Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store
Updated BioCyc iOS App now
available in iTunes store

MetaCyc Compound: Cd2+

Synonyms: Cadmium, Cd+2, Cd++

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of: dichlorocadmium

Chemical Formula: Cd

Molecular Weight: 112.4 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 113.9033581 Daltons

SMILES: [Cd++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Cd/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:48775, ChemSpider:28935, HMDB:HMDB03638, IAF1260:1800088, KEGG:C01413, PubChem:31193

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

In Transport reactions:
Cd2+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O ↔ Cd2+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Cd2+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O ↔ Cd2+[vacuolar lumen] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Cd2+[cytosol] + H+[periplasm]Cd2+[periplasm] + H+[cytosol],

Enzymes activated by Cd2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: threonine dehydrogenase [Craig88], glutathione S-conjugate carboxypeptidase [Beck03], homophytochelatin synthase [Loscos06], homophytochelatin synthase [Oven02], DAHP synthase [Huang74]

Enzymes inhibited by Cd2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: α-galactosidase [Burstein71], D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73], L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73], deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], N-acetylglutamate synthase [Marvil77], acetylornithine deacetylase [JavidMajd00], 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Mukherjee87], glutamate decarboxylase A [Helmward89], glutamate decarboxylase B [Helmward89], NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11], 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase [Ray80], D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase [Meredith03, Lim66], ubiquinol oxidase (H+-transporting) [Kita84], fumarase A [Xu12a], cystathionine γ-lyase [Matsuo59], NAD+-dependent malate dehydrogenase [Gavva91], L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73], pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase [Tsuge82], pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase II [Tsuge82], chitin synthase [MartinezRucobo09], N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01], β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04], L-proline amide hydrolase [Komeda04a], 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07], 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Calderone02], 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Muraki03], β-keto-L-gulonic acid decarboxylase [WINKELMAN61], succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Chambliss92], porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94], glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93], L-lactate dehydrogenase [Wrba90a], 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase [Kimura75], (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase [Amann88], arginine deiminase [Hill67], 3-dehydroquinate synthase [Hasan78], DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85], D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73], 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01], hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [Middleton72], hydrogenase [Schneider79], naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase [Rakwal00], guanosine deaminase [Negishi94], 5'-GMP-nucleotidase [Bideon75], hydroxyproline 2-epimerase [Adams64], D-galactonate dehydratase [Szumilo81], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70], phosphohexose isomerase [Sangwan90], anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04], acetyl-CoA:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase [Lenz95] Inhibitor (Other types) of: 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine hydroxylase [Yu15], mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide esterase [Iwamura12], dimethylsulfide monooxygenase [Boden11], L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: diacylglycerol kinase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: NMN adenylyltransferase, methionine adenosyltransferase, adenylylsulfate kinase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: Zn2+:H+ antiporter, Zn2+-exporting ATPase


Adams64: Adams E, Norton IL (1964). "Purification and properties of inducible hydroxyproline 2-epimerase from Pseudomonas." J Biol Chem 239;1525-35. PMID: 14189888

Amann88: Amann M, Nagakura N, Zenk MH "Purification and properties of (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase from suspension-cultured cells of Berberis wilsoniae." Eur. J. Biochem., 1988, 175:17-25.

Beck03: Beck A, Lendzian K, Oven M, Christmann A, Grill E (2003). "Phytochelatin synthase catalyzes key step in turnover of glutathione conjugates." Phytochemistry 62(3);423-31. PMID: 12620355

Bideon75: Bideon GM (1975). "Purification and characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-regulated 5'-nucleotidase from potatoe." Biochim Biophys Acta 384(2);443-57. PMID: 235999

Boden11: Boden R, Borodina E, Wood AP, Kelly DP, Murrell JC, Schafer H (2011). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfide Monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans." J Bacteriol 193(5);1250-8. PMID: 21216999

Boulter73: Boulter JR, Gielow WO (1973). "Properties of D-arabinose isomerase purified from two strains of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 113(2);687-96. PMID: 4632320

Burstein71: Burstein C, Kepes A (1971). "The alpha-galactosidase from Escherichia coli K12." Biochim Biophys Acta 1971;230(1);52-63. PMID: 5543331

Calderone02: Calderone V, Trabucco M, Menin V, Negro A, Zanotti G (2002). "Cloning of human 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase in Escherichia coli: characterisation of the purified enzyme and its in vitro inhibition by Zn2+." Biochim Biophys Acta 1596(2);283-92. PMID: 12007609

