Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Compound: coenzyme A

Synonyms: CoA, co-A-SH, co-enzyme-A, co-A, HS-CoA

Superclasses: a cofactor a prosthetic group

Summary:
Coenzyme A (CoA) is a ubiquitous cofactor found in bacteria, plants, and animals. CoA participates in a large number of enzymatic reactions central to intermediary metabolism, including the oxidation of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Coenzyme A is the common acyl carrier in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and is required for a multitude of reactions for both biosynthetic and degradative pathways [Rubio06].

Chemical Formula: C21H32N7O16P3S

Molecular Weight: 763.5 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 767.1152083656 Daltons

SMILES: CC(C)(C(O)C(=O)NCCC(=O)NCCS)COP(=O)(OP(=O)(OCC1(OC(C(C1OP([O-])(=O)[O-])O)N3(C2(=C(C(N)=NC=N2)N=C3))))[O-])[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C21H36N7O16P3S/c1-21(2,16(31)19(32)24-4-3-12(29)23-5-6-48)8-41-47(38,39)44-46(36,37)40-7-11-15(43-45(33,34)35)14(30)20(42-11)28-10-27-13-17(22)25-9-26-18(13)28/h9-11,14-16,20,30-31,48H,3-8H2,1-2H3,(H,23,29)(H,24,32)(H,36,37)(H,38,39)(H2,22,25,26)(H2,33,34,35)/p-4/t11-,14-,15-,16+,20-/m1/s1

InChIKey: InChIKey=RGJOEKWQDUBAIZ-IBOSZNHHSA-J

Unification Links: CAS:85-61-0 , ChEBI:57287 , HMDB:HMDB01423 , IAF1260:33502 , KEGG:C00010 , KNApSAcK:C00007258 , MetaboLights:MTBLC57287 , PubChem:25113190 , Wikipedia:Coenzyme_a

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -493.56613 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

