine → N1-acetylspermine + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + spermidine → N1-acetylspermidine + coenzyme A + H+ taxol biosynthesis : 10-deacetylbaccatin III + acetyl-CoA → baccatin III + coenzyme A TCA cycle IV (2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase) : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase) : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → citrate + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ traumatin and (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + (3Z)-hex-3-en-ol → (3Z)-hex-3-en-1-yl acetate + coenzyme A UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-mannuronate biosynthesis : UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate + acetyl-CoA → UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-glucuronate + coenzyme A + H+ UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine biosynthesis : UDP-N-acetylbacillosamine + acetyl-CoA → UDP-N,N'-diacetylbacillosamine + coenzyme A + H+ UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis II , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis II : D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+ vindoline and vinblastine biosynthesis : 17-O-deacetylvindoline + acetyl-CoA → vindoline + coenzyme A volatile benzenoid biosynthesis I (ester formation) : benzyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA → benzyl acetate + coenzyme A volatile esters biosynthesis (during fruit ripening) : ethanol + acetyl-CoA → ethyl acetate + coenzyme A n-butanol + acetyl-CoA → butyl acetate + coenzyme A

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(+)-camphor degradation , (-)-camphor degradation :
Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + H2O → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + H+

10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast) :
10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-cis-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-cis, 3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-cis-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
4-trans-3-oxo-undecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 2-trans-nonenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast) :
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-trans-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
6-trans-3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-trans-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

3-oxoadipate degradation , benzoyl-CoA degradation I (aerobic) :
succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

3-phenylpropionate degradation , benzoate biosynthesis I (CoA-dependent, β-oxidative) , benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis , ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic) :
3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic) :
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-propanoyl-CoA → 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA

4-ethylphenol degradation (anaerobic) :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) :
4-coumaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

4-methylcatechol degradation (ortho cleavage) :
methylsuccinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-methyl-3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA degradation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) :
9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis, 7-trans-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
5-cis, 7-trans-3-oxo-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-cis, 5-trans-dodecadienoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
5-trans-3-oxo-dodecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-trans-decenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA , chitin degradation to ethanol , ethanol degradation II , ethanol degradation IV , oxidative ethanol degradation III :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

acetoin degradation :
acetoin + coenzyme A + NAD+ → acetaldehyde + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis III (from citrate) , reductive TCA cycle I :
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate ← citrate + ATP + coenzyme A

acrylate degradation :
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NAD(P)H

androstenedione degradation :
3-[(3aS,4S,5R,7aS)-5-hydroxy-7a-methyl-1-oxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA + H2O → 3-[(3aS,4S,5R,7aS)-5-hydroxy-7a-methyl-1-oxo-octahydro-1H-indene-4-carboxylate + acetyl-CoA

benzoate biosynthesis III (CoA-dependent, non-β-oxidative) :
3-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA → benzaldehyde + acetyl-CoA

β-alanine degradation I , β-alanine degradation II , myo-inositol degradation I :
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

capsaicin biosynthesis , ferulate degradation :
4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-β-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA → acetyl-CoA + vanillin

cholesterol degradation to androstenedione I (cholesterol oxidase) , cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase) , sitosterol degradation to androstenedione :
3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3,22-dioxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A

cis-genanyl-CoA degradation :
7-methyl-3-oxooct-6-enoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 5-methylhex-4-enoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
5-methyl-3-oxo-4-hexenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

fatty acid β-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast) , fatty acid β-oxidation I , fatty acid β-oxidation II (peroxisome) , fatty acid β-oxidation VI (peroxisome) :
a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetyl-CoA ↔ a 3-oxoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A

fatty acid salvage :
octanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxodecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A

gallate degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-hydroxy-5- oxohexanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

glyoxylate assimilation , itaconate degradation :
(3S)-citramalyl-CoA → pyruvate + acetyl-CoA

jasmonic acid biosynthesis :
jasmonoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC4-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A
OPC6-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC8-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A
OPC4-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← OPC6-3-ketoacyl-CoA + coenzyme A

ketogenesis , leucine degradation I , mevalonate degradation :
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → acetoacetate + acetyl-CoA

oleate β-oxidation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) :
oleoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 H+
2-trans,5-cis-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + oxygen + H2O + H+ → 3-cis-dodecenoyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + acetyl-CoA + NADH

phenylacetate degradation I (aerobic) :
2,3-didehydroadipyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-5,6-didehydrosuberyl-CoA + coenzyme A
succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A

Not in pathways:
pyruvate + coenzyme A + H+ + oxygen → CO2 + hydrogen peroxide + acetyl-CoA
malonyl-CoA + H+ → CO2 + acetyl-CoA

