MetaCyc Compound: Fe2+

Synonyms: Fe+2, Fe++, ferrous iron, Fe+2, ferrous ion, fe(ii)

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Component of:
ferrous sulfate heptahydrate
iron sulfate

Chemical Formula: Fe

Molecular Weight: 55.847 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 57.9505921642 Daltons

SMILES: [Fe++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Fe/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:29033 , ChemSpider:25394 , HMDB:HMDB00692 , IAF1260:33552 , KEGG:C14818 , MetaboLights:MTBLC29033 , PubChem:27284

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -20.098238 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-
2 Fe2+ + 2 oxygen → 2 superoxide + 2 Fe3+

Fe(II) oxidation :
Fe3+[extracellular space] + a reduced rusticyanin[periplasmic space]Fe2+[extracellular space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasmic space]

iron reduction and absorption :
2 Fe2+[extracellular space] → 2 Fe2+[cytosol]

reactive oxygen species degradation :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

siroheme amide biosynthesis :
siroamide + Fe2+ → siroheme amide + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + oxygen → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O
Fe2+ + L-nicotianamine → Fe(II)-nicotianamine

Reactions known to produce the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) , iron reduction and absorption :
an Fe(II)-siderophore + H+ → a siderophore + Fe2+

heme degradation , phycocyanobilin biosynthesis , phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis I , phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis II , phycourobilin biosynthesis , phycoviolobilin biosynthesis , phytochromobilin biosynthesis :
ferroheme b + 3 an unknown reduced electron acceptor + 3 oxygen + 2 H+ → biliverdin-IX-α + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 3 an unknown oxidized electron acceptor + 3 H2O

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
S-sulfanylglutathione + 4 Fe3+ + 3 H2O → sulfite + glutathione + 4 Fe2+ + 6 H+

Not in pathways:
L-ascorbate[in] + Fe3+[out] → monodehydroascorbate radical[in] + Fe2+[out]
ferroheme b + 4 an unknown reduced electron acceptor + 4 oxygen + 2 H+ → 15-oxo-β-bilirubin + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 4 an unknown oxidized electron acceptor + 4 H2O
ferroheme b + 4 an unknown reduced electron acceptor + 4 oxygen + 2 H+ → 5-oxo-δ-bilirubin + Fe2+ + carbon monoxide + 4 an unknown oxidized electron acceptor + 4 H2O
2 Fe2+ + 2 a siderophore + NADP+ + H+ ← 2 an Fe(III)-siderophore + NADPH
2 Fe2+ + 2 (2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3 + NADP+ ← 2 ferric (2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine)3 + NADPH + 9 H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

heme biosynthesis I (aerobic) , heme biosynthesis II (anaerobic) , superpathway of heme biosynthesis from uroporphyrinogen-III :
protoporphyrin IX + Fe2+ ← ferroheme b + 2 H+

siroheme biosynthesis :
sirohydrochlorin + Fe2+ ↔ siroheme + 2 H+

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
sulfite + 2 Fe3+ + H2O ↔ sulfate + 2 Fe2+ + 2 H+

Not in pathways:
Mo2+ + 7 Fe2+ + 9 S2- + (2R)-homocitrate ↔ iron-molybdenum cofactor + H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fe3+ + a reduced c-type cytochrome = Fe2+ + an oxidized c-type cytochrome
4 Fe2+ + oxygen + 6 H2O = 4 [FeO(OH)] monomer + 8 H+
2 Fe2+ + hydrogen peroxide + 2 H2O = 2 [FeO(OH)] monomer + 4 H+
2 Fe2+ + oxygen + 4 H2O = 2 [FeO(OH)] monomer + hydrogen peroxide + 4 H+

In Transport reactions:
Fe2+[cytosol] + H+[periplasmic space]Fe2+[periplasmic space] + H+[cytosol] ,
Fe2+[periplasmic space] + H+[periplasmic space]Fe2+[cytosol] + H+[cytosol] ,
Fe2+[periplasmic space]Fe2+[cytosol]

In Redox half-reactions:
Fe3+[out] + e-Fe2+[out] ,
Fe3+ + e-Fe2+

Enzymes activated by Fe2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Hoshino91] , malonate semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (malonate semialdehyde-forming) [Hugler02] , tryptophan 5-hydroxylase [Tipper94] , 4-sulfobenzoate 3,4-dioxygenase [Locher91] , DCD dehydrogenase [Saller95] , terephthalate 1,2-dioxygenase [Schlafli94] , 4-toluene-sulfonate monooxygenase [Locher91a] , 2-nitrobenzoate nitroreductase [Iwaki07] , 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase [Muraki03] , trihydroxytoluene dioxygenase [Haigler99] , pyruvic oxime dioxygenase [Ono96] , glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93] , carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94] , cis-benzene glycol dehydrogenase [Axcell73] , 4-aminoimidazole deaminase [Pricer56] , L-serine ammonia-lyase [Benziman60] , 4-ureido-5-imidazolecarboxylate amidohydrolase [Rabinowitz56a] , thiosulfate reductase [Aketagawa85]

