Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
BioCyc websites down
12/28 - 12/31
for maintenance.
twitter

MetaCyc Compound: Cd2+

Synonyms: Cadmium, Cd+2, Cd++

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Component of: dichlorocadmium

Chemical Formula: Cd

Molecular Weight: 112.4 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 113.9033581 Daltons

SMILES: [Cd++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Cd/q+2

InChIKey: InChIKey=WLZRMCYVCSSEQC-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Unification Links: ChEBI:48775 , ChemSpider:28935 , HMDB:HMDB03638 , IAF1260:1800088 , KEGG:C01413 , PubChem:31193

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

In Transport reactions:
Cd2+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O ↔ Cd2+[extracellular space] + ADP + phosphate + H+ ,
Cd2+[cytosol] + ATP + H2O ↔ Cd2+[vacuolar lumen] + ADP + phosphate + H+ ,
Cd2+[cytosol] + H+[periplasmic space]Cd2+[periplasmic space] + H+[cytosol] ,
Cd2+[periplasmic space]Cd2+[cytosol]

Enzymes activated by Cd2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: threonine dehydrogenase [Craig88] , glutathione S-conjugate carboxypeptidase [Beck03] , homophytochelatin synthase [Loscos06] , homophytochelatin synthase [Oven02] , DAHP synthase [Huang74]

Enzymes inhibited by Cd2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11] , 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase [Ray80] , D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase [Meredith03, Lim66] , deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70] , α-galactosidase [Burstein71] , D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73] , L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73] , N-acetylglutamate synthase [Marvil77] , acetylornithine deacetylase [JavidMajd00] , 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Mukherjee87] , glutamate decarboxylase A [Helmward89] , glutamate decarboxylase B [Helmward89] , cytochrome bo terminal oxidase [Kita84a] , fumarase A [Xu12] , cystathionine γ-lyase [Matsuo59] , NAD+-dependent malate dehydrogenase [Gavva91] , L-fucose isomerase [Boulter73] , pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase [Tsuge82] , pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase II [Tsuge82] , chitin synthase [MartinezRucobo09] , N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01] , β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04] , L-proline amide hydrolase [Komeda04a] , 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07] , 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Calderone02] , 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Muraki03] , β-keto-L-gulonic acid decarboxylase [WINKELMAN61] , succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Chambliss92] , porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94] , glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93] , L-lactate dehydrogenase [Wrba90] , 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase [Kimura75] , (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase [Amann88] , arginine deiminase [Hill67] , 3-dehydroquinate synthase [Hasan78] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , D-arabinose isomerase [Boulter73] , 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01] , hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [Middleton72] , hydrogenase [Schneider79] , naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase [Rakwal00] , guanosine deaminase [Negishi94] , 5'-GMP-nucleotidase [Bideon75] , hydroxyproline 2-epimerase [Adams64] , D-galactonate dehydratase [Szumilo81] , δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70] , phosphohexose isomerase [Sangwan90] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04] , acetyl-CoA:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase [Lenz95]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide esterase [Iwamura12] , dimethylsulfide monooxygenase [Boden11] , L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: diacylglycerol kinase


References

Adams64: Adams E, Norton IL (1964). "Purification and properties of inducible hydroxyproline 2-epimerase from Pseudomonas." J Biol Chem 239;1525-35. PMID: 14189888

Amann88: Amann M, Nagakura N, Zenk MH "Purification and properties of (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase from suspension-cultured cells of Berberis wilsoniae." Eur. J. Biochem., 1988, 175:17-25.

Beck03: Beck A, Lendzian K, Oven M, Christmann A, Grill E (2003). "Phytochelatin synthase catalyzes key step in turnover of glutathione conjugates." Phytochemistry 62(3);423-31. PMID: 12620355

Bideon75: Bideon GM (1975). "Purification and characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-regulated 5'-nucleotidase from potatoe." Biochim Biophys Acta 384(2);443-57. PMID: 235999

Boden11: Boden R, Borodina E, Wood AP, Kelly DP, Murrell JC, Schafer H (2011). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfide Monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans." J Bacteriol 193(5);1250-8. PMID: 21216999

Boulter73: Boulter JR, Gielow WO (1973). "Properties of D-arabinose isomerase purified from two strains of Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 113(2);687-96. PMID: 4632320

Burstein71: Burstein C, Kepes A (1971). "The alpha-galactosidase from Escherichia coli K12." Biochim Biophys Acta 1971;230(1);52-63. PMID: 5543331

Calderone02: Calderone V, Trabucco M, Menin V, Negro A, Zanotti G (2002). "Cloning of human 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase in Escherichia coli: characterisation of the purified enzyme and its in vitro inhibition by Zn2+." Biochim Biophys Acta 1596(2);283-92. PMID: 12007609

