Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
twitter

MetaCyc Compound: Hg2+

Synonyms: Hg++, Hg(II), mercury ion, mercury (II)

Superclasses: an ion a cation

Citations: [Budavari89]

Chemical Formula: Hg

Molecular Weight: 200.59 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 201.970626 Daltons

SMILES: [Hg++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Hg/q+2

InChIKey: InChIKey=BQPIGGFYSBELGY-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Unification Links: ChEBI:16793 , ChemSpider:24800 , HMDB:HMDB03625 , IAF1260:35741 , KEGG:C00703 , PubChem:26623

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

phenylmercury acetate degradation :
Hg0 + NADP+ + H+Hg2+ + NADPH

Reactions known to produce the compound:

phenylmercury acetate degradation :
mercuriphenyl acetate + H+Hg2+ + benzene + acetate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
an alkylmercury + H+ = an alkane + Hg2+

Enzymes activated by Hg2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: malonyl-CoA:shisonin 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01b]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: daphnetin 8-O-β-glucosyltransferase [Sato71]

Enzymes inhibited by Hg2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: hexulose-6-phosphate synthase [Kato78]

Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: furcatin hydrolase [IMASEKI61] , L-alanine dehydrogenase [Yoshida70]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: NADPH-dependent curcumin reductase [Hassaninasab11] , betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase [Falkenberg90] , phosphatidylglycerophosphatase [Funk92a] , rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase [Chiu75] , 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase [Ray80a, Comment 1] , D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase [Meredith03] , glyoxylate carboligase [Gupta66] , glycolate oxidase [Lord72] , o-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase [Kwon96] , glutaminase [Hartman68] , N-acetylglutamate synthase [Marvil77] , threonine dehydrogenase [Craig86] , 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase [Mukherjee87] , 4-aminobutyrate transaminase [Schulz90] , isocitrate lyase , glutamate decarboxylase A [Helmward89] , glutamate decarboxylase B [Helmward89] , glycogen phosphorylase [Chen68, Chen68a] , glycogen phosphorylase-limit dextrin α-1,6-glucohydrolase [Jeanningros76] , glutathione S-transferase [Arca90] , D-aminopropanol dehydrogenase [Kelley84, Comment 2] , phenylethylamine oxidase [Roh94] , fumarase A [Xu12a] , 7-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [Yoshimoto91] , amylomaltase [Wiesmeyer60] , diffusion of glycerol [Maurel94] , quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich] , 1,4-β-mannanase [Kawaguchi14] , maltose 1-epimerase [Shirokane95] , synephrine dehydratase [Manne86] , cystathionine γ-lyase [Matsuo59] , ginsenoside Rh2 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , (20S)-ginsenoside Rg3 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside C-O 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside Rb2 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside F2 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside Rd 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside C-Mc1 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside Rc 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside XVII 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside Rb1 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside C-Mx1 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , ginsenoside Rb3 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside 3-O-glucosidase [An10] , UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [Ogata98] , pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase [Tsuge82] , pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase II [Tsuge82] , vicianin hydrolase [Lizotte88] , 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone reductase [Takenaka11] , 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene 1,2-dioxygenase [Takenaka03] , UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05] , esculetin 6-O-glucosyltransferase [Sato72] , cichorrin transglucosylase (β-glucosidase activity) [Sato72] , daphnin transglucosylase (β-glucosidase activity) [Sato71] , 6-oxocamphor hydrolase [Grogan01] , (-)-maackiain-3-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hsieh01] , 2-hydroxybiphenyl-3-monooxygenase [Suske97] , 2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase [Orii06] , 2-hydroxymuconate 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Orii06] , 4-amino-3-hydroxy-benzoate 2,3-dioxygenase [Takenaka02] , pesudooxynicotine oxidase [Qiu12a] , nicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09] , pseudoroxynicotine dehydrogenase [Tang09] , trehalase [App89] , β-N-acetylglucosaminidase [Keyhani96a] , chitotriose synthase [Keyhani96] , rutinase [HAY61] , phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [Gaynor90] , phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase [Gaynor90] , choline kinase [Kim98] , oligoxyloglucan β-glycosidase [Kato85] , N-cyclohexylformamide hydratase [Goda01] , N-benzylformamide deformylase [Fukatsu04] , 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88] , cholate 12α-hydroxy dehydrogenase [Braun91] , cholate 7α-hydroxy dehydrogenase [Bennett03] , glycocholate hydrolase [Tanaka00] , D-galacturonate dehydrogenase [Bateman70] , oxidized polyvinylalcohol hydrolase [Klomklang05] , β-alanine amide amidase [Komeda04] , L-proline amide hydrolase [Komeda04a] , 2-aminomuconate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Ichiyama65] , tropinone reductase (TR-II) [Hashimoto92] , tropinone reductase (TR-I) [Hashimoto92] , dihydropteridine