Activator (Non-allosteric) of: tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Haavik91]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: D-mannonate dehydratase [RobertBaudouy73, Dreyer87] , D-altronate dehydratase [RobertBaudouy82, Smiley60, Dreyer87] , 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphoheptonate aldolase [Ray91] , adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07] , dimethyl sulfoxide reductase [Weiner88] , 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05] , gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase [Feng99] , synephrine dehydratase [Manne86] , naringenin 2-oxoglutarate oxygen oxidoreductase [Lee08d] , D-fructose-6-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12g] , phenylalanine 3-hydroxylase [Zhang11f] , phlorisobutyrophenone dimethylallyltransferase [Boubakir05] , 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase [Takenaka02] , hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase [Moonen08] , D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12d] , 1,3-dihydroxyacetone reductase [Wang10a] , digalacturonate lyase [Shevchik99] , phenylacetaldoxime dehydratase [Kato00] , 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07] , streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83] , 2,6-dichloro-hydroquinone chlorohydrolase [Lee97g] , 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase [Daniel95a] , 2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinoline 5,6 dioxygenase [Schach95] , DL-methylmalonyl-CoA racemase [Stabler85] , 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase [Johnson87] , tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [Yamamoto01b] , 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase [Gauthier71] , UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96] , lysine decarboxylase [Hartmann80]

