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MetaCyc Compound: coenzyme A

Synonyms: CoA, co-A-SH, co-enzyme-A, co-A, HS-CoA

Superclasses: a cofactor a prosthetic group

Summary:
Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous cofactor found in bacteria, plants, and animals. CoA participates in a large number of enzymatic reactions central to intermediary metabolism, including the oxidation of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Coenzyme A is the common acyl carrier in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and is required for a multitude of reactions for both biosynthetic and degradative pathways [Rubio06].

Chemical Formula: C21H32N7O16P3S

Molecular Weight: 763.5 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 767.1152083656 Daltons

coenzyme A compound structure

SMILES: CC(C)(C(O)C(=O)NCCC(=O)NCCS)COP(=O)(OP(=O)(OCC1(OC(C(C1OP([O-])(=O)[O-])O)N3(C2(=C(C(N)=NC=N2)N=C3))))[O-])[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C21H36N7O16P3S/c1-21(2,16(31)19(32)24-4-3-12(29)23-5-6-48)8-41-47(38,39)44-46(36,37)40-7-11-15(43-45(33,34)35)14(30)20(42-11)28-10-27-13-17(22)25-9-26-18(13)28/h9-11,14-16,20,30-31,48H,3-8H2,1-2H3,(H,23,29)(H,24,32)(H,36,37)(H,38,39)(H2,22,25,26)(H2,33,34,35)/p-4/t11-,14-,15-,16+,20-/m1/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=RGJOEKWQDUBAIZ-IBOSZNHHSA-J

Unification Links: CAS:85-61-0 , ChEBI:57287 , HMDB:HMDB01423 , IAF1260:33502 , KEGG:C00010 , KNApSAcK:C00007258 , MetaboLights:MTBLC57287 , PubChem:25113190 , Wikipedia:Coenzyme_a

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -493.56613 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

(+)-camphor degradation :
Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H2O + H+ → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + an reduced unknown electron acceptor
[(1R)-4,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

(-)-camphor degradation :
Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H2O + H+ → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + an reduced unknown electron acceptor
[(1R)-4,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

(4R)-carveol and (4R)-dihydrocarveol degradation , limonene degradation I (D-limonene) :
(3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

(4S)-carveol and (4S)-dihydrocarveol degradation , limonene degradation II (L-limonene) :
(3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

(8E,10E)-dodeca-8,10-dienol biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A
lauroyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxo-myristoyl-CoA + coenzyme A

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I :
2-succinylbenzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants) :
ATP + 2-succinylbenzoate + coenzyme A → 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyryl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast) :
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
6-cis, 3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-cis-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-cis-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast) :
4-trans-3-oxo-undecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 2-trans-nonenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+

10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast) :
6-trans-3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-trans-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA
10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-trans-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+
3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+
3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+

2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation :
methylmalonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → propanoyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + NADH + H+

2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde degradation to glutaryl-CoA , L-lysine degradation II (L-pipecolate pathway) , L-lysine degradation XI (mammalian) :
2-oxoadipate + coenzyme A + NAD+ → CO2 + glutaryl-CoA + NADH

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(1'S,5'S)-averufin biosynthesis :
a hexanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + 7 malonyl-CoA + 5 H+ → norsolorinate anthrone + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + 2 H2O

(5R)-carbapenem carboxylate biosynthesis :
(S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + malonyl-CoA + H+ + H2O → (2S,5S)-5-carboxymethyl proline + CO2 + coenzyme A

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate biosynthesis :
(S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + H2O → (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate + coenzyme A + H+
(R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + H2O → (R)-3-hydroxybutanoate + coenzyme A + H+

(Z)-9-tricosene biosynthesis :
(15Z)-tetracos-15-enal + coenzyme A + NAD+ ← (Z)-15-tetracosenoyl-CoA + NADH + H+

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I , 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants) :
1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA + H2O → 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate + coenzyme A + H+

2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone biosynthesis :
glycine + succinyl-CoA + H+ → CO2 + 5-aminolevulinate + coenzyme A
5-aminolevulinyl-CoA → 2,5-piperidinedione + coenzyme A + H+
5-aminolevulinyl-CoA → 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone + coenzyme A + H+

2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis :
anthraniloyl-CoA + 3-oxodecanoate + H+ → 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone + CO2 + coenzyme A + H2O

2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis :
trans-coutarate + acetyl-CoA → 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate + coenzyme A

2-oxobutanoate degradation II :
propanoyl-CoA + H2O → propanoate + coenzyme A + H+