Chambliss92: Chambliss KL, Gibson KM (1992). "Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from mammalian brain: subunit analysis using polyclonal antiserum." Int J Biochem 24(9);1493-9. PMID: 1426531

Craig88: Craig PA, Dekker EE (1988). "Cd2+ activation of L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12." Biochim Biophys Acta 1988;957(2);222-9. PMID: 3056527

Gavva91: Gavva SR, Harris BG, Weiss PM, Cook PF (1991). "Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate." Biochemistry 30(23);5764-9. PMID: 2043616

Goda01: Goda M, Hashimoto Y, Shimizu S, Kobayashi M (2001). "Discovery of a novel enzyme, isonitrile hydratase, involved in nitrogen-carbon triple bond cleavage." J Biol Chem 276(26);23480-5. PMID: 11306561

Graham01: Graham DE, Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2001). "Identification of coenzyme M biosynthetic 2-phosphosulfolactate phosphatase. A member of a new class of Mg(2+)-dependent acid phosphatases." Eur J Biochem 2001;268(19);5176-88. PMID: 11589710

HammerJespersen70: Hammer-Jespersen K, Munch-Petersen A (1970). "Phosphodeoxyribomutase from Escherichia coli. Purification and some properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;17(3);397-407. PMID: 4992818

Hasan78: Hasan N, Nester EW (1978). "Dehydroquinate synthase in Bacillus subtilis. An enzyme associated with chorismate synthase and flavin reductase." J Biol Chem 1978;253(14);4999-5004. PMID: 97286

Hassaninasab11: Hassaninasab A, Hashimoto Y, Tomita-Yokotani K, Kobayashi M (2011). "Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(16);6615-20. PMID: 21467222

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Hill67: Hill DL, Chambers P (1967). "The biosynthesis of proline by Tetrahymena pyriformis." Biochim Biophys Acta 148(2);435-47. PMID: 6075416

Huang74: Huang L, Nakatsukasa M, Nester E (1974). "Regulation of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis 168. Purification, characterization, and subunit structure of the bifunctional enzyme 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase-chorismate mutase." J Biol Chem 1974;249(14);4467-72. PMID: 4211044

Iwamura12: Iwamura A, Fukami T, Higuchi R, Nakajima M, Yokoi T (2012). "Human α/β hydrolase domain containing 10 (ABHD10) is responsible enzyme for deglucuronidation of mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide in liver." J Biol Chem 287(12);9240-9. PMID: 22294686

JavidMajd00: Javid-Majd F, Blanchard JS (2000). "Mechanistic analysis of the argE-encoded N-acetylornithine deacetylase." Biochemistry 2000;39(6);1285-93. PMID: 10684608

Jones94: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1994). "Purification and properties of porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Biochem J 299 ( Pt 3);895-902. PMID: 8192681

Kataoka97: Kataoka M, Wada M, Nishi K, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1997). "Purification and characterization of L-allo-threonine aldolase from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39." FEMS Microbiol Lett 151(2);245-8. PMID: 9228760

Kimura75: Kimura K (1975). "A new flavin enzyme catalyzing the reduction of dihydrodipicolinate in sporulating Bacillus subtilis I. Purification and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 77(2);405-13. PMID: 236291

Kita84a: Kita K, Konishi K, Anraku Y (1984). "Terminal oxidases of Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. I. Purification and properties of cytochrome b562-o complex from cells in the early exponential phase of aerobic growth." J Biol Chem 1984;259(5);3368-74. PMID: 6365921

Komeda04: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "A novel R-stereoselective amidase from Pseudomonas sp. MCI3434 acting on piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1580-90. PMID: 15066183

Komeda04a: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "S-stereoselective piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide hydrolase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603 is a novel L-amino acid amidase." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1465-75. PMID: 15066172

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lenz95: Lenz R, Zenk MH (1995). "Acetyl coenzyme A:salutaridinol-7-O-acetyltransferase from papaver somniferum plant cell cultures. The enzyme catalyzing the formation of thebaine in morphine biosynthesis." J Biol Chem 270(52);31091-6. PMID: 8537369

Lim66: Lim R, Cohen SS (1966). "D-phosphoarabinoisomerase and D-ribulokinase in Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1966;241(19);4304-15. PMID: 5332197

Loscos06: Loscos J, Naya L, Ramos J, Clemente MR, Matamoros MA, Becana M (2006). "A reassessment of substrate specificity and activation of phytochelatin synthases from model plants by physiologically relevant metals." Plant Physiol 140(4);1213-21. PMID: 16489135