(+)-camphor degradation : [(1R)-4,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + H2O → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + H+ (-)-camphor degradation : [(1R)-4,5,5-trimethyl-2-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → [(1R)-2,2,3-trimethyl-5-oxocyclopent-3-enyl]acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate Δ2,5-3,4,4-trimethylpimeloyl-CoA + 3 coenzyme A + H2O → isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 acetyl-CoA + H+ (4R)-carveol and (4R)-dihydrocarveol degradation , limonene degradation I (D-limonene) : (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (3R)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate (4S)-carveol and (4S)-dihydrocarveol degradation , limonene degradation II (L-limonene) : (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (3S)-3-isopropenyl-6-oxoheptanoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate (Z)-9-tricosene biosynthesis : (15Z)-tetracosenoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (Z)-15-tetracosenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I : 2-succinylbenzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants) : ATP + 2-succinylbenzoate + coenzyme A → 4-(2'-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxobutyryl-CoA + ADP + phosphate 10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (yeast) : 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 6-cis, 3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-cis-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 10-cis-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-cis-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+ 10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (MFE-dependent, yeast) : 4-trans-3-oxo-undecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 2-trans-nonenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA degradation (reductase-dependent, yeast) : 6-trans-3-oxo-tridecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-trans-undecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 10-trans-heptadecenoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O + 2 oxygen → 6-trans-tridecenoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+ 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-pentanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-heptanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 3-hydroxy-undecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O + oxygen → 3-hydroxy-nonanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + hydrogen peroxide + NADH + H+ 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation : methylmalonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → propanoyl-CoA + hydrogen carbonate + NADH + H+ 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde degradation to glutaryl-CoA , lysine degradation II (mammalian) , lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) : 2-oxoadipate + coenzyme A + NAD+ → CO2 + glutaryl-CoA + NADH 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone biosynthesis : 5-aminolevulinate + ATP + coenzyme A → 5-aminolevulinyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , anthranilate degradation II (aerobic) , anthranilate degradation III (anaerobic) , aurachin A, B, C and D biosynthesis , aurachin RE biosynthesis : anthranilate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ anthraniloyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 2-methylcitrate cycle I , 2-methylcitrate cycle II , β-alanine biosynthesis II , isoleucine biosynthesis IV : propanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → propanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 2-oxobutanoate degradation I , threonine degradation : 2-oxobutanoate + coenzyme A + NAD+ → propanoyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH 3,3'-dithiodipropionate degradation : 3-sulfinopropionate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-sulfinopropanoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate 3-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA biosynthesis : L-β-phenylalanine + ATP + coenzyme A → (3R)-3-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , glyoxylate assimilation : 3-hydroxypropanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle : 4-hydroxybutanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3-hydroxypropanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3-oxoadipate degradation , benzoyl-CoA degradation I (aerobic) : succinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A 3-phenylpropionate degradation : 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 3-phenylpropanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-chlorobenzoate degradation : ATP + 4-chlorobenzoate + coenzyme A → AMP + 4-chlorobenzoyl-coA + diphosphate 4-coumarate degradation (anaerobic) : 4-coumarate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-coumaryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-hydroxybenzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-ethylphenol degradation (anaerobic) : 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) : 4-coumarate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-coumaryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-coumaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + NAD+ + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V : 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-hydroxybenzoyl-acetyl-CoA + coenzyme A 4-coumarate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-coumaryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 4-methylcatechol degradation (ortho cleavage) : methylsuccinyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 4-methyl-3-oxoadipyl-CoA + coenzyme A 5-hydroxymethylfurfural degradation , furfural degradation : 2-furoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 2-furoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 6-gingerol analog biosynthesis : 4-coumarate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-coumaryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate octanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → octanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 8-amino-7-oxononanoate biosynthesis III : pimelate + ATP + coenzyme A → pimeloyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA degradation (isomerase-dependent, yeast) : 5-trans-3-oxo-dodecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-trans-decenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 5-cis, 7-trans-3-oxo-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-cis, 5-trans-dodecadienoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 9-cis, 11-trans-octadecadienoyl-CoA + 2 coenzyme A + 2 NAD+ + 2 oxygen + 2 H2O → 5-cis, 7-trans-tetradecadienoyl-CoA + 2 acetyl-CoA + 2 hydrogen peroxide + 2 NADH + 2 H+ acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA , chitin degradation to ethanol , ethanol degradation II , ethanol degradation IV , oxidative ethanol degradation III : acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate acetoin degradation : acetoin + coenzyme A + NAD+ → acetaldehyde + acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ acetyl-CoA biosynthesis III (from citrate) , reductive TCA cycle I : oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate ← citrate + ATP + coenzyme A acridone alkaloid biosynthesis : N-methylanthranilate + ATP + coenzyme AN-methylanthraniloyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate acrylate degradation : acryloyl-CoA + H2O ← acrylate + coenzyme A + H+ malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NAD(P)H acyl carrier protein metabolism I , acyl carrier protein metabolism II (mammalian) : an apo-[acp] + coenzyme A → adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] alkane biosynthesis II , fatty acid activation , long chain fatty acid ester synthesis for microdiesel production , phosphatidylcholine acyl editing , wax esters biosynthesis II : a long-chain fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → a long-chain acyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate anaerobic aromatic compound degradation (Thauera aromatica) , benzoate degradation II (aerobic and anaerobic) , salicortin biosynthesis , tetrahydroxyxanthone biosynthesis (from benzoate) : benzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate androstenedione degradation : 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-[(3aS,4S,7aS)-7a-methyl-1,5-dioxo-octahydro-1H-inden-4-yl]propanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate arachidonate biosynthesis , γ-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals) : linoleate + ATP + coenzyme A → linoleoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate benzoate biosynthesis I (CoA-dependent, β-oxidative) : 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA benzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis : 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA β-alanine degradation I , β-alanine degradation II , myo-inositol degradation I : malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway : 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-24-oxo-5-β-cholestanoyl CoA + coenzyme A → choloyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA (25R)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestan-26-oate + ATP + coenzyme A → (25R)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3α,7α-dihydroxy-24-oxo-5β-cholestanoyl CoA + coenzyme A → chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA ATP + (25R)-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5-β-cholestanate + coenzyme A → AMP + (25R)-3α,7α-dihydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA + diphosphate caffeoylglucarate biosynthesis : trans-caffeate + ATP + coenzyme A → caffeoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate candicidin biosynthesis : 4-aminobenzoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-aminobenzoyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate cannabinoid biosynthesis : hexanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → hexanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate chlorogenic acid biosynthesis I : caffeoylshikimate + coenzyme A → caffeoyl-CoA + shikimate cholate degradation (bacteria, anaerobic) : ATP + cholate + coenzyme A → AMP + choloyl-CoA + diphosphate cholesterol degradation to androstenedione I (cholesterol oxidase) : 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3,22-dioxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3,24-dioxocholest-4-en-26-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-oxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA cholesterol degradation to androstenedione II (cholesterol dehydrogenase) : 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ← 3,22-dioxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 3,24-dioxocholest-4-en-26-oyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-oxochol-4-en-24-oyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA cis-genanyl-CoA degradation : acetate + ATP + coenzyme A → acetyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate 5-methyl-3-oxo-4-hexenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 7-methyl-3-oxooct-6-enoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → 5-methylhex-4-enoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA citronellol degradation : citronellate + ATP + coenzyme A → citronellyll-CoA + AMP + diphosphate coumarins biosynthesis (engineered) : 4-coumarate + ATP + coenzyme A → 4-coumaryl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate trans-caffeate + ATP + coenzyme A → caffeoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate cyclohexane-1-carboxylate degradation (anaerobic) : cyclohexane-1-carboxylate + ATP + coenzyme A + H2O → cyclohexane-1-carbonyl-CoA + AMP + 2 phosphate + H+ docosahexanoate biosynthesis I : (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate linoleate + ATP + coenzyme A → linoleoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate docosahexanoate biosynthesis II : ATP + α-linolenate + coenzyme A → α-linolenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoate + ATP + coenzyme A → (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (metazoa) : ATP + α-linolenate + coenzyme A → α-linolenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate ethylbenzene degradation (anaerobic) : 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A → benzoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + ATP + coenzyme A → 3-oxo-3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate fatty acid α-oxidation II : a 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → a 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate a 2-methyl branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → a 2-methyl branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate fatty acid α-oxidation III : an odd numbered straight chain 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → an odd numbered straight chain 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + AMP + diphosphate a (R)-2-hydroxy even numbered straight chain 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + ATP + coenzyme A → a (R)-2-hydroxy even numbered straight chain 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + AMP + diphosphate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(1'S,5'S)-averufin biosynthesis : a hexanoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] + 7 malonyl-CoA + 5 H+ → norsolorinate anthrone + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + 2 H2O (5R)-carbapenem carboxylate biosynthesis : (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + malonyl-CoA + H+ + H2O → (2S,5S)-5-carboxymethyl proline + CO2 + coenzyme A (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis : (S)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + H2O → (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate + coenzyme A + H+ (R)-3-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + H2O → (R)-3-hydroxybutanoate + coenzyme A + H+ (Z)-9-tricosene biosynthesis : (15Z)-tetracos-15-enal + coenzyme A + NAD+ ← (Z)-15-tetracosenoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I , 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants) : 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA + H2O → 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone biosynthesis : glycine + succinyl-CoA + H+ → CO2 + 5-aminolevulinate + coenzyme A 5-aminolevulinyl-CoA → 2,5-piperidinedione + coenzyme A + H+ 5-aminolevulinyl-CoA → 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone + coenzyme A + H+ 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis : anthraniloyl-CoA + 3-oxodecanoate + H+ → 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone + CO2 + coenzyme A + H2O 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate biosynthesis : trans-coutarate + acetyl-CoA → 2-O-acetyl-3-O-trans-coutarate + coenzyme A 2-oxobutanoate degradation II : propanoyl-CoA + H2O → propanoate + coenzyme A + H+ 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle , succinate fermentation to butyrate : succinate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ succinyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ 3-methylbutanol biosynthesis , leucine biosynthesis : 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → (2S)-2-isopropylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 3-phenylpropionate degradation : 3-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + H+ + oxygen → gentisate + coenzyme A 4-chlorobenzoate degradation , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) , 4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis V : 4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA + H2O → 4-hydroxybenzoate + coenzyme A + H+ 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis : anthraniloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification : 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-[L-Cys] conjugate + acetyl-CoA → 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-N-acetyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A + H+ 4-hydroxycoumarin and dicoumarol biosynthesis : salicyloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 4-hydroxycoumarin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 5-hydroxymethylfurfural degradation , furfural degradation : 2-oxoglutaryl-CoA + H2O → 2-oxoglutarate + coenzyme A + H+ 5-N-acetylardeemin biosynthesis : ardeemin + acetyl-CoA → 5-N-acetylardeemin + coenzyme A 6-gingerol analog biosynthesis : 4-coumaryl-CoA + 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA + H2O → 4-coumaroylhexanoylmethane + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 6-methoxymellein biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ → triacetate lactone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + 4 malonyl-CoA + NADPH + 5 H+ → 6-hydroxymellein + 4 CO2 + 5 coenzyme A + NADP+ + H2O 8-amino-7-oxononanoate biosynthesis III : pimeloyl-CoA + L-alanine + H+ → CO2 + 8-amino-7-oxononanoate + coenzyme A acetan biosynthesis : β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + acetyl-CoA → β-L-rhamnosyl-(1,6)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-N-acetyl-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + coenzyme A acetylaszonalenin biosynthesis : aszonalenin + acetyl-CoA → acetylaszonalenin + coenzyme A aclacinomycin biosynthesis , daunorubicin biosynthesis : propanoyl-CoA + 9 malonyl-CoA + a polyketide synthase containing an [acp] domain + 10 H+ → 3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19-nonaoxohenicosanoyl-[acp] + 9 CO2 + 10 coenzyme A acridone alkaloid biosynthesis : N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA → 3 CO2 + 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone + 4 coenzyme A acrylate degradation : acryloyl-CoA + 2 H2O → 3-hydroxypropanoate + coenzyme A + H+ actinorhodin biosynthesis : 8 malonyl-CoA + a polyketide synthase containing an [acp] domain → a 3,5,7,9,11,13,15-hepta-oxo-hexadecanoyl-[PKS-acp] + 8 CO2 + 8 coenzyme A acyl-CoA hydrolysis : a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl CoA + H2O → a 2,3,4-saturated fatty acid + coenzyme A + H+ aerobactin biosynthesis : N6-Hydroxy-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA → N6-acetyl-N6-hydroxy-L-lysine + coenzyme A alcaligin biosynthesis , putrebactin biosynthesis : N-hydroxyputrescine + succinyl-CoA + H+N-hydroxy-N-succinyl-putrescine + coenzyme A aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, side chain elongation cycle : 2-oxo-9-methylthiononanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(7'-methylthio)heptylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-8-methylthiooctanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(6'-methylthio)hexylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-7-methylthioheptanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(5'-methylthio)pentylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-6-methylthiohexanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(4'-methylthio)butylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxo-5-methylthiopentanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O → 2-(3'-methylthio)propylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ alkane biosynthesis II : a long-chain aldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ← a long-chain acyl-CoA + NADH + H+ aloesone biosynthesis I : acetyl-CoA + 6 malonyl-CoA + 6 H+ → aloesone + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + H2O aloesone biosynthesis II : 7 malonyl-CoA + 6 H+ → heptaketide pyrone + 7 CO2 + 7 coenzyme A + H2O 6 malonyl-CoA + 5 H+ → hexaketide pyrone + 6 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + H2O α-cyclopiazonate biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + H+ → acetoacetyl-ACP + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A anhydromuropeptides recycling , UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I : D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + acetyl-CoA → N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine 1-phosphate + coenzyme A + H+ anthocyanidin modification (Arabidopsis) : cyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside + 4-coumaryl-CoA + H+ → cyanidin 3-O-p-coumaroylglucoside + coenzyme A cyanidin 3-O-[2"-O-(xylosyl) glucoside + 4-coumaryl-CoA → cyanidin 3-O-[2"-O-xylosyl) 6"-O-(p-coumaroyl) glucoside + coenzyme A cyanidin 3-O-[2"-O-(xylosyl)-6"-O-(p-coumaroyl) glucoside] 5-O-glucoside + malonyl-CoA + H+ → cyanidin 3-O-[2"-O-(xylosyl)-6"-O-(p-coumaroyl) glucoside] 5-O-malonylglucoside + coenzyme A apigenin glycosides biosynthesis : apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside + malonyl-CoA → apigenin 7-O(6-malonyl-β-D-glucoside) + coenzyme A arachidonate biosynthesis : (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosatrienoyl-CoA + H2O → (8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosatrienoate + coenzyme A + H+ malonyl-CoA + γ-linolenoyl-CoA + H+ → (8Z,11Z,14Z)-3-oxo-icosatrienoyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A arginine degradation II (AST pathway) : L-arginine + succinyl-CoA → N2-succinyl-L-arginine + coenzyme A + H+ aromatic polyketides biosynthesis : 4-coumaryl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 2 H+ → p-coumaroyltriacetic acid lactone + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 3 H+ → 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxychalcone + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A aurachin A, B, C and D biosynthesis , aurachin RE biosynthesis : anthraniloyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + 2 H+ → 2-methyl-4-hydroxyquinoline + 3 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A barbaloin biosynthesis : 8 malonyl-CoA + 7 H+ → octoketide 4b + 8 CO2 + 8 coenzyme A + H2O 8 malonyl-CoA + 7 H+ → octoketide + 8 CO2 + 8 coenzyme A + H2O benzoate biosynthesis I (CoA-dependent, β-oxidative) : benzoyl-CoA + H2O → benzoate + coenzyme A + H+ benzyl alcohol + benzoyl-CoA → benzylbenzoate + coenzyme A benzoate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) , crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) : cyclohexane-1-carbonyl-CoA + H2O → cyclohexane-1-carboxylate + coenzyme A + H+ β-alanine biosynthesis II : 3-hydroxypropanoyl-CoA + H2O → 3-hydroxypropanoate + coenzyme A + H+ bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway : choloyl-CoA + taurine → taurocholate + coenzyme A + H+ chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + glycine → glycochenodeoxycholate + coenzyme A + H+ chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA + taurine → taurochenodeoxycholate + coenzyme A + H+ choloyl-CoA + glycine → glycocholate + coenzyme A + H+ biochanin A conjugates interconversion : biochanin A-7-O-glucoside + malonyl-CoA → biochanin A-7-O-glucoside-6''-malonate + coenzyme A bisucaberin biosynthesis , desferrioxamine E biosynthesis : N-hydroxycadaverine + succinyl-CoA → N-hydroxy-N-succinylcadaverine + coenzyme A butanol and isobutanol biosynthesis (engineered) : butanoyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → 3-ethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ cannabinoid biosynthesis : 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA → olivetolate + coenzyme A + H+ hexanoyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + 2 H+ → 3,5-dioxodecanoyl-CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 3,5-dioxodecanoyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A capsaicin biosynthesis : 2 a malonyl-[acp] + isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 H2O → 8-methyl-6-nonenoate + 2 a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A + 4 oxygen capsiconiate biosynthesis : feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ → coniferaldehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ 2 a malonyl-[acp] + isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 H2O → 8-methyl-6-nonenoate + 2 a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A + 4 oxygen CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I : a long-chain acyl-CoA + a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + coenzyme A a long-chain acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate → a 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + coenzyme A ceramide de novo biosynthesis : L-serine + palmitoyl-CoA + H+ → CO2 + 3-dehydrosphinganine + coenzyme A sphinganine + a long-chain acyl-CoA → a dihydroceramide + coenzyme A + H+ chitin degradation to ethanol , glycolate and glyoxylate degradation II , L-arabinose degradation IV , xylose degradation IV : acetyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O → (S)-malate + coenzyme A + H+ chlorogenic acid biosynthesis I : 4-coumaryl-CoA + L-quinate → trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate + coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + shikimate → 4-coumaroylshikimate + coenzyme A chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II : 4-coumaryl-CoA + L-quinate → trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate + coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + shikimate → 4-coumaroylshikimate + coenzyme A CMP-legionaminate biosynthesis I : GDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-N-acetylglucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-D-glucopyranose + coenzyme A + H+ GDP-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → GDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+ CMP-N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis : UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA → 4-O-acetyl-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine + coenzyme A CMP-pseudaminate biosynthesis : UDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-N-acetyl-β-L-altrosamine + acetyl-CoA → UDP-2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-β-L-altropyranose + coenzyme A + H+ cocaine biosynthesis : 1-methylpyrrolidine-2-acetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA → 4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A 4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoyl-CoA → 4-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-3-oxobutanoate methyl ester + coenzyme A ecgonine methyl ester + benzoyl-CoA → cocaine + coenzyme A coenzyme A biosynthesis I , coenzyme A biosynthesis II (mammalian) : 3'-dephospho-CoA + ATP → ADP + coenzyme A + H+ coenzyme B biosynthesis : dihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxoadipate + acetyl-CoA + H2O trihomocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ ← 2-oxopimelate + acetyl-CoA + H2O cohumulone biosynthesis : 3 malonyl-CoA + isobutanoyl-CoA + 3 H+ → phlorisobutyrophenone + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A colchicine biosynthesis : deacetylcolchicine + acetyl-CoA → colchicine + coenzyme A + H+ coumarins biosynthesis (engineered) : 6'-hydroxyferuloyl-CoA → scopoletin + coenzyme A 2,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-CoA → umbelliferone + coenzyme A curcuminoid biosynthesis : 4-coumaroylacetyl-CoA + feruloyl-CoA + H2O → demethoxycurcumin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → 4-coumaroylacetyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A feruloyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ → feruloylacetyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A feruloylacetyl-CoA + feruloyl-CoA + H2O → curcumin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A 4-coumaroylacetyl-CoA + 4-coumaryl-CoA + H2O → bisdemethoxycurcumin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A feruloylacetyl-CoA + 4-coumaryl-CoA + H2O → demethoxycurcumin + CO2 + 2 coenzyme A