reductase [Firgaira81] , anthocyanidin-3-O-rutinoside-5-O-glucosyltransferase [Kamsteeg78] , ribitol dehydrogenase [Taylor74] , hydroxyproline 2-epimerase [Adams64] , Δ1-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate deaminase [Singh65a] , arginine-α-ketoglutarate transaminase [Tachiki80] , porphobilinogen deaminase [Jordan73] , ferrochelatase [Dailey86a] , 6-hydroxynicotinate 3-monooxygenase [Nakano99] , tryptophan decarboxylase [Buki85] , tryptophan 2-monooxygenase [Kosuge66] , N-methylputrescine oxidase [Hashimoto90] , glycerol dehydratase [Schneider70] , NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase [Asano88] , 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase [Hara00] , 4-oxalocitramalate aldolase [Maruyama90] , 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase [Maruyama83a] , taurine:α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase [Toyama78] , 1,4-dichlorobenzene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase [Spiess96] , haloalkane dehalogenase [Keuning85] , 6-hydroxymellein synthase [Kurosaki93] , acetate kinase [Winzer97] , sinapoylglucose:choline O-sinapoyltransferase [Vogt93] , 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase [Maruyama85] , hydrogenase [Schink79] , 2-hydroxy-4-carboxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Masai00] , 4-oxalocitramalate aldolase [Hara03] , 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Maruyama78] , methylamine dehydrogenase [Matsumoto78] , asparaginase [Sodek80] , methylamine dehydrogenase [Husain87] , linamarase [Eksittikul88] , S-formylglutathione hydrolase [Uotila74] , N-acetylneuraminate synthase [Komaki97] , 2-aminomuconate deaminase [Takenaka00] , 2-aminomuconic 6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Takenaka00] , 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase [Takenaka97] , cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase [RodriguezAparic92] , (25R)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA racemase [Schmitz94] , sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase [Liu99c] , hydantoin racemase [Wiese00] , nicotinate nucleotide adenylyltransferase [Emanuelli99] , isopenicillin N epimerase [Laiz90] , L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase [Heydari04] , L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase [Misono89] , L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase [Nishikimi79] , succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase [Chambliss92] , L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75] , porphobilinogen deaminase [Jones94] , glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93] , maltooligosyl-trahalose synthase [Nakada96a] , trehalose synthase [Nishimoto96] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonyltransferase [Hinderer86] , phospho-β-galactosidase [Hengstenberg70] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase , lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93] , L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Mori88] , (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase [Amann88] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonylesterase [Hinderer86] , kynurenine formamidase [Brown86] , trehalose synthase [Lee05e] , choline dehydrogenase [Nagasawa76] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , L-carnitine dehydrogenase [Hanschmann96] , kynurenine formamidase [Brown86] , trehalose synthase [Nishimoto96a] , (-)-maackiain-3-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonylesterase [Hinderer86] , maltooligosyl-trehalose synthase [Nakada95a] , glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [Krishnan90] , glutathione peroxidase [Takahashi87] , sarcosine oxidase [Nishiya93] , N-carbamoylsarcosine amidohydrolase [Kim86] , arginine deiminase [Monstadt91] , (S)-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase [Dai68] , allantoicase [Trijbels66] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hsieh01] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hsieh01] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonylesterase [Hinderer86] , maltooligosyl-trehalose trehalohydrolase [Nakada95] , isethionate dehydrogenase [Kondo77] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonylesterase [Hinderer86] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hsieh01] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside β-glucosidase [Hosel75] , isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonate malonylesterase [Hinderer86] , D-carnitine dehydrogenase [Setyahadi97] , galactokinase [Dey83] , hydrogenase [Schneider79] , naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase [Rakwal00] , nicotinate N-methyltransferase [Upmeier88a] , nicotinate dehydrogenase [Hurh94] , uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase [Jones93b] , agmatine deiminase [Nakada03] , N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase [Nakada03] , D-galactonate dehydratase [Szumilo81] , L-lysine monooxygenase [Nakazawa72] , δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70] , Δ1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase [Payton82] , phosphohexose isomerase [Sangwan90] , coumarinic acid glucoside β-glucosidase [Kosuge61] , cannabidiolate synthase [Taura96] , malonyl-CoA:pelargonidin-3-O-(6-caffeoyl-β-D-glucoside)-5-O-β-D-glucoside 6-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki01b] , anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [Suzuki04a] , L-asparaginase [Raha90] , L-lysine α-oxidase [Weber94] , L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase [Schmidt87] , nitroalkane oxidase [Kido78a] , chlorophyllase [HorneroMendez] , α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81] , alanine aminotransferase [Umemura94] , alanine dehydrogenase [Chowdhury98]