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis , 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , glutaryl-CoA degradation , ketolysis , polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis , pyruvate fermentation to butanol II : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A 1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) : acetyl-CoA + (R)-lactate ↔ acetate + (R)-lactoyl-CoA acetyl-CoA + (S)-lactate ↔ acetate + (S)-lactoyl-CoA 1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis , photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis (engineered) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate V , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH 2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-oxopentenoate degradation , ethanol degradation I , threonine degradation IV , triethylamine degradation : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ 2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis : 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) : (S)-malyl-CoA ↔ glyoxylate + acetyl-CoA 4-aminobutyrate degradation V , glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate) : butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , sulfoacetaldehyde degradation I , sulfolactate degradation II : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II : acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate acetate formation from acetyl-CoA III (succinate) , TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers) : acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II : butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetylene degradation : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis : 16-epivellosimine + acetyl-CoA ↔ vinorine + coenzyme A anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , ornithine biosynthesis : L-glutamate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+ benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic) , benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic) : 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA coenzyme B biosynthesis , lysine biosynthesis IV , lysine biosynthesis V : 2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2R)-homocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) : 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ectoine biosynthesis : L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + acetyl-CoAN-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + coenzyme A + H+ Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative) , gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , glutamate degradation VII (to butanoate) , incomplete reductive TCA cycle , pyruvate fermentation to acetate I , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII , reductive TCA cycle I : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ ethylmalonyl pathway : (S)-malyl-CoA ↔ glyoxylate + acetyl-CoA 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A fatty acid biosynthesis initiation II , superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis initiation (E. coli) : acetyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] ↔ an acetyl-[acp] + coenzyme A gallate degradation III (anaerobic) : butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA 3-hydroxy-5-oxohexanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ 3-hydroxy-5- oxohexanoyl-CoA + acetate acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A glycerol degradation to butanol : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A heterolactic fermentation : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A homocysteine biosynthesis : L-homoserine + acetyl-CoAO-acetyl-L-homoserine + coenzyme A isoleucine degradation I : 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered) : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ isopropanol biosynthesis : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ketogenesis : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ lysine fermentation to acetate and butyrate : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (S)-5-amino-3-oxohexanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA + acetoacetate acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A methanogenesis from acetate : acetyl-CoA + a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] ↔ carbon monoxide + a [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A mevalonate pathway I : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ mevalonate pathway II (archaea) : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ mevalonate pathway III (archaea) : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle : L-carnitine + acetyl-CoAO-acetylcarnitine + coenzyme A mixed acid fermentation : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction) : 2-amino-4-oxopentanoate + coenzyme A ↔ D-alanine + acetyl-CoA purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic) : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA : acetyl-CoA + a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine ↔ a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-acetyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to acetate II : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to acetate III : acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV : formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to acetone : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + acetoacetate ↔ acetate + acetoacetyl-CoA pyruvate fermentation to butanoate : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to butanol I : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to ethanol I : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to ethanol III : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ pyruvate fermentation to hexanol : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to propionate II (acrylate pathway) : acetyl-CoA + propanoate ↔ acetate + propanoyl-CoA reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway : acetyl-CoA + a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] ↔ carbon monoxide + a [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + coenzyme A reductive monocarboxylic acid cycle : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A reductive TCA cycle II : (3S)-citryl-CoA ↔ oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ succinate fermentation to butyrate : acetate + succinyl-CoA ↔ acetyl-CoA + succinate butanoyl-CoA + acetate ↔ butanoate + acetyl-CoA superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A taxol biosynthesis : taxa-4(20),11-dien-5α-ol + acetyl-CoA ↔ taxa-4(20),11-dien-5-α-yl acetate + coenzyme A threonine degradation II : glycine + acetyl-CoA ↔ 2-amino-3-oxobutanoate + coenzyme A + H+ Not in pathways: a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + acetate ↔ a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + acetyl-CoA pyruvate + an oxidized flavodoxin + coenzyme A + H+acetyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced flavodoxin maltose + acetyl-CoA ↔ acetylmaltose + coenzyme A glutaconate + acetyl-CoA ↔ (E)-glutaconyl-CoA + acetate tetrahydrosarcinapterin + acetyl-CoA + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + H2O ↔ 5-methyl-tetrahydrosarcinapterin + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + coenzyme A + 2 H+ a β-D-galactoside + acetyl-CoA ↔ a 6-acetyl-β-D-galactoside + coenzyme A

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

cephalosporin C biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + deacetylcephalosporin-C = cephalosporin-C + coenzyme A

fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast) :
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 4n H+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+

plumbagin biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ + oxygen = hexaketide pyrone + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O