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)- and (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis , acetoacetate degradation (to acetyl CoA) , acetyl-CoA fermentation to butyrate II , glutaryl-CoA degradation , ketolysis , polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A 1,2-propanediol biosynthesis from lactate (engineered) : (S)-lactaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ (S)-lactoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ (R)-lactaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ (R)-lactoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ 1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis , photosynthetic 3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis (engineered) , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH 2'-deoxy-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-oxopentenoate degradation , ethanol degradation I , threonine degradation IV , triethylamine degradation : acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ 2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis : 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA 2-methylcitrate cycle I , 2-methylcitrate cycle II : oxaloacetate + propanoyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2S,3S)-2-methylcitrate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxobutanoate degradation II , isoleucine biosynthesis IV : 2-oxobutanoate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + CO2 + H+ 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylation to succinyl-CoA : succinyl-CoA + a [2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine → a [2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-succinyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A 2-oxoisovalerate decarboxylation to isobutanoyl-CoA : isobutanoyl-CoA + an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine → an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-[2-methylpropanoyl]dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A 3-hydroxypropanoate cycle , glyoxylate assimilation : malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ 3-hydroxypropanoate/4-hydroxybutanate cycle : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ malonyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ acetate formation from acetyl-CoA I , gallate degradation III (anaerobic) , sulfoacetaldehyde degradation I , sulfolactate degradation II : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II : acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) : pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH acetylene degradation : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis : 16-epivellosimine + acetyl-CoA ↔ vinorine + coenzyme A anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) : succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + ATP[mitochondrial lumen] + coenzyme A[mitochondrial lumen] ↔ succinyl-CoA[mitochondrial lumen] + ADP[mitochondrial lumen] + phosphate[mitochondrial lumen] pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH androstenedione degradation : propanal + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ propanoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ arginine biosynthesis II (acetyl cycle) , arginine biosynthesis III (via N-acetyl-L-citrulline) , ornithine biosynthesis : L-glutamate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-glutamate + coenzyme A + H+ benzoyl-CoA degradation II (anaerobic) , benzoyl-CoA degradation III (anaerobic) : 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA caffeoylglucarate biosynthesis , chlorogenic acid biosynthesis I , phenylpropanoid biosynthesis : trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate + coenzyme A ↔ caffeoyl-CoA + L-quinate coenzyme B biosynthesis , lysine biosynthesis IV , lysine biosynthesis V : 2-oxoglutarate + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (2R)-homocitrate + coenzyme A + H+ crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate) : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A 3-oxopimeloyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ glutaryl-CoA + acetyl-CoA ectoine biosynthesis : L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + acetyl-CoA ↔ N-acetyl-L-2,4-diaminobutanoate + coenzyme A + H+ Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative) , gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , glutamate degradation VII (to butanoate) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate I , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ ethylmalonyl pathway : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (S)-malate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ (S)-malyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate fatty acid biosynthesis (plant mitochondria) , fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I , octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) : a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + malonyl-CoA ↔ a malonyl-[acp] + coenzyme A fatty acid biosynthesis initiation II , superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis initiation (E. coli) : acetyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] ↔ an acetyl-[acp] + coenzyme A formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway) : (S)-malate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ (S)-malyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate glycerol degradation to butanol : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ butanal + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+ ↔ butanoyl-CoA + NAD(P)H + H+ heterolactic fermentation : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ homocysteine biosynthesis : L-homoserine + acetyl-CoA ↔ O-acetyl-L-homoserine + coenzyme A hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides biosynthesis , suberin monomers biosynthesis : feruloyl-CoA + tyramine ↔ N-feruloyltyramine + coenzyme A + H+ incomplete reductive TCA cycle : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + ATP[mitochondrial lumen] + coenzyme A[mitochondrial lumen] ↔ succinyl-CoA[mitochondrial lumen] + ADP[mitochondrial lumen] + phosphate[mitochondrial lumen] 2-oxoglutarate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ succinyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ isoleucine biosynthesis V : (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH isoleucine degradation I : 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A ↔ propanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA (S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered) : acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (R)-mevalonate + coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ isopropanol biosynthesis : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ ketogenesis : acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A L-1,2-propanediol degradation : propanoyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ propanoyl phosphate + coenzyme A propanal + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ propanoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ lysine fermentation to acetate and butyrate : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A methanogenesis from acetate : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + a [Co(I) corrinoid Fe-S protein] ↔ carbon monoxide + a [methyl-Co(III) corrinoid Fe-S protein] + coenzyme A methylaspartate cycle , TCA cycle I (prokaryotic) , TCA cycle II (plants and fungi) , TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs) : succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + ATP[mitochondrial lumen] + coenzyme A[mitochondrial lumen] ↔ succinyl-CoA[mitochondrial lumen] + ADP[mitochondrial lumen] + phosphate[mitochondrial lumen] mevalonate pathway I : acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (R)-mevalonate + coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ mevalonate pathway II (archaea) : acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (R)-mevalonate + coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ mevalonate pathway III (archaea) : acetoacetyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA + H2O ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + coenzyme A + H+ 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A (R)-mevalonate + coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ ↔ (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle : L-carnitine + acetyl-CoA ↔ O-acetylcarnitine + coenzyme A a long-chain acyl-CoA + L-carnitine ↔ an O-acyl-L-carnitine + coenzyme A mixed acid fermentation : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A acetaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + NADH + H+ ornithine degradation II (Stickland reaction) : 2-amino-4-oxopentanoate + coenzyme A ↔ D-alanine + acetyl-CoA oxalate degradation III : glyoxylate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ oxalyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ phenylacetate degradation II (anaerobic) : phenylglyoxylate + coenzyme A + an oxidized electron acceptor + H+ ↔ benzoyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced electron acceptor phosphatidylcholine acyl editing , phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis VII : an acyl-CoA + a 2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine ↔ a phosphatidylcholine + coenzyme A phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylcholine, yeast) : 1-16:0-2-lysophosphatidylcholine + palmitoyl-CoA ↔ 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine + coenzyme A phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylethanolamine, yeast) : 1-18:1-lysophosphatidylethanolamine + oleoyl-CoA ↔ 1-18:1-2-18:1-phosphatidylethanolamine + coenzyme A purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic) : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA : acetyl-CoA + a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine ↔ a [pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-acetyldihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to acetate II : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH pyruvate fermentation to acetate III : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ acetate + ATP + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + ADP + phosphate pyruvate fermentation to acetate IV : acetyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ acetyl phosphate + coenzyme A formate + acetyl-CoA ↔ pyruvate + coenzyme A pyruvate fermentation to acetate V : succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + ATP[mitochondrial lumen] + coenzyme A[mitochondrial lumen] ↔ succinyl-CoA[mitochondrial lumen] + ADP[mitochondrial lumen] + phosphate[mitochondrial lumen] pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH pyruvate fermentation to acetate VI : pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ succinate[mitochondrial lumen] + ATP[mitochondrial lumen] + coenzyme A[mitochondrial lumen] ↔ succinyl-CoA[mitochondrial lumen] + ADP[mitochondrial lumen] + phosphate[mitochondrial lumen] pyruvate fermentation to acetone : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ pyruvate fermentation to butanoate : butanoyl-CoA + phosphate ↔ butanoyl phosphate + coenzyme A 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ pyruvate fermentation to butanol I : 2 acetyl-CoA ↔ acetoacetyl-CoA + coenzyme A pyruvate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ butanal + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+ ↔ butanoyl-CoA + NAD(P)H + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