Inhibitor (Other types) of: selaginose phosphorylase [Chaen99] , kojibiose phosphorylase [Chaen99] , xylan 1,3-β-xylosidase [Umemoto08] , endo-1,3-β-xylanase , dimethylsulfide monooxygenase [Boden11a] , trans-permethrin hydrolase [Wu06] , 2-methylbutanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase [Komuniecki85] , chitin disaccharide deacetylase [Ohishi97] , tetrathionate decomposing enzyme [Ng00] , sulfite dehydrogenase [Nakamura95] , 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase [Chowdhury96] , (-)-dihydrocarvone monooxygenase [Van00] , (1S,4R)-iso-dihydrocarvone monooxygenase [Van00] , (1R,4S)-iso-dihydrocarvone monooxygenase [Van00] , (1R,4R)-dihydrocarvone monooxygenase [Van00] , (1R,4S)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene monooxygenase [Van00] , (1S,4R)-1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene monooxygenase [Van00] , cis-aconitate decarboxylase [Bentley57] , diacetyl reductase , amidase [Nawaz94] , (S)-acetoin reductase [(S,S)-2,3-butanediol forming] [Takusagawa01] , nitrilase [Nagasawa90] , L-allo-threonine aldolase [Kataoka97] , 4-pyridoxolactonase [Funami05] , raffinose synthase [Lehle73] , 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene dioxygenase [Patel80]


References

Adams64: Adams E, Norton IL (1964). "Purification and properties of inducible hydroxyproline 2-epimerase from Pseudomonas." J Biol Chem 239;1525-35. PMID: 14189888

Amann88: Amann M, Nagakura N, Zenk MH "Purification and properties of (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase from suspension-cultured cells of Berberis wilsoniae." Eur. J. Biochem., 1988, 175:17-25.

An10: An DS, Cui CH, Lee HG, Wang L, Kim SC, Lee ST, Jin F, Yu H, Chin YW, Lee HK, Im WT, Kim SG (2010). "Identification and characterization of a novel Terrabacter ginsenosidimutans sp. nov. beta-glucosidase that transforms ginsenoside Rb1 into the rare gypenosides XVII and LXXV." Appl Environ Microbiol 76(17);5827-36. PMID: 20622122

App89: App H, Holzer H (1989). "Purification and characterization of neutral trehalase from the yeast ABYS1 mutant." J Biol Chem 264(29);17583-8. PMID: 2507544

Arca90: Arca P, Garcia P, Hardisson C, Suarez JE (1990). "Purification and study of a bacterial glutathione S-transferase." FEBS Lett 1990;263(1);77-9. PMID: 2185038

Asano88: Asano Y, Sekigawa T, Inukai H, Nakazawa A (1988). "Purification and properties of formate dehydrogenase from Moraxella sp. strain C-1." J Bacteriol 170(7);3189-93. PMID: 3384805

Bateman70: Bateman DF, Kosuge T, Kilgore WW (1970). "Purification and properties of uronate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae." Arch Biochem Biophys 136(1);97-105. PMID: 4392089

Bennett03: Bennett MJ, McKnight SL, Coleman JP (2003). "Cloning and characterization of the NAD-dependent 7alpha-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Bacteroides fragilis." Curr Microbiol 47(6);475-84. PMID: 14756531

Bentley57: Bentley, R., Thiessen, C.P. (1957). "Biosynthesis of itaconic acid in Aspergillus terreus. III. The properties and reaction mechanism of cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase." J Biol Chem 226(2);703-20. PMID: 13438855

Bode93: Bode R, Thurau AM, Schmidt H (1993). "Characterization of acetyl-CoA: L-lysine N6-acetyltransferase, which catalyses the first step of carbon catabolism from lysine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Arch Microbiol 160(5);397-400. PMID: 8257283

Boden11a: Boden R, Borodina E, Wood AP, Kelly DP, Murrell JC, Schafer H (2011). "Purification and Characterization of Dimethylsulfide Monooxygenase from Hyphomicrobium sulfonivorans." J Bacteriol 193(5);1250-8. PMID: 21216999

Braun91: Braun M, Lunsdorf H, Buckmann AF (1991). "12 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Clostridium group P, strain C 48-50. Production, purification and characterization." Eur J Biochem 196(2);439-50. PMID: 2007406

Brown86: Brown D, Hitchcock MJ, Katz E (1986). "Purification and characterization of kynurenine formamidase activities from Streptomyces parvulus." Can J Microbiol 32(6);465-72. PMID: 2425918

Budavari89: Budavari, S. Editor, O'Neil, M.J. Associate Editor, Smith, A. Assistant Editor, Heckelman, P. E. Editorial Assistant (1989). "The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. Eleventh Edition." Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway, NJ.