Chambliss92: Chambliss KL, Gibson KM (1992). "Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from mammalian brain: subunit analysis using polyclonal antiserum." Int J Biochem 24(9);1493-9. PMID: 1426531

Craig88: Craig PA, Dekker EE (1988). "Cd2+ activation of L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12." Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;957(2);222-9. PMID: 3056527

Gavva91: Gavva SR, Harris BG, Weiss PM, Cook PF (1991). "Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate." Biochemistry 30(23);5764-9. PMID: 2043616

Goda01: Goda M, Hashimoto Y, Shimizu S, Kobayashi M (2001). "Discovery of a novel enzyme, isonitrile hydratase, involved in nitrogen-carbon triple bond cleavage." J Biol Chem 276(26);23480-5. PMID: 11306561

Graham01: Graham DE, Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2001). "Identification of coenzyme M biosynthetic 2-phosphosulfolactate phosphatase. A member of a new class of Mg(2+)-dependent acid phosphatases." Eur J Biochem 2001;268(19);5176-88. PMID: 11589710

HammerJespersen70: Hammer-Jespersen K, Munch-Petersen A (1970). "Phosphodeoxyribomutase from Escherichia coli. Purification and some properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;17(3);397-407. PMID: 4992818

Hasan78: Hasan N, Nester EW (1978). "Dehydroquinate synthase in Bacillus subtilis. An enzyme associated with chorismate synthase and flavin reductase." J Biol Chem 1978;253(14);4999-5004. PMID: 97286

Hassaninasab11: Hassaninasab A, Hashimoto Y, Tomita-Yokotani K, Kobayashi M (2011). "Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(16);6615-20. PMID: 21467222

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Hill67: Hill DL, Chambers P (1967). "The biosynthesis of proline by Tetrahymena pyriformis." Biochim Biophys Acta 148(2);435-47. PMID: 6075416

Huang74: Huang L, Nakatsukasa M, Nester E (1974). "Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis 168. Purification, characterization, and subunit structure of the bifunctional enzyme 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase-chorismate mutase." J Biol Chem 1974;249(14);4467-72. PMID: 4211044

Iwamura12: Iwamura A, Fukami T, Higuchi R, Nakajima M, Yokoi T (2012). "Human α/β hydrolase domain containing 10 (ABHD10) is responsible enzyme for deglucuronidation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide in liver." J Biol Chem 287(12);9240-9. PMID: 22294686

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Jones94: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1994). "Purification and properties of porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Biochem J 299 ( Pt 3);895-902. PMID: 8192681

Kataoka97: Kataoka M, Wada M, Nishi K, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1997). "Purification and characterization of L-allo-threonine aldolase from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39." FEMS Microbiol Lett 151(2);245-8. PMID: 9228760

Kimura75: Kimura K (1975). "A new flavin enzyme catalyzing the reduction of dihydrodipicolinate in sporulating Bacillus subtilis I. Purification and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 77(2);405-13. PMID: 236291

Kita84: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Komeda04: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "A novel R-stereoselective amidase from Pseudomonas sp. MCI3434 acting on piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1580-90. PMID: 15066183

Komeda04a: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "S-stereoselective piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide hydrolase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603 is a novel L-amino acid amidase." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1465-75. PMID: 15066172

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lenz95: Lenz R, Zenk MH (1995). "Acetyl coenzyme A:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from papaver somniferum plant cell cultures. The enzyme catalyzing the formation of thebaine in morphine biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 270(52);31091-6. PMID: 8537369

Lim66: Lim R, Cohen SS (1966). "D-phosphoarabinoisomerase and D-ribulokinase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1966;241(19);4304-15. PMID: 5332197

Loscos06: Loscos J, Naya L, Ramos J, Clemente MR, Matamoros MA, Becana M (2006). "A reassessment of substrate specificity and activation of phytochelatin synthases from model plants by physiologically relevant metals." Plant Physiol 140(4);1213-21. PMID: 16489135

MartinezRucobo09: Martinez-Rucobo FW, Eckhardt-Strelau L, Terwisscha van Scheltinga AC (2009). "Yeast chitin synthase 2 activity is modulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation." Biochem J 417(2);547-54. PMID: 18823281

Marvil77: Marvil DK, Leisinger T (1977). "N-acetylglutamate synthase of Escherichia coli: purification, characterization, and molecular properties." J Biol Chem 1977;252(10);3295-303. PMID: 16890

