MetaCyc Compound: Fe3+

Synonyms: ferric iron, Fe+++, Fe+3, ferric ion, fe(iii)

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cation

Component of: ferric chloride

Chemical Formula: Fe

Molecular Weight: 55.847 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 55.9349421 Daltons

SMILES: [Fe+++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Fe/q+3


Unification Links: ChEBI:29034, ChemSpider:27815, HMDB:HMDB12943, IAF1260:50061, KEGG:C14819, MetaboLights:MTBLC29034, PubChem:29936

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -3.9085345Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ferrichrome A biosynthesis :
3 methylglutaconyl hydroxy ornithine + 3 ATP + glycine + 2 L-serine + Fe3+ → ferrichrome A + 3 AMP + 3 diphosphate + 3 H2O + 3 H+

ferrichrome biosynthesis :
3 N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + 3 glycine + Fe3+ + 3 ATP → ferrichrome + 3 AMP + 3 diphosphate + 3 H2O + 6 H+

pulcherrimin biosynthesis :
pulcherriminic acid + 2 Fe3+ → pulcherrimin

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
S-sulfanylglutathione + 4 Fe3+ + 3 H2O → sulfite + glutathione + 4 Fe2+ + 6 H+

[2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis :
a [cysteine desulfurase]-(S-sulfanyl)2-[disordered-form scaffold protein] complex + 2 Fe3+ → a [cysteine desulfurase]-[scaffold protein-(2Fe-2S)] complex

Not in pathways:
L-ascorbate[in] + Fe3+[out] → monodehydroascorbate radical[in] + Fe2+[out]

Reactions known to produce the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) :
2 Fe2+ + 2 oxygen → 2 superoxide + 2 Fe3+
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

Fe(II) oxidation :
Fe3+[extracellular space] + a reduced rusticyanin[periplasm] ← Fe2+[extracellular space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasm]

reactive oxygen species degradation :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

Not in pathways:
4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + oxygen → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
sulfite + 2 Fe3+ + H2O ↔ sulfate + 2 Fe2+ + 2 H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fe3+ + a reduced c-type cytochrome = Fe2+ + an oxidized c-type cytochrome

In Transport reactions:
Fe3+[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O ↔ Fe3+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+

In Redox half-reactions:
Fe3+[membrane] + e-[membrane] → Fe2+[membrane],
Fe3+[out] + e-[membrane] → Fe2+[out]

Enzymes activated by Fe3+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-sorbose dehydrogenase [Sugisawa91], carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05], D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12], homophytochelatin synthase [Loscos06], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70]

Enzymes inhibited by Fe3+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], mannose isomerase [Itoh08], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], baicalin β-D-glucuronidase [Zhang05], thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12], 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04], farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06], GA4 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07], GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07], 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07], methyl indole-3-acetate methylesterase, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Takenaka00], 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase [Takenaka97], carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase [Nakao90], 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase [Kimura75], linamarase [Elias97], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98a], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98a], 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01], pectin methyltransferase [Ishikawa00], sulfur oxygenase reductase [Kletzin89], L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99] Inhibitor (Other types) of: myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Greiner01], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97], 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: superoxide dismutase, L-methionine sulfur-hydroxylase, L-leucine-4-hydroxylase, L-isoleucine-4-hydroxylase, hydroxylamine oxidase, lionoleate:O2 9S-oxidoreductase, α-linolenate:O2 9S-oxidoreductase, 5-chloro-3-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chloro-6-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chloro-5-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3,4,6-trichlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, acetone carboxylase, xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming), alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming), arsenite oxidoreductase, protocatechuate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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