MartinezRucobo09: Martinez-Rucobo FW, Eckhardt-Strelau L, Terwisscha van Scheltinga AC (2009). "Yeast chitin synthase 2 activity is modulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation." Biochem J 417(2);547-54. PMID: 18823281

Marvil77: Marvil DK, Leisinger T (1977). "N-acetylglutamate synthase of Escherichia coli: purification, characterization, and molecular properties." J Biol Chem 1977;252(10);3295-303. PMID: 16890

Matsuo59: Matsuo, Y., Greenberg, D.M. (1959). "A crystalline enzyme that cleaves homoserine and cystathionine. IV. Mechanism of action, reversibility, and substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 234(3):516-9. PMID: 13641251

Meredith03: Meredith TC, Woodard RW (2003). "Escherichia coli YrbH is a D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase." J Biol Chem 278(35);32771-7. PMID: 12805358

Middleton72: Middleton B, Tubbs PK (1972). "The purification and some properties of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase from Baker's yeast." Biochem J 1972;126(1);27-34. PMID: 4561617

Mukherjee87: Mukherjee JJ, Dekker EE (1987). "Purification, properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of homogeneous Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme." J Biol Chem 1987;262(30);14441-7. PMID: 3117785

Muraki03: Muraki T, Taki M, Hasegawa Y, Iwaki H, Lau PC (2003). "Prokaryotic homologs of the eukaryotic 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase and 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde decarboxylase in the 2-nitrobenzoate degradation pathway of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(3);1564-72. PMID: 12620844

Negishi94: Negishi, Osamu, Ozawa, Tetsuo, Imagawa, Hiroshi (1994). "Guanosine deaminase and guanine deaminase from tea leaves." Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 58(7): 1277-1281.

Oven02: Oven M, Page JE, Zenk MH, Kutchan TM (2002). "Molecular characterization of the homo-phytochelatin synthase of soybean Glycine max: relation to phytochelatin synthase." J Biol Chem 277(7);4747-54. PMID: 11706029

Park93: Park YS, Sweitzer TD, Dixon JE, Kent C (1993). "Expression, purification, and characterization of CTP:glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis." J Biol Chem 268(22);16648-54. PMID: 8393871

Pucci07: Pucci L, Perozzi S, Cimadamore F, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N (2007). "Tissue expression and biochemical characterization of human 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase, a key enzyme in tryptophan catabolism." FEBS J 274(3);827-40. PMID: 17288562

Rakwal00: Rakwal R, Agrawal GK, Yonekura M, Kodama O (2000). "Naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the flavanone phytoalexin sakuranetin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Plant Science 155(2);213-221. PMID: 10814825

Ray80: Ray PH (1980). "Purification and characterization of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1980;141(2);635-44. PMID: 6988389

Reitz70: Reitz MS, Rodwell VW (1970). "Delta-aminovaleramidase of Pseudomonas putida." J Biol Chem 245(12);3091-6. PMID: 5432799

Sangwan90: Sangwan RS, Singh R (1990). "Characterization of amyloplastic phosphohexose isomerase from immature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm." Indian J Biochem Biophys 27(1);23-7. PMID: 2341161

Schneider79: Schneider K, Cammack R, Schlegel HG, Hall DO (1979). "The iron-sulphur centres of soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus." Biochim Biophys Acta 1979;578(2);445-61. PMID: 226163

Stabler85: Stabler SP, Marcell PD, Allen RH (1985). "Isolation and characterization of DL-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A racemase from rat liver." Arch Biochem Biophys 241(1);252-64. PMID: 2862845

Suzuki04: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Szumilo81: Szumilo T (1981). "Purification and properties of D-galactonate dehydratase from Mycobacterium butyricum." Biochim Biophys Acta 661(2);240-6. PMID: 7295736

Tsuge82: Tsuge H, Kuroda Y, Iwamoto A, Ohashi K (1982). "Partial purification and property of pyridoxine (pyridoxamine)-5'-phosphate oxidase isozymes from wheat seedlings." Arch Biochem Biophys 217(2);479-84. PMID: 7138019

WINKELMAN61: WINKELMAN J, ASHWELL G (1961). "Enzymic formation of L-xylulose from beeta-keto-L-gulonic acid." Biochim Biophys Acta 52;170-5. PMID: 14007506

Wrba90: Wrba A, Jaenicke R, Huber R, Stetter KO (1990). "Lactate dehydrogenase from the extreme thermophile Thermotoga maritima." Eur J Biochem 1990;188(1);195-201. PMID: 2318202

Xu12: Xu FF, Imlay JA (2012). "Silver(I), mercury(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) target exposed enzymic iron-sulfur clusters when they toxify Escherichia coli." Appl Environ Microbiol 78(10);3614-21. PMID: 22344668


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Dec 21, 2014, BIOCYC13B.