Not in pathways:
(1-hydroxycyclohexan-1-yl)acetyl-CoA = cyclohexanone + acetyl-CoA
2-[(1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl]acetyl-coA + coenzyme A + 2 H2O = acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA + 3 H+
malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH
(3R)-citramalyl-CoA = pyruvate + acetyl-CoA
pentanoyl-CoA + acetate = pentanoate + acetyl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ = 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O
acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 7 H+ = 5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O
acetyl-CoA + an aliphatic α,ω-diamine = an aliphatic N-acetyl-diamine + coenzyme A + H+
an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-9 + coenzyme A
a [histone]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = a [histone]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
gentamicin-C + acetyl-CoA = N3'-acetylgentamicin C + coenzyme A + H+
oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = citrate + coenzyme A + H+
D-tryptophan + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+
N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + acetyl-CoA = N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + oxalate = oxalyl-CoA + acetate
acetyl-CoA + GDP-α-D-perosamine = GDP-4-acetamido-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-mannose + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid = an N-acetyl-D-amino acid + coenzyme A + H+
an [α-tubuline]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = an [α-tubulin]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+
an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A
cinnamyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA = cinnamyl acetate + coenzyme A
3-cis-dodecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-keto-5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
hexanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
decanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxododecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
aminomethylphosphonate + acetyl-CoA = 2-N-acetamidomethylphosphonate + coenzyme A
lauroyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxo-myristoyl-CoA + coenzyme-A-group
L-methionine + acetyl-CoA = N-α-acetyl-L-methionine + coenzyme A + H+
an arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetylarylamine + coenzyme A
L-2-aminoadipate + acetyl-CoA = N2-acetyl-α-aminoadipate + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + citrate = acetate + (3S)-citryl-CoA
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide = S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA = 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + a peptide = an Nα-acetyl-peptide + coenzyme A
a monoterpenol + acetyl-CoA + H+ = a monoterpenol acetate ester + coenzyme A
D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+
α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 2n H+ = a long-chain fatty acid + n CO2 + (n+1) coenzyme A + 2n NADP+
acetyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA = β-ketovaleryl-CoA + coenzyme A
streptothricin F + acetyl-CoA = Nβ-acetylstreptothricin F + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ = acetoacetyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A
an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-7 + coenzyme A
phosphinothricin + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylphosphinothricin + coenzyme A + H+
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = (R)-2-Ethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+
5-hydroxypentanoate + acetyl-CoA = 5-hydroxypentanoyl-CoA + acetate
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero 3-phosphate + coenzyme A
10-desacetyltaxuyunnanin C + acetyl-CoA = taxuyunnanin C + coenzyme A
13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate + acetyl-CoA = 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + coenzyme A
13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + acetyl-CoA = 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate + coenzyme A
L-phenylalanine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine + coenzyme A + H+
gentamicin C1a + acetyl-CoA = N2'-acetylgentamicin C1A + coenzyme A + H+
L-aspartate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-aspartate + coenzyme A + H+
chloramphenicol + acetyl-CoA = chloramphenicol 3-acetate + coenzyme A
a 2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + acetyl-CoA = an N3'-acetyl-2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + coenzyme A
kanamycin B + acetyl-CoA = N6'-acetylkanamycin-B + coenzyme A + H+
acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + coenzyme A
an N-hydroxy-arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetoxyarylamine + coenzyme A
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
choline + acetyl-CoA = acetylcholine + coenzyme A
cortisol + acetyl-CoA = cortisol 21-acetate + coenzyme A
L-histidine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-histidine + coenzyme A + H+
hydrogen sulfide + acetyl-CoA = thioacetate + coenzyme A + H+
1H-imidazole + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylimidazole + coenzyme A
L-leucine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-leucine + coenzyme A + H+
cysteamine + acetyl-CoA = S-acetylthioethanolamine + coenzyme A
malonate + acetyl-CoA = malonyl-CoA + acetate
(S)-citramalate + acetyl-CoA = (3S)-citramalyl-CoA + acetate

Enzymes activated by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: citrate synthase , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [Izui81] , pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00a] , malonyl-CoA:shisonin 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase [Chen99] , malic enzyme (NAD) [Hatch74] , NADH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Petitdemange77, Petitdemange76]

Enzymes inhibited by acetyl-CoA, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase [Joshi71, Comment 1] , acetoacetyl-CoA transferase , pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Williams87a] , butanol dehydrogenase [Comment 2] , tiglyl-CoA hydrase [Roberts78]

Inhibitor (Uncompetitive) of: formyl-CoA transferase [Toyota08]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoglucomutase [Duckworth73, Sanwal72]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring [Takeo67, Sanwal70a] , malate dehydrogenase [Sanwal68, Bologna07]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 2-methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase [Suarez83] , 2-amino-4-oxopentanoate thiolase [Jeng74, Comment 3] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , pyruvate dehydrogenase [Camp88] , malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04]


References

Bologna07: Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2007). "Escherichia coli malic enzymes: two isoforms with substantial differences in kinetic properties, metabolic regulation, and structure." J Bacteriol 189(16);5937-46. PMID: 17557829

Camp88: Camp, Pamela J, Miernyk, Jan A, Randall, Douglas D (1988). "Some kinetic and regulatory properties of the pea chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 933:269-275.

