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MetaCyc Compound: Fe3+

Synonyms: ferric iron, Fe+++, Fe+3, ferric ion, fe(iii)

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cation

Component of: ferric chloride

Chemical Formula: Fe

Molecular Weight: 55.847 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 55.9349421 Daltons

SMILES: [Fe+++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Fe/q+3


Unification Links: ChEBI:29034, ChemSpider:27815, HMDB:HMDB12943, IAF1260:50061, KEGG:C14819, MetaboLights:MTBLC29034, PubChem:29936

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -3.9085345Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

ferrichrome A biosynthesis :
3 methylglutaconyl hydroxy ornithine + 3 ATP + glycine + 2 L-serine + Fe3+ → ferrichrome A + 3 AMP + 3 diphosphate + 3 H2O + 3 H+

ferrichrome biosynthesis :
3 N5-acetyl-N5-hydroxy-L-ornithine + 3 glycine + Fe3+ + 3 ATP → ferrichrome + 3 AMP + 3 diphosphate + 3 H2O + 6 H+

pulcherrimin biosynthesis :
pulcherriminic acid + 2 Fe3+ → pulcherrimin

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
S-sulfanylglutathione + 4 Fe3+ + 3 H2O → sulfite + glutathione + 4 Fe2+ + 6 H+

[2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis :
a [cysteine desulfurase]-(S-sulfanyl)2-[disordered-form scaffold protein] complex + 2 Fe3+ → a [cysteine desulfurase]-[scaffold protein-(2Fe-2S)] complex

Not in pathways:
L-ascorbate[in] + Fe3+[out] → monodehydroascorbate radical[in] + Fe2+[out]

Reactions known to produce the compound:

ethylene biosynthesis III (microbes) :
2 Fe2+ + 2 oxygen → 2 superoxide + 2 Fe3+
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

Fe(II) oxidation :
Fe3+[extracellular space] + a reduced rusticyanin[periplasm] ← Fe2+[extracellular space] + an oxidized rusticyanin[periplasm]

reactive oxygen species degradation :
hydrogen peroxide + Fe2+ → hydroxyl radical + Fe3+ + OH-

Not in pathways:
4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + oxygen → 4 Fe3+ + 2 H2O

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

sulfur oxidation II (Fe+3-dependent) :
sulfite + 2 Fe3+ + H2O ↔ sulfate + 2 Fe2+ + 2 H+

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
Fe3+ + a reduced c-type cytochrome = Fe2+ + an oxidized c-type cytochrome

In Transport reactions:
Fe3+[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O ↔ Fe3+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+

In Redox half-reactions:
Fe3+[membrane] + e-[membrane] → Fe2+[membrane],
Fe3+[out] + e-[membrane] → Fe2+[out]

Enzymes activated by Fe3+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: L-sorbose dehydrogenase [Sugisawa91], carnitine monooxygenase [Ditullio94] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [Lu07], 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene monooxygenase (quinone-forming) [Funa05], D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12d], homophytochelatin synthase [Loscos06], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70]

Enzymes inhibited by Fe3+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: deoxyribose 1,5-phosphomutase [HammerJespersen70], mannose isomerase [Itoh08], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], baicalin β-D-glucuronidase [Zhang05b], thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12], 2-amino-5-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde deaminase [Orii04], farnesoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase [Yang06a], GA4 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07], GA9 carboxyl methyltransferase [Varbanova07], 2-amino 3-carboxymuconate 6-semialdehyde decarboxylase [Pucci07], methyl indole-3-acetate methylesterase, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase [Takenaka00], 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase [Takenaka97], carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase [Nakao90], 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate reductase [Kimura75], linamarase [Elias97], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:isoeugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98g], S-adenosyl-L-methionine:eugenol-O-methyltransferase [Wang98g], 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase [Graham01], pectin methyltransferase [Ishikawa00], sulfur oxygenase reductase [Kletzin89], L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Asakura99] Inhibitor (Other types) of: myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 4-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Greiner01], myo-inositol-hexakisphosphate 3-phosphohydrolase [Greiner02], L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97], 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: superoxide dismutase, L-methionine sulfur-hydroxylase, L-leucine-4-hydroxylase, L-isoleucine-4-hydroxylase, hydroxylamine oxidase, lionoleate:O2 9S-oxidoreductase, α-linolenate:O2 9S-oxidoreductase, 5-chloro-3-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chloro-6-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chloro-5-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-fluorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3,4,6-trichlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 3-chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase, 4-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, acetone carboxylase, xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase, thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (nitrile-forming), alkenyl thiohydroximate-O-sulfate sulfohydrolase (epithionitrile-forming), arsenite oxidoreductase, protocatechuate:oxygen 3,4-oxidoreductase