Buki85: Buki KG, Vinh DQ, Horvath I (1985). "Partial purification and some properties of tryptophan decarboxylase from a Bacillus strain." Acta Microbiol Hung 32(1);65-73. PMID: 4036551

Chaen99: Chaen H, Yamamoto T, Nishimoto T, Nakada T, Fukuda S, Sugimoto T, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y (1999). "Purification and characterization of a novel phosphorylase, kojibiose phosphorylase, from Thermoanaerobium brockii." J. Appl. Glycosci. 46: 423-429.

Chambliss92: Chambliss KL, Gibson KM (1992). "Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from mammalian brain: subunit analysis using polyclonal antiserum." Int J Biochem 24(9);1493-9. PMID: 1426531

Chen68: Chen GS, Segel IH (1968). "Escherichia coli polyglucose phosphorylases." Arch Biochem Biophys 1968;127(1);164-74. PMID: 4878694

Chen68a: Chen GS, Segel IH (1968). "Purification and properties of glycogen phosphorylase from Escherichia coli." Arch Biochem Biophys 1968;127(1);175-86. PMID: 4878695

Chiu75: Chiu TH, Evans KL, Feingold DS (1975). "L-Rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldosase." Methods Enzymol 1975;42;364-9. PMID: 237196

Chowdhury96: Chowdhury EK, Nagata S, Misono H (1996). "3-Hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida E23: purification and characterization." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60(12);2043-7. PMID: 8988636

Chowdhury98: Chowdhury EK, Saitoh T, Nagata S, Ashiuchi M, Misono H (1998). "Alanine dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes: purification, characterization, and primary structure." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 62(12);2357-63. PMID: 9972262

Craig86: Craig PA, Dekker EE (1986). "L-threonine dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli K-12: thiol-dependent activation by Mn2+." Biochemistry 1986;25(8);1870-6. PMID: 3518793

Dai68: Dai VD, Decker K, Sund H (1968). "Purification and properties of L-6-hydroxynicotine oxidase." Eur J Biochem 1968;4(1);95-102. PMID: 5646150

Dailey86a: Dailey HA (1986). "Purification and characterization of bacterial ferrochelatase." Methods Enzymol 123;408-15. PMID: 3702737

Dey83: Dey PM (1983). "Galactokinase of Vicia faba seeds." Eur J Biochem 136(1);155-9. PMID: 6617655

Eksittikul88: Eksittikul T, Chulavatnatol M (1988). "Characterization of cyanogenic beta-glucosidase (linamarase) from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)." Arch Biochem Biophys 266(1);263-9. PMID: 3140730

Emanuelli99: Emanuelli M, Carnevali F, Lorenzi M, Raffaelli N, Amici A, Ruggieri S, Magni G (1999). "Identification and characterization of YLR328W, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae structural gene encoding NMN adenylyltransferase. Expression and characterization of the recombinant enzyme." FEBS Lett 455(1-2);13-7. PMID: 10428462

Falkenberg90: Falkenberg P, Strom AR (1990). "Purification and characterization of osmoregulatory betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1990;1034(3);253-9. PMID: 2194570

Firgaira81: Firgaira FA, Cotton RG, Danks DM (1981). "Isolation and characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from human liver." Biochem J 197(1);31-43. PMID: 7317032

Fukatsu04: Fukatsu H, Hashimoto Y, Goda M, Higashibata H, Kobayashi M (2004). "Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(38);13726-31. PMID: 15358859

Funami05: Funami J, Yoshikane Y, Kobayashi H, Yokochi N, Yuan B, Iwasaki K, Ohnishi K, Yagi T (2005). "4-Pyridoxolactonase from a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium Mesorhizobium loti: cloning, expression, and characterization." Biochim Biophys Acta 1753(2);234-9. PMID: 16226926

Funk92a: Funk CR, Zimniak L, Dowhan W (1992). "The pgpA and pgpB genes of Escherichia coli are not essential: evidence for a third phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphatase." J Bacteriol 1992;174(1);205-13. PMID: 1309518

Gaudreault81: Gaudreault, P.R., Webb, J.A. (1981). "Stachyose synthesis in leaves of Cucurbita pepo." Phytochemistry 20:2629-2633.

Gaynor90: Gaynor PM, Carman GM (1990). "Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase and phospholipid methyltransferase activities from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzymological and kinetic properties." Biochim Biophys Acta 1045(2);156-63. PMID: 2198947

Gluck88: Gluck M, Lingens F (1988). "Heteroxanthinedemethylase, a new enzyme in the degradation of caffeine by Pseudomonas putida." Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28:59-62.