Matsuo59: Matsuo, Y., Greenberg, D.M. (1959). "A crystalline enzyme that cleaves homoserine and cystathionine. IV. Mechanism of action, reversibility, and substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 234(3):516-9. PMID: 13641251

Meredith03: Meredith TC, Woodard RW (2003). "Escherichia coli YrbH is a D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase." J Biol Chem 278(35);32771-7. PMID: 12805358

Middleton72: Middleton B, Tubbs PK (1972). "The purification and some properties of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase from Baker's yeast." Biochem J 1972;126(1);27-34. PMID: 4561617

Mukherjee87: Mukherjee JJ, Dekker EE (1987). "Purification, properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of homogeneous Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme." J Biol Chem 1987;262(30);14441-7. PMID: 3117785

Muraki03: Muraki T, Taki M, Hasegawa Y, Iwaki H, Lau PC (2003). "Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(3);1564-72. PMID: 12620844

Negishi94: Negishi, Osamu, Ozawa, Tetsuo, Imagawa, Hiroshi (1994). "Guanosine deaminase and guanine deaminase from tea leaves." Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58(7): 1277-1281.

Oven02: Oven M, Page JE, Zenk MH, Kutchan TM (2002). "Molecular characterization of the homo-phytochelatin synthase of soybean Glycine max: relation to phytochelatin synthase." J Biol Chem 277(7);4747-54. PMID: 11706029

Park93: Park YS, Sweitzer TD, Dixon JE, Kent C (1993). "Expression, purification, and characterization of CTP:glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis." J Biol Chem 268(22);16648-54. PMID: 8393871

Pucci07: Pucci L, Perozzi S, Cimadamore F, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N (2007). "Tissue expression and biochemical characterization of human 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, a key enzyme in tryptophan catabolism." FEBS J 274(3);827-40. PMID: 17288562

Rakwal00: Rakwal R, Agrawal GK, Yonekura M, Kodama O (2000). "Naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the flavanone phytoalexin sakuranetin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Plant Science 155(2);213-221. PMID: 10814825

Ray80: Ray PH (1980). "Purification and characterization of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1980;141(2);635-44. PMID: 6988389

Reitz70: Reitz MS, Rodwell VW (1970). "Delta-aminovaleramidase of Pseudomonas putida." J Biol Chem 245(12);3091-6. PMID: 5432799

Sangwan90: Sangwan RS, Singh R (1990). "Characterization of amyloplastic phosphohexose isomerase from immature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm." Indian J Biochem Biophys 27(1);23-7. PMID: 2341161

Schneider79: Schneider K, Cammack R, Schlegel HG, Hall DO (1979). "The iron-sulphur centres of soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus." Biochim Biophys Acta 1979;578(2);445-61. PMID: 226163

Stabler85: Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Allen RH (1985). "Isolation and characterization of DL-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A racemase from rat liver." Arch Biochem Biophys 241(1);252-64. PMID: 2862845

Suzuki04: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Szumilo81: Szumilo T (1981). "Purification and properties of D-galactonate dehydratase from Mycobacterium butyricum." Biochim Biophys Acta 661(2);240-6. PMID: 7295736

Tsuge82: Tsuge H, Kuroda Y, Iwamoto A, Ohashi K (1982). "Partial purification and property of pyridoxine (pyridoxamine)-5'-phosphate oxidase isozymes from wheat seedlings." Arch Biochem Biophys 217(2);479-84. PMID: 7138019

WINKELMAN61: WINKELMAN J, ASHWELL G (1961). "Enzymic formation of L-xylulose from beeta-keto-L-gulonic acid." Biochim Biophys Acta 52;170-5. PMID: 14007506

Wrba90a: Wrba A, Jaenicke R, Huber R, Stetter KO (1990). "Lactate dehydrogenase from the extreme thermophile Thermotoga maritima." Eur J Biochem 1990;188(1);195-201. PMID: 2318202

Xu12a: Xu FF, Imlay JA (2012). "Silver(I), mercury(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) target exposed enzymic iron-sulfur clusters when they toxify Escherichia coli." Appl Environ Microbiol 78(10);3614-21. PMID: 22344668

Yu15: Yu H, Tang H, Zhu X, Li Y, Xu P (2015). "Molecular mechanism of nicotine degradation by a newly isolated strain, Ochrobactrum sp. strain SJY1." Appl Environ Microbiol 81(1);272-81. PMID: 25344232

Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by Pathway Tools version 19.5 (software by SRI International) on Sat Feb 13, 2016, biocyc13.