benzoylanthranilate biosynthesis : anthranilate + benzoyl-CoA = N-benzoylanthranilate + coenzyme A cephalosporin C biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + deacetylcephalosporin-C = cephalosporin-C + coenzyme A esterified suberin biosynthesis : feruloyl-CoA + 16-hydroxypalmitate = 16-feruloyloxypalmitate + coenzyme A fatty acids biosynthesis (yeast) : acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 4n H+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+ phenolic malonylglucosides biosynthesis : 4-methylumbelliferyl glucoside + malonyl-CoA = 4-methylumbelliferone 6'-O-malonylglucoside + coenzyme A plumbagin biosynthesis : acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ + oxygen = hexaketide pyrone + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O Not in pathways: cysteamine + acetyl-CoA = S-acetylthioethanolamine + coenzyme A L-leucine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-leucine + coenzyme A + H+ 1H-imidazole + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylimidazole + coenzyme A hydrogen sulfide + acetyl-CoA = thioacetate + coenzyme A + H+ anthranilate + malonyl-CoA = N-malonylanthranilate + coenzyme A L-histidine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-histidine + coenzyme A + H+ an acyl-CoA + glycine = an N-acylglycine + coenzyme A D-tryptophan + malonyl-CoA = N2-malonyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+ cortisol + acetyl-CoA = cortisol 21-acetate + coenzyme A choline + acetyl-CoA = acetylcholine + coenzyme A feruloyl-CoA + L-quinate = O-feruloylquinate + coenzyme A a 1-lysophosphatidylcholine + an acyl-CoA = a phosphatidylcholine + coenzyme A L-2,3-diaminopropanoate + oxalyl-CoA = N-3-oxalyl-L-2,3-diaminopropanoate + coenzyme A N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A palmitoyl-CoA + [myelin proteolipid] = O-palmitoyl-[myelin proteolipid] + coenzyme A a 2-monoglyceride + an acyl-CoA = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol + coenzyme A putrescine + caffeoyl-CoA = N-caffeoylputrescine + coenzyme A + H+ feruloyl-CoA + D-galactarate = O-feruloylgalactarate + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol = a 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-3-acyl-sn-glycerol + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + a 1-alkenylglycerophosphoethanolamine = an O-1-alk-1-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + coenzyme A an N-hydroxy-arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetoxyarylamine + coenzyme A 3,4-dichloroaniline + malonyl-CoA = N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-malonamate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + coenzyme A kanamycin B + acetyl-CoA = N6'-acetylkanamycin-B + coenzyme A + H+ a 2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + acetyl-CoA = an N3'-acetyl-2-deoxystreptamine antibiotic + coenzyme A chloramphenicol + acetyl-CoA = chloramphenicol 3-acetate + coenzyme A octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = L-octanoylcarnitine + coenzyme A L-aspartate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-aspartate + coenzyme A + H+ gentamicin C1a + acetyl-CoA = N2'-acetylgentamicin C1A + coenzyme A + H+ ecdysone + palmitoyl-CoA = ecdysone palmitate + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + cholesterol = a cholesterol ester + coenzyme A L-phenylalanine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine + coenzyme A + H+ 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + acetyl-CoA = 13-sophorosyloxydocosanoate 6',6''-diacetate + coenzyme A 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate + acetyl-CoA = 13-[O(2')-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]docosanoate O(6'')-acetate + coenzyme A L-ornithine + 2 benzoyl-CoA = N2,N5-dibenzoyl-L-ornithine + 2 coenzyme A + 2 H+ an acyl-CoA + n (R)-methylmalonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 2n H+ = a multi-methyl-branched acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A + 2n NADP+ sinapoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ = sinapaldehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ 10-desacetyltaxuyunnanin C + acetyl-CoA = taxuyunnanin C + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero 3-phosphate + coenzyme A glycyl-peptide + myristoyl-CoA = N-tetradecanoylglycyl-peptide + coenzyme A 2-hydroxymalonate + sinapoyl-CoA = sinapoyltartronate + coenzyme A N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A L-ornithine + succinyl-CoA = N2-succinyl-L-ornithine + coenzyme A + H+ propanoyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O = 2-hydroxyglutarate + coenzyme A + H+ oxaloacetate + lauroyl-CoA + H2O = (2S,3S)-2-hydroxytridecane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate + coenzyme A + H+ lauroyl-CoA + 2-oxoglutarate + H2O = 3-hydroxytetradecane-1,3,4-tricarboxylate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-oxobutanoate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = (R)-2-Ethylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ isovaleryl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H+ = 6-isobutyl-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A isovaleryl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 2 H+ = 6-(4-methyl-2-oxopentyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-β-D-glucoside + caffeoyl-CoA = pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside-5-O-caffeoylglucoside + coenzyme A N-acetylneuraminate + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminate + coenzyme A 7-O-β-D-glucosyl-7-hydroxyflavone + malonyl-CoA = 7-hydroxyflavone 7-O-(6-malonyl-β-D-glucoside) + coenzyme A a dolichol + palmitoyl-CoA = dolichyl palmitate + coenzyme A mucus glycoprotein + palmitoyl-CoA = O-palmitoylglycoprotein + coenzyme A phosphinothricin + acetyl-CoA = N-acetylphosphinothricin + coenzyme A + H+ a glycoprotein + palmitoyl-CoA = a palmitoylglycoprotein + coenzyme A + H2O lauroyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ = 3-oxo-myristoyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A myristoyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ = 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-7 + coenzyme A 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetyl-CoA + H2O = 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate + coenzyme A + H+ hexanoyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 2 H+ = tetraketide pyrone + 3 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A benzoyl-CoA + 2-phenylethanol = phenylethylbenzoate + coenzyme A hexanoyl-CoA + 2 malonyl-CoA + H2O = triketide pyrone + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A + OH- acetyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H+ = acetoacetyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A streptothricin F + acetyl-CoA = Nβ-acetylstreptothricin F + coenzyme A + H+ hexanoyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 3 H+ = olivetol + 4 CO2 + 4 coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + pseudotropine = an O-acylpseudotropine + coenzyme A + H+ stearoyl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + 2 NAD(P)H + 3 H+ = arachidoyl-CoA + CO2 + coenzyme A + 2 NAD(P)+ + H2O an acyl-CoA + a 1-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine = a 1-organyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + coenzyme A all-trans-retinol + palmitoyl-CoA = all-trans-retinyl palmitate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + propanoyl-CoA = β-ketovaleryl-CoA + coenzyme A 4-hydroxybutanoyl-CoA + NAD(P)H + H+ = 4-hydroxybutyraldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD(P)+ acetyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA + 2n NADPH + 2n H+ = a long-chain fatty acid + n CO2 + (n+1) coenzyme A + 2n NADP+ γ-linolenoyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] = a γ linolenoyl [acp] + coenzyme A α-linolenoyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] = a linolenoyl [acp] + coenzyme A (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z,17Z)-icosapentaenoyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] = an eicosapentaenoyl-[acp] + coenzyme A caffeoyl-CoA + D-threo-isocitrate = 2-caffeoylisocitrate + coenzyme A a palmitoyl-[acp] + malonyl-CoA = 1-heptadecene + 2 CO2 + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A a heptodecanoyl-[acp] + malonyl-CoA + 3 H+ = 1-octadecene + 2 CO2 + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A a stearoyl-[acp] + malonyl-CoA + 3 H+ = 1-nonadecene + 2 CO2 + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminide-[heparan sulfate] + coenzyme A arachidoyl-CoA + 1-dodecanol = arachidoyl dodecanoate + coenzyme A D-glucosamine + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + coenzyme A + H+ a monoterpenol + acetyl-CoA + H+ = a monoterpenol acetate ester + coenzyme A a flavonol-3-O-β-D-glucoside + malonyl-CoA + H+ = a flavonol 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside) + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + a peptide = an Nα-acetyl-peptide + coenzyme A propanoyl-CoA + 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoyl-CoA = 3-oxopristanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + myristoyl-CoA = 3-oxo-palmitoyl-CoA + coenzyme A malonyl-CoA + an anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside + H+ = an anthocyanidin-3-O-(6-O-malonyl-β-D-glucoside) + coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + a flavonol 3-O-(β-D-glucosyl-(1->2)-β-D-glucosyl (1->2)-β-D-glucoside) = a flavonol 3-O-(6-(4-coumaroyl)-β-D glucosyl-(1->2)-β-D-glucosyl-(1->2)-β-D-glucoside) + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + tropine = an O-acyltropine + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide = S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + coenzyme A isovaleryl-CoA + an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine = a [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-[3-methylbutanoyl]dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA + an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine = an [apo BCAA dehydrogenase E2 protein] N6-S-[2-methylbutanoyl]dihydrolipoyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A isopenicillin N + phenylacetyl-CoA + H2O = L-2-aminoadipate + penicillin G + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine + coenzyme A + H+ L-carnitine + palmitoyl-CoA = L-palmitoylcarnitine + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + L-glutamine = an N-acyl-L-glutamine + coenzyme A sinapoyl-CoA + 16-hydroxypalmitate = 16-sinapoyloxypalmitate + coenzyme A docosanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 2-docosanoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate + coenzyme A L-2-aminoadipate + acetyl-CoA = N2-acetyl-α-aminoadipate + coenzyme A + H+ ω-hydroxy-C22:0-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 2-ω-hydroxy-C22:0-LPA + coenzyme A hexadecanedioyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 1-C16:0-α,ω-dicarboxyl-2-lysophosphatidate + coenzyme A an acyl-CoA + a 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + coenzyme A a long-chain acyl-CoA + n malonyl-CoA = a very long chain fatty acyl-CoA + n CO2 + n coenzyme A a long-chain acyl-CoA + dihydroxyacetone phosphate = an acylglycerone phosphate + coenzyme A an arylamine + acetyl-CoA = an N-acetylarylamine + coenzyme A an anthocyanidin 3,5-di-O-β-D-glucoside + 4-coumaryl-CoA = an anthocyanidin 3-glucoside-5-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)glucoside + coenzyme A pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-β-D-glucoside + 4-coumaryl-CoA = pelargonidin-3,5-diglucoside-5-O-p-coumaroylglucoside + coenzyme A L-methionine + acetyl-CoA = N-α-acetyl-L-methionine + coenzyme A + H+ hexanoyl-CoA + 3 malonyl-CoA + 3 H+ = 3,5,7-trioxododecanoyl-CoA + 3 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-D-myo-inositol + an acyl-CoA = an L-1-phosphatidyl-inositol + coenzyme A aminomethylphosphonate + acetyl-CoA = 2-N-acetamidomethylphosphonate + coenzyme A 4-coumaryl-CoA + an anthocyanidin-3-O-β-D-glucoside + H+ = an anthocyanidin-3-O-[6-O-(hydroxycinnamoyl)-β-D-glucoside] + coenzyme A + H+ an acyl-CoA + a 1-O-(alk-1-enyl)glycero-3-phosphocholine = a plasmenylcholine + coenzyme A 2 4-coumaryl-CoA + malonyl-CoA + H2O + H+ = bisdemethoxycurcumin + 2 CO2 + 3 coenzyme A decanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxododecanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A hexanoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-oxooctanoyl-CoA + coenzyme A 3-cis-dodecenoyl-CoA + acetyl-CoA = 3-keto-5-cis-tetradecenoyl-CoA + coenzyme A arachidoyl-CoA + a malonyl-[acp] + H+ = a 3-oxo-behenoyl-[acp] + CO2 + coenzyme A cinnamyl alcohol + acetyl-CoA = cinnamyl acetate + coenzyme A an alcohol + acetyl-CoA = an acetic ester + coenzyme A an [α-tubuline]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = an [α-tubulin]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+ acetyl-CoA + a D-amino acid = an N-acetyl-D-amino acid + coenzyme A + H+ a [protein]-L-cysteine + palmitoyl-CoA = a [protein]-S-palmitoyl-L-cysteine + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + GDP-α-D-perosamine = GDP-4-acetamido-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-α-D-mannose + coenzyme A + H+ isovaleryl-CoA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + N-isovaleryl-L-homoserine lactone + coenzyme A + H+ 4-coumaryl-CoA + S-adenosyl-L-methionine = S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine + N-4-coumaryl-L-homoserine lactone + coenzyme A + H+ anthraniloyl-CoA + methanol = O-methyl anthranilate + coenzyme A N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + acetyl-CoA = N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + coenzyme A D-tryptophan + acetyl-CoA = N-acetyl-D-tryptophan + coenzyme A + H+ oxaloacetate + acetyl-CoA + H2O = citrate + coenzyme A + H+ gentamicin-C + acetyl-CoA = N3'-acetylgentamicin C + coenzyme A + H+ a [histone]-L-lysine + acetyl-CoA = a [histone]-N6-acetyl-L-lysine + coenzyme A + H+ an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid + acetyl-CoA = an α 2,8-linked polysialic acid acetylated at O-9 + coenzyme A acetyl-CoA + an aliphatic α,ω-diamine = an aliphatic N-acetyl-diamine + coenzyme A + H+ an acyl-CoA + a sphingoid base = a ceramide + coenzyme A + H+ hexadecanedioyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = sn-2-C16:0-DCA-LPA + coenzyme A all-trans-retinol + an acyl-CoA = an all-trans-retinyl ester + coenzyme A 3-phenylpropanoyl-CoA + glycine = N-(3-phenylpropanoyl)glycine + coenzyme A + H+ (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA + glycine = cinnamoylglycine + coenzyme A + H+ an acetyl-[acp] + 9 malonyl-CoA + 8 H+ = tetracenomycin F2 + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + 9 CO2 + 9 coenzyme A + 2 H2O acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 3 NADPH + 7 H+ = 5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O acetyl-CoA + 5 malonyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 6 H+ = 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoate + 5 CO2 + 6 coenzyme A + 2 NADP+ + 3 H2O pentanoyl-CoA + glyoxylate + H2O = 3-propylmalate + coenzyme A + H+ 2-hydroxycyclohepta-1,4,6-triene-1-carboxyl-CoA + H2O = 2-hydroxycyclohepta-1,4,6-triene-1-carboxylate + coenzyme A phenylacetyl-CoA + H2O = phenylacetate + coenzyme A + H+ C22:0-DCA-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = 2-C22:0-DCA-LPA + coenzyme A a 2-oxo carboxylate + 2 an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A = an acyl-CoA + CO2 + 2 a reduced ferredoxin + H+ palmitaldehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = palmitoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ a myristoyl-[acp] + coenzyme A = a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] + myristoyl-CoA a long-chain aldehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = a long-chain acyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ malonate semialdehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH indole-3-pyruvate + an oxidized ferredoxin + coenzyme A = S-2-(indol-3 yl)acetyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced ferredoxin 2-oxoglutarate + coenzyme A + NADP+ = succinyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH palmitaldehyde + coenzyme A + NAD+ = palmitoyl-CoA + NADH + H+ succinate + ITP + coenzyme A = succinyl-CoA + IDP + phosphate a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + coenzyme A = a (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] Vibrio cholerae apo-VibB protein monomer + coenzyme A = Vibrio cholerae VibB protein + adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate coenzyme A + H2O = adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + 4'-phosphopantetheine + 2 H+ cinnamaldehyde + coenzyme A + NADP+ = (E)-cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ an arachidoyl-[acp] + coenzyme A = arachidoyl-CoA + a holo-[acyl-carrier protein] 2-[(1R,6S)-1,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-yl]acetyl-coA + coenzyme A + 2 H2O = acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA + 3 H+ phenylglyoxylate + coenzyme A + NAD+ = benzoyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH 2 coenzyme A + NAD(P)+ = CoA-disulfide + NAD(P)H + H+ glutathione + coenzyme A + NADP+ = CoA-glutathione + NADPH + H+ glutathione disulfide + coenzyme A = glutathione + CoA-glutathione