Goda01: Goda M, Hashimoto Y, Shimizu S, Kobayashi M (2001). "Discovery of a novel enzyme, isonitrile hydratase, involved in nitrogen-carbon triple bond cleavage." J Biol Chem 276(26);23480-5. PMID: 11306561

Grogan01: Grogan G, Roberts GA, Bougioukou D, Turner NJ, Flitsch SL (2001). "The desymmetrization of bicyclic beta -diketones by an enzymatic retro-Claisen reaction. A new reaction of the crotonase superfamily." J Biol Chem 276(16);12565-72. PMID: 11278926

Gupta66: Gupta NK, Vennesland B (1966). "Glyoxylate carboligase of Escherichia coli: some properties of the enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 1966;113(2);255-64. PMID: 5328735

Hanschmann96: Hanschmann H, Ehricht R, Kleber HP (1996). "Purification and properties of L(-)-carnitine dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium sp." Biochim Biophys Acta 1290(2);177-83. PMID: 8645721

Hara00: Hara H, Masai E, Katayama Y, Fukuda M (2000). "The 4-oxalomesaconate hydratase gene, involved in the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway, is essential to vanillate and syringate degradation in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6." J Bacteriol 182(24);6950-7. PMID: 11092855

Hara03: Hara H, Masai E, Miyauchi K, Katayama Y, Fukuda M (2003). "Characterization of the 4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate aldolase gene and operon structure of the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway genes in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6." J Bacteriol 185(1);41-50. PMID: 12486039

Hartman68: Hartman SC (1968). "Glutaminase of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and general catalytic properties." J Biol Chem 1968;243(5);853-63. PMID: 4966660

Hashimoto90: Hashimoto T, Mitani A, Yamada Y (1990). "Diamine Oxidase from Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus niger: Its Function in Tropane Alkaloid Biosynthesis." Plant Physiol 93(1);216-221. PMID: 16667438

Hashimoto92: Hashimoto T, Nakajima K, Ongena G, Yamada Y (1992). "Two Tropinone Reductases with Distinct Stereospecificities from Cultured Roots of Hyoscyamus niger." Plant Physiol 100(2);836-845. PMID: 16653065

Hassaninasab11: Hassaninasab A, Hashimoto Y, Tomita-Yokotani K, Kobayashi M (2011). "Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(16);6615-20. PMID: 21467222

HAY61: HAY GW, WESTLAKE DW, SIMPSON FJ (1961). "Degradation of rutin by Aspergillus flavus. Purification and characterization of rutinase." Can J Microbiol 7;921-32. PMID: 13905544

Helmward89: Helmward Z "Handbook of Enzyme Inhibitors. 2nd, revised and enlarged edition." Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany ; New York, NY, USA , 1989.

Hengstenberg70: Hengstenberg W, Penberthy WK, Morse ML (1970). "Purification of the staphylococcal 6-phospho-beta-D-- galactosidase." Eur J Biochem 14(1);27-32. PMID: 5447434

Heydari04: Heydari M, Ohshima T, Nunoura-Kominato N, Sakuraba H (2004). "Highly stable L-lysine 6-dehydrogenase from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus isolated from a Japanese hot spring: characterization, gene cloning and sequencing, and expression." Appl Environ Microbiol 70(2);937-42. PMID: 14766574

Hinderer86: Hinderer W, Koster J, Barz W (1986). "Purfication and properties of a specific isoflavone 7-O-glucoside-6''-malonate malonyestrase from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)." Arch Biochem Biophys 248(2);570-8. PMID: 3740841

HorneroMendez: Hornero-Mendez D, Minguez-Mosquera MI "Properties of chlorophyllase from Capsicum annuum L. fruits." Z Naturforsch [C] 56(11-12);1015-21. PMID: 11837653

Hosel75: Hosel W, Barz W (1975). "β-Glucosidases from Cicer arietinum L. Purification and Properties of isoflavone-7-O-glucoside-specific β-glucosidases." Eur J Biochem 57(2);607-16. PMID: 240725

Hsieh01: Hsieh MC, Graham TL (2001). "Partial purification and characterization of a soybean β-glucosidase with high specific activity towards isoflavone conjugates." Phytochemistry 58(7);995-1005. PMID: 11730862

Hurh94: Hurh B, Yamane T, Nagasawa T (1994). "Purification and characterization of nicotinic acid dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens TN5." J. Ferment. Bioeng. 78, No. 1, 19-26.