3-hydroxy-L-homotyrosine biosynthesis :
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-malate + coenzyme A + H+

3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , succinate fermentation to butanoate :
succinate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ ← succinyl-CoA + NADPH + H+

3-methylbutanol biosynthesis , L-leucine biosynthesis :
3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + coenzyme A + H+

3-phenylpropanoate degradation :
3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + an reduced unknown electron acceptor + oxygen → gentisate + coenzyme A + an oxidized unknown electron acceptor + H+

4-chlorobenzoate degradation , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V :
4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoate + coenzyme A + H+

4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis :
anthraniloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification :
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A + H+

4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol biosynthesis :
salicyloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 4-hydroxycoumarin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

5-hydroxymethylfurfural degradation , furfural degradation :
2-oxoglutaryl-CoA + H2O → 2-oxoglutarate + coenzyme A + H+

5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis :
ardeemin + acetyl-CoA → 5-N-acetylardeemin + coenzyme A

6-gingerol analog biosynthesis :
4-coumaryl-CoA + 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA + H2O → 4-coumaroylhexanoylmethane + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

6-methoxymellein biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ → triacetate lactone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A
acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 5 H+ → 6-hydroxymellein + 4 CO2 + 5 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate biosynthesis , acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) , acetyl-CoA fermentation to butanoate II , glutaryl-CoA degradation , ketolysis , polyhydroxybutanoate biosynthesis :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A

1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) :
(S)-lactaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ (S)-lactoyl-CoA + NADH + H+
(R)-lactaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ (R)-lactoyl-CoA + NADH + H+

1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis , photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutanoate biosynthesis (engineered) , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-oxopentenoate degradation , ethanol degradation I , L-threonine degradation IV , triethylamine degradation :
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

2-methylbutanoate biosynthesis :
2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

2-methylcitrate cycle I , 2-methylcitrate cycle II :
propanoyl-CoA + oxaloacetate + H2O ↔ (2S,3S)-2-methylcitrate + coenzyme A + H+

2-oxobutanoate degradation II , L-isoleucine biosynthesis IV :
2-oxobutanoate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + CO2 + H+

2-oxoglutarate decarboxylation to succinyl-CoA :
succinyl-CoA + a [2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine → a [2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-succinyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A

2-oxoisovalerate decarboxylation to isobutanoyl-CoA :
isobutanoyl-CoA + an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine → an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-[2-methylpropanoyl]dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A

3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , glyoxylate assimilation :
3-oxopropanoate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+

3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle :
2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A
3-oxopropanoate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , gallate degradation III (anaerobic) , sulfoacetaldehyde degradation I , sulfolactate degradation II :
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A

acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II :
acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH

acetylene degradation :
acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A
acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+

ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis :
16-epivellosimine + acetyl-CoA ↔ vinorine + coenzyme A

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) :
succinate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ succinyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

androstenedione degradation :
propanal + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ propanoyl-CoA + NADH + H+

benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic) , benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic) :
3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA

caffeoylglucarate biosynthesis , chlorogenic acid biosynthesis I , phenylpropanoid biosynthesis :
trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate + coenzyme A ↔ caffeoyl-CoA + L-quinate

coenzyme B biosynthesis , L-lysine biosynthesis IV , L-lysine biosynthesis V :
2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2R)-homocitrate + coenzyme A + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

benzoylanthranilate biosynthesis :
anthranilate + benzoyl-CoA = N-benzoylanthranilate + coenzyme A

cephalosporin C biosynthesis :
acetyl-CoA + deacetylcephalosporin-C = cephalosporin-C + coenzyme A

esterified suberin biosynthesis :
feruloyl-CoA + 16-hydroxypalmitate = 16-feruloyloxypalmitate + coenzyme A

fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast) :
acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 4n H+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+

phenolic malonylglucosides biosynthesis :
4-methylumbelliferyl glucoside + malonyl-CoA = 4-methylumbelliferone 6'-O-malonylglucoside + coenzyme A