Chen99: Chen W, Komuniecki PR, Komuniecki R (1999). "Nematode pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases: role of the C-terminus in binding to the dihydrolipoyl transacetylase core of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex." Biochem J 339 ( Pt 1);103-9. PMID: 10085233

Duckworth73: Duckworth HW, Barber BH, Sanwal BD (1973). "The interaction of phosphoglucomutase with nucleotide inhibitors." J Biol Chem 248(4);1431-5. PMID: 4568817

Hatch74: Hatch MD, Mau SL, Kagawa T (1974). "Properties of leaf NAD malic enzyme from plants with C4 pathway photosynthesis." Arch Biochem Biophys 165(1);188-200. PMID: 4155265

Izui81: Izui K, Taguchi M, Morikawa M, Katsuki H (1981). "Regulation of Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by multiple effectors in vivo. II. Kinetic studies with a reaction system containing physiological concentrations of ligands." J Biochem 90(5);1321-31. PMID: 7040354

Jeng74: Jeng IM, Somack R, Barker HA (1974). "Ornithine degradation in Clostridium sticklandii; pyridoxal phosphate and coenzyme A dependent thiolytic cleavage of 2-amino-4-ketopentanoate to alanine and acetyl coenzyme A." Biochemistry 1974;13(14);2898-903. PMID: 4407783

Joshi71: Joshi VC, Wakil SJ (1971). "Studies on the mechanism of fatty acid synthesis. XXVI. Purification and properties of malonyl-coenzyme A--acyl carrier protein transacylase of Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1971;143(2);493-505. PMID: 4934182

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Mukhopadhyay00a: Mukhopadhyay B, Purwantini E (2000). "Pyruvate carboxylase from Mycobacterium smegmatis: stabilization, rapid purification, molecular and biochemical characterization and regulation of the cellular level." Biochim Biophys Acta 1475(3);191-206. PMID: 10913817

Petitdemange76: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Raval R, Gay R (1976). "Regulation of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductases in clostridia of the butyric group." Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;421(2);334-7. PMID: 3218

Petitdemange77: Petitdemange H, Cherrier C, Bengone JM, Gay R (1977). "[Study of the NADH and NADPH-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activities in Clostridium acetobutylicum]." Can J Microbiol 1977;23(2);152-60. PMID: 13922

Roberts78: Roberts CM, Conrad RS, Sokatch JR (1978). "The role of enoyl-coa hydratase in the metabolism of isoleucine by Pseudomonas putida." Arch Microbiol 117(1);99-108. PMID: 678016

Sanwal68: Sanwal BD, Wright JA, Smando R (1968). "Allosteric control of the activity of malic enzyme in Escherichia coli." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 31(4);623-7. PMID: 4385340

Sanwal70a: Sanwal BD (1970). "Regulatory characteristics of the diphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific malic enzyme of Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1970;245(5);1212-6. PMID: 4313705

Sanwal72: Sanwal BD, Duckworth HW, Hollier ML (1972). "Regulation of phosphoglucomutase." Biochem J 128(1);26P-27P. PMID: 4563765

Stabler85: Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Allen RH (1985). "Isolation and characterization of DL-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A racemase from rat liver." Arch Biochem Biophys 241(1);252-64. PMID: 2862845

Suarez83: Suarez de Mata Z, Zarranz ME, Lizardo R, Saz HJ (1983). "2-Methylacetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase from Ascaris muscle: purification and properties." Arch Biochem Biophys 226(1);84-93. PMID: 6357089

Suzuki01: Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukui Y, Nakamura N, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi MA, Kusumi T, Nishino T (2001). "Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization." J Biol Chem 276(52);49013-9. PMID: 11598135

Suzuki04: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Takeo67: Takeo K, Murai T, Nagai J, Katsuki H (1967). "Allosteric activation of DPN-linked malic enzyme from Escherichia coli by aspartate." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1967;29(5);717-22. PMID: 4294855

Toyota08: Toyota CG, Berthold CL, Gruez A, Jonsson S, Lindqvist Y, Cambillau C, Richards NG (2008). "Differential substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase." J Bacteriol 190(7):2556-64. PMID: 18245280

Welch89: Welch RW, Rudolph FB, Papoutsakis ET (1989). "Purification and characterization of the NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase from Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824)." Arch Biochem Biophys 1989;273(2);309-18. PMID: 2673038

Williams87a: Williams K, Lowe PN, Leadlay PF (1987). "Purification and characterization of pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the anaerobic protozoon Trichomonas vaginalis." Biochem J 246(2);529-36. PMID: 3500709


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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