Husain87: Husain M, Davidson VL (1987). "Purification and properties of methylamine dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans." J Bacteriol 169(4);1712-7. PMID: 3558322

Hutzler75: Hutzler J, Dancis J (1975). "Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase in human tissues." Biochim Biophys Acta 377(1);42-51. PMID: 235294

Ichiyama65: Ichiyama, A, Nakamura, S, Kawai, H, Honjo, T, Nishizuka, Y, Hayaishi, O, Senoh, S (1965). "Studies on the metabolism of the benzene ring of tryptophan in mammalian tissues. II. Enzymic formation of alpha-aminomuconic acid from 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid." J Biol Chem 240;740-9. PMID: 14275130

IMASEKI61: IMASEKI H, YAMAMOTO T (1961). "A furcatin hydrolyzing glycosidase of Viburnum furcatum Blume." Arch Biochem Biophys 92;467-74. PMID: 13717574

Jeanningros76: Jeanningros R, Creuzet-Sigal N, Frixon C, Cattaneo J (1976). "Purification and properties of a debranching enzyme from Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;438(1);186-99. PMID: 779849

Jones93b: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1993). "Purification and properties of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides." Biochem J 293 ( Pt 3);703-12. PMID: 8352737

Jones94: Jones RM, Jordan PM (1994). "Purification and properties of porphobilinogen deaminase from Arabidopsis thaliana." Biochem J 299 ( Pt 3);895-902. PMID: 8192681

Jordan73: Jordan PM, Shemin D (1973). "Purification and properties of uroporphyrinogen I synthetase from Rhodopseudomonas spheroides." J Biol Chem 248(3);1019-24. PMID: 4539746

Kamsteeg78: Kamsteeg J, van Brederode J, van Nigtevecht G (1978). "Identification, properties, and genetic control of UDP-glucose: cyanidin-3-rhamnosyl-(1 leads to 6)-glucoside-5-O-glucosyltransferase isolated from petals of the red campion (Silene dioica)." Biochem Genet 16(11-12);1059-71. PMID: 751641

Kataoka97: Kataoka M, Wada M, Nishi K, Yamada H, Shimizu S (1997). "Purification and characterization of L-allo-threonine aldolase from Aeromonas jandaei DK-39." FEMS Microbiol Lett 151(2);245-8. PMID: 9228760

Kato78: Kato N, Ohashi H, Tani Y, Ogata K (1978). "3-Hexulosephosphate synthase from Methylomonas aminofaciens 77a. Purification, properties and kinetics." Biochim Biophys Acta 523(1);236-44. PMID: 564713

Kato85: Kato Y, Matsushita J, Kubodera T, Matsuda K (1985). "A novel enzyme producing isoprimeverose from oligoxyloglucans of Aspergillus oryzae." J Biochem 97(3);801-10. PMID: 4019436

Kawaguchi14: Kawaguchi K, Senoura T, Taira T, Ito H, Wasaki J, Ito S (2014). "The mannobiose-forming exo-mannanase involved in a new mannan catabolic pathway in Bacteroides fragilis." Arch Microbiol 196(1);17-23. PMID: 24217874

Kelley84: Kelley JJ, Dekker EE (1984). "D-1-amino-2-propanol:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Purification and general properties of the large molecular form of the enzyme from Escherichia coli K12." J Biol Chem 1984;259(4);2124-9. PMID: 6365902

Keuning85: Keuning S, Janssen DB, Witholt B (1985). "Purification and characterization of hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase from Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10." J Bacteriol 1985;163(2);635-9. PMID: 4019411

Keyhani96: Keyhani NO, Roseman S (1996). "The chitin catabolic cascade in the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Molecular cloning, isolation, and characterization of a periplasmic chitodextrinase." J Biol Chem 271(52);33414-24. PMID: 8969204

Keyhani96a: Keyhani NO, Roseman S (1996). "The chitin catabolic cascade in the marine bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Molecular cloning, isolation, and characterization of a periplasmic beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase." J Biol Chem 271(52);33425-32. PMID: 8969205

Kido78a: Kido T, Hashizume K, Soda K (1978). "Purification and properties of nitroalkane oxidase from Fusarium oxysporum." J Bacteriol 133(1);53-8. PMID: 22538

Kim86: Kim JM, Shimizu S, Yamada H (1986). "Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, N-carbamoylsarcosine amidohydrolase, from Pseudomonas putida 77." J Biol Chem 261(25);11832-9. PMID: 3745168

Kim98: Kim KH, Voelker DR, Flocco MT, Carman GM (1998). "Expression, purification, and characterization of choline kinase, product of the CKI gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." J Biol Chem 273(12);6844-52. PMID: 9506987

Klomklang05: Klomklang W, Tani A, Kimbara K, Mamoto R, Ueda T, Shimao M, Kawai F (2005). "Biochemical and molecular characterization of a periplasmic hydrolase for oxidized polyvinyl alcohol from Sphingomonas sp. strain 113P3." Microbiology 151(Pt 4);1255-62. PMID: 15817792