Asakura99: Asakura A, Hoshino T (1999). "Isolation and Characterization of a New Quinoprotein Dehydrogenase, L-Sorbose/L-Sorbosone Dehydrogenase." Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 63 (1), 46-53.

Ditullio94: Ditullio D, Anderson D, Chen CS, Sih CJ (1994). "L-carnitine via enzyme-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution." Bioorg Med Chem 2(6);415-20. PMID: 8000862

Elias97: Elias M, Nambisan B, Sudhakaran PR (1997). "Characterization of linamarase of latex and its localization in petioles in cassava." Arch Biochem Biophys 341(2);222-8. PMID: 9169008

Funa05: Funa N, Funabashi M, Yoshimura E, Horinouchi S (2005). "A novel quinone-forming monooxygenase family involved in modification of aromatic polyketides." J Biol Chem 280(15);14514-23. PMID: 15701630

Graham01: Graham DE, Graupner M, Xu H, White RH (2001). "Identification of coenzyme M biosynthetic 2-phosphosulfolactate phosphatase. A member of a new class of Mg(2+)-dependent acid phosphatases." Eur J Biochem 2001;268(19);5176-88. PMID: 11589710

Greiner01: Greiner R, Muzquiz M, Burbano C, Cuadrado C, Pedrosa MM, Goyoaga C (2001). "Purification and characterization of a phytate-degrading enzyme from germinated faba beans (Vicia faba Var. Alameda)." J Agric Food Chem 49(5);2234-40. PMID: 11368582

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HammerJespersen70: Hammer-Jespersen K, Munch-Petersen A (1970). "Phosphodeoxyribomutase from Escherichia coli. Purification and some properties." Eur J Biochem 1970;17(3);397-407. PMID: 4992818

Ishikawa00: Ishikawa M, Kuroyama H, Takeuchi Y, Tsumuraya Y (2000). "Characterization of pectin methyltransferase from soybean hypocotyls." Planta 210(5);782-91. PMID: 10805450

Itoh08: Itoh T, Mikami B, Hashimoto W, Murata K (2008). "Crystal structure of YihS in complex with D-mannose: structural annotation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica yihS-encoded proteins to an aldose-ketose isomerase." J Mol Biol 377(5);1443-59. PMID: 18328504

Kataoka97: Kataoka M, Wada M, Nishi K, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1997). "Purification and characterization of L-allo-threonine aldolase from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39." FEMS Microbiol Lett 151(2);245-8. PMID: 9228760

Kimura75: Kimura K (1975). "A new flavin enzyme catalyzing the reduction of dihydrodipicolinate in sporulating Bacillus subtilis I. Purification and properties." J Biochem (Tokyo) 77(2);405-13. PMID: 236291

Kletzin89: Kletzin A (1989). "Coupled enzymatic production of sulfite, thiosulfate, and hydrogen sulfide from sulfur: purification and properties of a sulfur oxygenase reductase from the facultatively anaerobic archaebacterium Desulfurolobus ambivalens." J Bacteriol 171(3);1638-43. PMID: 2493451

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Loscos06: Loscos J, Naya L, Ramos J, Clemente MR, Matamoros MA, Becana M (2006). "A reassessment of substrate specificity and activation of phytochelatin synthases from model plants by physiologically relevant metals." Plant Physiol 140(4);1213-21. PMID: 16489135

Lu07: Lu ZJ, Markham GD (2007). "Metal ion activation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase reflects cation charge density." Biochemistry 46(27);8172-80. PMID: 17567041

Merkel05: Merkel O, Oskolkova OV, Raab F, El-Toukhy R, Paltauf F (2005). "Regulation of activity in vitro and in vivo of three phospholipases B from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Biochem J 387(Pt 2);489-96. PMID: 15588231

Nakao90: Nakao H, Shinoda S, Yamamoto S (1990). "Purification and properties of carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase, a novel enzyme involved in norspermidine biosynthesis, from Vibrio alginolyticus." Journal of General Microbiology 136, 1699-1704.