Not in pathways:
cysteamine + acetyl-CoA = S-acetylthioethanolamine + coenzyme A
L-leucine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-leucine + coenzyme A + H+
1H-imidazole + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylimidazole + coenzyme A
hydrogen sulfide + acetyl-CoA = thioacetate + coenzyme A + H+
anthranilate + malonyl-CoA = N-malonylanthranilate + coenzyme A
L-histidine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-histidine + coenzyme A + H+
an acyl-CoA + glycine = an N-acylglycine + coenzyme A
D-tryptophan + malonyl-CoA = N2-malonyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+
cortisol + acetyl-CoA = cortisol 21-acetate + coenzyme A
choline + acetyl-CoA = acetylcholine + coenzyme A
feruloyl-CoA + L-quinate = O-feruloylquinate + coenzyme A
a 2-acyl 1-lyso-phosphatidylcholine + an acyl-CoA = a phosphatidylcholine + coenzyme A
N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A
a 2-monoglyceride + an acyl-CoA = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol + coenzyme A
putrescine + caffeoyl-CoA = N-caffeoylputrescine + coenzyme A + H+
feruloyl-CoA + galactarate = O-feruloylgalactarate + coenzyme A
an acyl-CoA + 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol = a 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-3-acyl-sn-glycerol + coenzyme A
an acyl-CoA + a 1-alkenylglycerophosphoethanolamine = an O-1-alk-1-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + coenzyme A
an N-hydroxy-arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetoxyarylamine + coenzyme A
3,4-dichloroaniline + malonyl-CoA = N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-malonamate + coenzyme A

Enzymes activated by coenzyme A, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: 6-hydroxymellein synthase [Kurosaki02]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: malic enzyme (NAD) [Hatch74]

Enzymes inhibited by coenzyme A, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase [Joshi71, Comment 1] , acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase [Lowe88, Comment 2] , pantothenate kinase [Vallari87, Song94b, Comment 3] , phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase [Miller07a] , acetoacetyl-CoA transferase [Comment 4] , galactoside O-acetyltransferase [Musso73] , oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase [Werther10] , maltose acetyltransferase [Comment 5] , acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase [Hedl02] , acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase [Wiesenborn88] , butanol dehydrogenase , 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Comment 6] , pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Comment 7]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoglucomutase [Duckworth73, Sanwal72] , caffeoyl-CoA:R(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate 2'-O-caffeoyl-transferase [Petersen91] , 4-coumaroyl-CoA:R(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate 2'-O-coumaroyl-transferase [Petersen91]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring [Milne79]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [Powers76, Comment 8] , 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Comment 9] , acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase [Green81, Helmward89] , 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase , formyl-CoA transferase [Toyota08] , acyl-CoA thioesterase [Zhuang08] , glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase [Ebner70, Comment 10] , acyl-CoA thioesterase [Maeda06] , hexanoyl-CoA synthetase [Stout12] , propionyl CoA carboxylase [Hugler03] , acetyl CoA carboxylase [Chuakrut03] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , pyruvate synthase [Comment 11] , deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase [Power90] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04a]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [Middleton72a, Comment 12]


References

Brand91: Brand B, Boos W (1991). "Maltose transacetylase of Escherichia coli. Mapping and cloning of its structural, gene, mac, and characterization of the enzyme as a dimer of identical polypeptides with a molecular weight of 20,000." J Biol Chem 1991;266(21);14113-8. PMID: 1856235

Chuakrut03: Chuakrut S, Arai H, Ishii M, Igarashi Y (2003). "Characterization of a bifunctional archaeal acyl coenzyme A carboxylase." J Bacteriol 185(3);938-47. PMID: 12533469

Duckworth73: Duckworth HW, Barber BH, Sanwal BD (1973). "The interaction of phosphoglucomutase with nucleotide inhibitors." J Biol Chem 248(4);1431-5. PMID: 4568817

Ebner70: Ebner E, Wolf D, Gancedo C, Elsasser S, Holzer H (1970). "ATP: glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase from Escherichia coli B. Purification and properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;14(3);535-44. PMID: 4920894

Green81: Green PR, Merrill AH, Bell RM (1981). "Membrane phospholipid synthesis in Escherichia coli. Purification, reconstitution, and characterization of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase." J Biol Chem 1981;256(21);11151-9. PMID: 7026564

Hatch74: Hatch MD, Mau SL, Kagawa T (1974). "Properties of leaf NAD malic enzyme from plants with C4 pathway photosynthesis." Arch Biochem Biophys 165(1);188-200. PMID: 4155265

Hedl02: Hedl M, Sutherlin A, Wilding EI, Mazzulla M, McDevitt D, Lane P, Burgner JW, Lehnbeuter KR, Stauffacher CV, Gwynn MN, Rodwell VW (2002). "Enterococcus faecalis acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase/3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, a dual-function protein of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 184(8);2116-22. PMID: 11914342