Komaki97: Komaki E, Ohta Y, Tsukada Y (1997). "Purification and characterization of N-acetylneuraminate synthase from Escherichia coli K1-M12." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61(12);2046-50. PMID: 9438985

Komeda04: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "A novel R-stereoselective amidase from Pseudomonas sp. MCI3434 acting on piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1580-90. PMID: 15066183

Komeda04a: Komeda H, Harada H, Washika S, Sakamoto T, Ueda M, Asano Y (2004). "S-stereoselective piperazine-2-tert-butylcarboxamide hydrolase from Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603 is a novel L-amino acid amidase." Eur J Biochem 271(8);1465-75. PMID: 15066172

Komuniecki85: Komuniecki R, Fekete S, Thissen-Parra J (1985). "Purification and characterization of the 2-methyl branched-chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in NADH-dependent enoyl-CoA reduction in anaerobic mitochondria of the nematode, Ascaris suum." J Biol Chem 260(8);4770-7. PMID: 3988734

Kondo77: Kondo H, Niki H, Takahashi S, Ishimoto M (1977). "Enzymatic oxidation of isethionate to sulfoacetaldehyde in bacterial extract." J Biochem (Tokyo) 81(6);1911-6. PMID: 197072

Kosuge61: Kosuge T, Conn EE (1961). "The metabolism of aromatic compounds in higher plants. III. The beta-glucosides of o-coumaric, coumarinic, and melilotic acids." J Biol Chem 236;1617-21. PMID: 13753452

Kosuge66: Kosuge T, Heskett MG, Wilson EE (1966). "Microbial synthesis and degradation of indole-3-acetic acid. I. The conversion of L-tryptophan to indole-3-acetamide by an enzyme system from Pseudomonas savastanoi." J Biol Chem 241(16);3738-44. PMID: 5916389

Krishnan90: Krishnan G, Altekar W (1990). "Characterization of a halophilic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the archaebacterium Haloarcula vallismortis." J. Gen. Appl. Microbiol. 36:19-32.

Kurosaki93: Kurosaki F, Itoh M, Kizawa Y, Nishi A (1993). "Partial purification and characterization of a polyketide biosynthetic enzyme, 6-hydroxymellein synthase, in elicitor-treated carrot cell extracts." Arch Biochem Biophys 300(1);157-63. PMID: 8424647

Kwon96: Kwon O, Bhattacharyya DK, Meganathan R (1996). "Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and properties of o-succinylbenzoyl-coenzyme A synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1996;178(23);6778-81. PMID: 8955296

Laiz90: Laiz L, Liras P, Castro JM, Martin JF (1990). "Purification and characterization of the isopenicillin N epimerase from Nocardia lactamdurans." Journal of General Microbiology 136, 663-671.

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Lee05e: Lee JH, Lee KH, Kim CG, Lee SY, Kim GJ, Park YH, Chung SO (2005). "Cloning and expression of a trehalose synthase from Pseudomonas stutzeri CJ38 in Escherichia coli for the production of trehalose." Appl Microbiol Biotechnol NIL. PMID: 15654636

Lehle73: Lehle L, Tanner W (1973). "The function of myo-inositol in the biosynthesis of raffinose. Purification and characterization of galactinol:sucrose 6-galactosyltransferase from Vicia faba seeds." Eur J Biochem 38(1);103-10. PMID: 4774118

Liu99c: Liu BH, Bhatnagar D, Chu FS (1999). "Purification and characterization of 40-kDa sterigmatocystin O-methyltransferase involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis." Nat Toxins 7(2);63-9. PMID: 10495468

Lizotte88: Lizotte PA, Poulton JE (1988). "Catabolism of Cyanogenic Glycosides by Purified Vicianin Hydrolase from Squirrel's Foot Fern (Davallia Trichomanoides Blume)." Plant Physiol 86(2);322-4. PMID: 16665903

Lord72: Lord JM (1972). "Glycolate oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli." Biochim Biophys Acta 1972;267(2);227-37. PMID: 4557653

Manne86: Manne V, Kutty KR, Pillarisetti SR (1986). "Purification and properties of synephrinase from Arthrobacter synephrinum." Arch Biochem Biophys 248(1);324-34. PMID: 3729420

Maruyama78: Maruyama K, Ariga N, Tsuda M, Deguchi K (1978). "Purification and properties of alpha-hydroxy-gamma-carboxymuconic epsilon-semialdehyde dehydrogenase." J Biochem (Tokyo) 83(4);1125-34. PMID: 26671

Maruyama83a: Maruyama K (1983). "Purification and properties of 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate hydrolase." J Biochem (Tokyo) 93(2);557-65. PMID: 6841353