Enzymes activated by coenzyme A, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: 6-hydroxymellein synthase [Kurosaki02]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: malic enzyme (NAD) [Hatch74]

Enzymes inhibited by coenzyme A, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: malonyl-CoA-ACP transacylase [Joshi71, Comment 6] , acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase [Lowe88, Comment 7] , phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase [Miller07] , acetoacetyl-CoA transferase [Comment 8] , pantothenate kinase [Vallari87, Song94a, Comment 9] , maltose acetyltransferase [Comment 10] , galactoside O-acetyltransferase [Musso73] , oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase [Werther10] , acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase [Hedl02] , acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase [Wiesenborn88] , butanol dehydrogenase , 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Comment 11] , pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [Comment 12]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: phosphoglucomutase [Duckworth73, Sanwal72] , caffeoyl-CoA:R(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate 2'-O-caffeoyl-transferase [Petersen91a] , 4-coumaroyl-CoA:R(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate 2'-O-coumaroyl-transferase [Petersen91a]

Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring [Milne79]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase [Green81, Helmward89] , 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Comment 13] , 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase , 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [Powers76, Comment 14] , formyl-CoA transferase [Toyota08] , acyl-CoA thioesterase [Zhuang08] , glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase [Ebner70, Comment 15] , acyl-CoA thioesterase [Maeda06] , hexanoyl-CoA synthetase [Stout12] , propionyl CoA carboxylase [Hugler03] , acetyl CoA carboxylase [Chuakrut03] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , pyruvate synthase [Comment 16] , deacetylvindoline 4-O-acetyltransferase [Power90] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [Middleton72a, Comment 17]


References

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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