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Hugler03: Hugler M, Krieger RS, Jahn M, Fuchs G (2003). "Characterization of acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase in Metallosphaera sedula. Carboxylating enzyme in the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation." Eur J Biochem 270(4);736-44. PMID: 12581213

Joshi71: Joshi VC, Wakil SJ (1971). "Studies on the mechanism of fatty acid synthesis. XXVI. Purification and properties of malonyl-coenzyme A--acyl carrier protein transacylase of Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1971;143(2);493-505. PMID: 4934182

Kerscher81: Kerscher L, Oesterhelt D (1981). "Purification and properties of two 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Halobacterium halobium." Eur J Biochem 1981;116(3);587-94. PMID: 6266826

Kurosaki02: Kurosaki F, Mitsuma S, Arisawa M (2002). "Activation of acyl condensation reaction of monomeric 6-hydroxymellein synthase, a multifunctional polyketide biosynthetic enzyme, by free coenzyme A." Phytochemistry 61(6);597-604. PMID: 12423879

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lowe88: Lowe PN, Rhodes S (1988). "Purification and characterization of [acyl-carrier-protein] acetyltransferase from Escherichia coli." Biochem J 1988;250(3);789-96. PMID: 3291856

Maeda06: Maeda I, Delessert S, Hasegawa S, Seto Y, Zuber S, Poirier Y (2006). "The peroxisomal Acyl-CoA thioesterase Pte1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for efficient degradation of short straight chain and branched chain fatty acids." J Biol Chem 281(17);11729-35. PMID: 16490786

Meinecke89: Meinecke B, Bertram J, Gottschalk G (1989). "Purification and characterization of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Clostridium acetobutylicum." Arch Microbiol 1989;152(3);244-50. PMID: 2774799

Middleton72a: Middleton B (1972). "The kinetic mechanism of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase from baker's yeast." Biochem J 1972;126(1);35-47. PMID: 4561618

Miller07a: Miller JR, Ohren J, Sarver RW, Mueller WT, de Dreu P, Case H, Thanabal V (2007). "Phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase from Escherichia coli: investigation of the kinetic mechanism and role in regulation of coenzyme A biosynthesis." J Bacteriol 189(22);8196-205. PMID: 17873050

Milne79: Milne JA, Cook RA (1979). "Role of metal cofactors in enzyme regulation. Differences in the regulatory properties of the Escherichia coli nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide specific malic enzyme depending on whether Mg2+ or Mn2+ serves as divalent cation." Biochemistry 18(16);3604-10. PMID: 224913

Mukherjee87: Mukherjee JJ, Dekker EE (1987). "Purification, properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of homogeneous Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme." J Biol Chem 1987;262(30);14441-7. PMID: 3117785

Musso73: Musso RE, Zabin I (1973). "Substrate specificity and kinetic studies on thiogalactoside transacetylase." Biochemistry 1973;12(3);553-7. PMID: 4630409

Petersen91: Petersen M (1991). "Characterization of rosmarinic acid synthase from cell cultures of Coleus blumei." Phytochemistry, 30(9), 2877-2881.

Power90: Power R, Kurz WG, De Luca V (1990). "Purification and characterization of acetylcoenzyme A: deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase from Catharanthus roseus." Arch Biochem Biophys 279(2);370-6. PMID: 2350183

Powers76: Powers SG, Snell EE (1976). "Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase. II. Physical, catalytic, and regulatory properties." J Biol Chem 1976;251(12);3786-93. PMID: 6463

Rubio06: Rubio S, Larson TR, Gonzalez-Guzman M, Alejandro S, Graham IA, Serrano R, Rodriguez PL (2006). "An Arabidopsis mutant impaired in coenzyme A biosynthesis is sugar dependent for seedling establishment." Plant Physiol 140(3);830-43. PMID: 16415216

Sanwal72: Sanwal BD, Duckworth HW, Hollier ML (1972). "Regulation of phosphoglucomutase." Biochem J 128(1);26P-27P. PMID: 4563765

Song94b: Song WJ, Jackowski S (1994). "Kinetics and regulation of pantothenate kinase from Escherichia coli." J Biol Chem 1994;269(43);27051-8. PMID: 7929447

Sramek77: Sramek SJ, Frerman FE, McCormick DJ, Duncombe GR (1977). "Substrate-induced conformational changes and half-the-sites reactivity in the Escherichia coli CoA transferase." Arch Biochem Biophys 1977;181(2);525-33. PMID: 332081

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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