Enzymes inhibited by Fe2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: glycine formimidoyltransferase [Uyeda65]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: o-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase [Kwon96] , N-acetylglutamylphosphate reductase [Vogel74] , phosphoglucomutase [Joshi64] , N-acetylornithine aminotransferase [Vogel74b] , deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70] , NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11] , D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84] , N-acetylneuraminate lyase [Aisaka et al., 1991, Comment 1] , N-acetyl-β-neuraminate lyase [Aisaka et al., 1991, Comment 1] , ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92] , 6-hydroxy-deoxybrevianamide E prenyltransferase [Ding10a] , deoxybrevianamide F synthase [Ding10a] , quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08] , glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase [Sugimori13] , dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxy-D-glucose acetyltransferase [Wang07e] , ginsenoside Rf 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11f] , ginsenoside Rh1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11f] , ginsenoside Rg2 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11f] , ginsenoside Re 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11f] , ginsenoside Rg1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11f] , ginsenoside R1 6-O-xylosidase [Wang11f] , protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 6-glycosidase [Wang11f] , phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71] , NADH kinase [Shi05c] , NAD(+) kinase [Shi05c] , 3,6,7,2',4'-pentamethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 3,6,7,4'-tetramethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetagetin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,7,3',4'-tetramethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , 2'-hydroxy 3,7,4'-trimethylquercetin 2'-O-glucosyltransferase [Bajaj83] , kaempferol 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , myricetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] , phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06] , anol synthase [Koeduka09] , eugenol synthase [Koeduka09] , squalene-hopene cyclase [Ochs90] , UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05] , 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Orii06] , 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04] , L-rhamnono-γ-lactonase [Watanabe08] , farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06] , 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88] , GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07] , UDP-D-xylose:β-D-glucoside α-1,3-D-xylosyltransferase [Ishimizu07] , L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase [Shigeoka79] , methyl indole-3-acetate methylesterase , 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Takenaka00] , cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase [RodriguezAparic92] , indole-3-acetate carboxyl methyltransferase [Zhao07a] , iminodiacetate dehydrogenase [Uetz93] , kanosamine 6-kinase [Arakawa02] , nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase [Uetz92] , sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase [Liu99] , carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase [Nakao90] , isopenicillin N epimerase [Laiz90] , β-keto-L-gulonic acid decarboxylase [WINKELMAN61] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase [Sato94] , sucrose synthase [Elling95] , 3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase [Morishige00] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase , lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93] , feruloyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase [Hohlfeld95] , phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase [Satyanarayana71] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98g] , S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98g] , noradrenaline N-methyltransferase [Connett70] , sulfite:ferric ion oxidoreductase [Comment 2] , 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01] , α-galactosidase [Liebl98] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase [Nakada95a] , eriodictyol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase [Martens98] , naringenin,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase [Martens98] , δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70] , sulfur oxygenase reductase [Kletzin89] , L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99] , L-asparaginase [Raha90] , L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87] , α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Peterbauer98] , chlorophyllase [HorneroMendez]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: chondroitin sulfate A endolyase [Hamai97] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Greiner01] , myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02] , L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: galactarate dehydratase , threonine dehydrogenase , 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphoheptonate aldolase , 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate 1,2-dioxygenase , UDP-glucose:α-D-galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase , acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase , ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase , L-glutamate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (transaminating) , L-1,2-propanediol oxidoreductase , glycolaldehyde reductase , taurine dioxygenase , protein-arginine oxygenase , acetaldehyde dehydrogenase , alcohol dehydrogenase , cAMP phosphodiesterase , peptide deformylase , cytosine deaminase , N1-methyladenine demethylase , N3-methylcytosine demethylase , 1-ethyladenine demethylase , formate dehydrogenase , ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase , methionine aminopeptidase , catalase , adenine deaminase , anditomin synthase , preandiloid B dehydrogenase , mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase , hercynylcysteine S-oxide synthase , 2-aminoethylphosphonate dioxygenase , 2-amino-1-hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase , FR-33289 synthase , 4-feruloyl 2'-hydroxylase , 4-coumaroyl 2'-hydroxylase , 4-coumaroyl 2'-hydroxylase , feruloyl-coA 6'-hydroxylase , (R,S)-butanediol dehydrogenase [(R)-acetoin-forming] , 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate oxygenase , 3-dimethylallyl-4-hydroxymandelate oxygenase , tRNAPhe (7-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)wyosine37-C2)-hydroxylase , hercynine oxygenase (γ-glutamyl-hercynylcysteine sulfoxide-forming) , kanamycin B dioxygenase , uridine-5'-monophosphate:2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase , 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA hydroxylase , 3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase , β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase , all-trans-8′-apo-β-carotenal 15,15′-oxygenase , 9-cis-β-carotene 9',10'-cleavage dioxygenase , ketoisocaproate dioxygenase , β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase , chromopyrrolate synthase , 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase , L-dopa 2,3-dioxygenase , androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione 9α-hydroxylase , 3,4-dihydroxy-9,10-secoandrosta-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione 4,5-dioxygenase , 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione 9α-hydroxylase , neopentalenolactone D dioxygenase , neopentalenolactone E dioxygenase , 1-deoxypentalenate 11-hydroxylase , retinyl-ester 13-cis-isomerohydrolase , β,β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase , 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase/decarboxylase (ethylene-forming) , 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase (7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-phosphate-forming) , 7,8-dihydro-D-neopterin 2',3'-cyclic phosphate phosphodiesterase (7,8-dihydroneopterin 2'-phosphate-forming) , phosphoprotein phosphatase , dimethylsulfide monooxygenase , cyclodextrin glucanotransferase , acetylacetone:oxygen oxidoreductase , phophonoacetaldehyde reductase , phosphonoacetaldehyde reductase , gallate dioxygenase , salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase , 2'-aminobiphenyl-2,3-diol 1,2-dioxygenase , aliphatic nitrile hydratase , 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase , thebaine 6-O-demethylase , oripavine 6-O-demethylase , thebane O-demethylase , codeine O-demethylase , hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase , benzoate 4-monooxygenase , 2-amino-5-formylamino-6-ribosylaminopyrimidin-4(3H)-one 5'-monophosphate deformylase , ammonia monooxygenase , pyrogallol transhydroxylase , norcoclaurine synthase , protocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase , 2,2',3-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy-5,5'-dicarboxybiphenyl dioxygenase , gallate dioxygenase , 3-O-methylgallate:oxygen 4,5-oxidoreductase (decyclizing) , hydroxyethylphosphonate dioxygenase , 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase , 2-fluorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase , chlorocatechol 2,3-dioxygenase , 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase , 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate hydroxylase , 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase , GTP cyclohydrolase IV , S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase , S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase , S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase , N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate synthase , γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase , ε-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase , 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate dioxygenase , histidinol phosphate phosphatase , stearoyl-CoA Δ9-desaturase , enamidase , dimethylmaleate hydratase , (S)-2-hydroxypropylphosphonate epoxidase , alkane hydroxylase , deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase , deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase , deacetoxycephalosporin C hydroxylase , deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase , 2-aminophenol-1,6-dioxygenase , emodin deoxygenase , flavone synthase , desacetoxyvindoline 4-hydroxylase , lysine 2,3-aminomutase , thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming) , thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming) , alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming) , alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming) , homogentisate oxygenase , homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase , 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase , nucleoside oxidase , 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase , 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase , 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase , (S)-canadine oxidase , catechol 2,3-dioxygenase , amidase , anthranilate dioxygenase , glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase , nicotinate hydroxylase , quinoline 2-oxidoreductase , tyrosine 3-monooxygenase , cysteine dioxygenase , acireductone dioxygenase [iron(II)-requiring] , protocatechuate 4,5-dioxygenase , 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase , gibberellin A15,oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase , nitrile hydratase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: glycerate kinase , anthranilate synthase , phenylhydantoinase


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