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Patel80: Patel TR, Barnsley EA (1980). "Naphthalene metabolism by pseudomonads: purification and properties of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene oxygenase." J Bacteriol 143(2);668-73. PMID: 7204331

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Reitz70: Reitz MS, Rodwell VW (1970). "Delta-aminovaleramidase of Pseudomonas putida." J Biol Chem 245(12);3091-6. PMID: 5432799

Sugisawa91: Sugisawa, T., Hoshino, T., Nomura, S., Fujiwara, A. (1991). "Isolation and characterization of membrane-bound L-sorbose dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter melanogenus UV10." Agric. Biol. Chem. 55(2): 363-370.

Taguchi08: Taguchi H, Hamada S, Kawauchi S, Ito H, Senoura T, Watanabe J, Nishimukai M, Ito S, Matsui H (2008). "Enzymatic properties of cellobiose 2-epimerase from Ruminococcus albus and the synthesis of rare oligosaccharides by the enzyme." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 79(3);433-41. PMID: 18392616

Takenaka00: Takenaka S, Murakami S, Kim YJ, Aoki K (2000). "Complete nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of the genes for 2-aminophenol metabolism from Pseudomonas sp. AP-3." Arch Microbiol 174(4);265-72. PMID: 11081795

Takenaka97: Takenaka S, Murakami S, Shinke R, Hatakeyama K, Yukawa H, Aoki K (1997). "Novel genes encoding 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas species AP-3 growing on 2-aminophenol and catalytic properties of the purified enzyme." J Biol Chem 272(23);14727-32. PMID: 9169437

Varbanova07: Varbanova M, Yamaguchi S, Yang Y, McKelvey K, Hanada A, Borochov R, Yu F, Jikumaru Y, Ross J, Cortes D, Ma CJ, Noel JP, Mander L, Shulaev V, Kamiya Y, Rodermel S, Weiss D, Pichersky E (2007). "Methylation of gibberellins by Arabidopsis GAMT1 and GAMT2." Plant Cell 19(1);32-45. PMID: 17220201

Wang12d: Wang Q, Xu Y, Perepelov AV, Knirel YA, Reeves PR, Shashkov AS, Guo X, Ding P, Feng L (2012). "Biochemical characterization of the CDP-D-arabinitol biosynthetic pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae 17F." J Bacteriol 194:1868-1874. PMID: 22328666

Wang98g: Wang J, Pichersky E (1998). "Characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase involved in floral scent production in Clarkia breweri." Arch Biochem Biophys 349(1);153-60. PMID: 9439593

Yang06a: Yang Y, Yuan JS, Ross J, Noel JP, Pichersky E, Chen F (2006). "An Arabidopsis thaliana methyltransferase capable of methylating farnesoic acid." Arch Biochem Biophys 448(1-2);123-32. PMID: 16165084

Zhang05b: Zhang, C., Hang, Y., Chen, J., Liang, X. (2005). "Purification and characterization of baicalin-β-D-glucuronidase hydrolyzing baicalin to baicalein from fresh roots of Scutellaria viscidula Bge." Proc. Biochem. 40:1911-1915.

Zhao12: Zhao N, Ferrer JL, Moon HS, Kapteyn J, Zhuang X, Hasebe M, Neal Stewart C, Gang DR, Chen F (2012). "A SABATH Methyltransferase from the moss Physcomitrella patens catalyzes S-methylation of thiols and has a role in detoxification." Phytochemistry 81;31-41. PMID: 22795762

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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