Maruyama85: Maruyama K (1985). "Purification and properties of gamma-oxalomesaconate hydratase from Pseudomonas ochraceae grown with phthalate." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 128(1);271-7. PMID: 3985968

Maruyama90: Maruyama K (1990). "Purification and properties of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase from Pseudomonas ochraceae grown on phthalate." J Biochem (Tokyo) 1990;108(2);327-33. PMID: 2229032

Marvil77: Marvil DK, Leisinger T (1977). "N-acetylglutamate synthase of Escherichia coli: purification, characterization, and molecular properties." J Biol Chem 1977;252(10);3295-303. PMID: 16890

Masai00: Masai E, Momose K, Hara H, Nishikawa S, Katayama Y, Fukuda M (2000). "Genetic and biochemical characterization of 4-carboxy-2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase and its role in the protocatechuate 4,5-cleavage pathway in Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6." J Bacteriol 182(23);6651-8. PMID: 11073908

Matsumoto78: Matsumoto T, Hiraoka BY, Tobari J (1978). "Methylamine dehydrogenase of Pseudomonase sp. J Isolation and properties of the subunits." Biochim Biophys Acta 522(2);303-10. PMID: 23837

Matsuo59: Matsuo, Y., Greenberg, D.M. (1959). "A crystalline enzyme that cleaves homoserine and cystathionine. IV. Mechanism of action, reversibility, and substrate specificity." J Biol Chem 234(3):516-9. PMID: 13641251

Maurel94: Maurel C, Reizer J, Schroeder JI, Chrispeels MJ, Saier MH (1994). "Functional characterization of the Escherichia coli glycerol facilitator, GlpF, in Xenopus oocytes." J Biol Chem 269(16);11869-72. PMID: 7512955

Meredith03: Meredith TC, Woodard RW (2003). "Escherichia coli YrbH is a D-arabinose 5-phosphate isomerase." J Biol Chem 278(35);32771-7. PMID: 12805358

Misono89: Misono H, Hashimoto H, Uehigashi H, Nagata S, Nagasaki S (1989). "Properties of L-lysine epsilon-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens." J Biochem (Tokyo) 105(6);1002-8. PMID: 2768207

Monstadt91: Monstadt GM, Holldorf AW (1991). "Arginine deiminase from Halobacterium salinarium. Purification and properties." Biochem J 1991;273 ( Pt 3);739-45. PMID: 1847623

Mori88: Mori, N., Kasugai, T., Kitamato, Y., Ichikawa, Y. (1988). "Purification and some properties of carnitine dehydrogenase from Xanthomonas translucens." Agric. Biol. Chem. 52, 249-250.

Mukherjee87: Mukherjee JJ, Dekker EE (1987). "Purification, properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of homogeneous Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme." J Biol Chem 1987;262(30);14441-7. PMID: 3117785

Nagasawa76: Nagasawa, T., Mori, N., Tani, Y., Ogata, K. (1976). "Characterization of choline dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa A-16." Agr. Biol. Chem. 40(10):2077-2084.

Nagasawa90: Nagasawa T, Mauger J, Yamada H (1990). "A novel nitrilase, arylacetonitrilase, of Alcaligenes faecalis JM3. Purification and characterization." Eur J Biochem 194(3);765-72. PMID: 2269298

Nakada03: Nakada Y, Itoh Y (2003). "Identification of the putrescine biosynthetic genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterization of agmatine deiminase and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase of the arginine decarboxylase pathway." Microbiology 149(Pt 3);707-14. PMID: 12634339

Nakada95: Nakada T, Maruta K, Mitsuzumi H, Kubota M, Chaen H, Sugimoto T, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y (1995). "Purification and characterization of a novel enzyme, maltooligosyl trehalose trehalohydrolase, from Arthrobacter sp. Q36." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59(12);2215-8. PMID: 8611745

Nakada95a: Nakada T, Maruta K, Tsusaki K, Kubota M, Chaen H, Sugimoto T, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y (1995). "Purification and properties of a novel enzyme, maltooligosyl trehalose synthase, from Arthrobacter sp. Q36." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59(12);2210-4. PMID: 8611744

Nakada96a: Nakada T, Ikegami S, Chaen H, Kubota M, Fukuda S, Sugimoto T, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y (1996). "Purification and characterization of thermostable maltooligosyl trehalose synthase from the thermoacidophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60(2);263-6. PMID: 9063973

Nakamura95: Nakamura, K., Yoshikawa, H., Okubo, S., Kurosawa, H., Amano, Y. (1995). "Purification and properties of membrane-bound sulfite dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus thiooxidans." JCM 7814. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 59: 11-15.

Nakano99: Nakano H, Wieser M, Hurh B, Kawai T, Yoshida T, Yamane T, Nagasawa T (1999). "Purification, characterization and gene cloning of 6-hydroxynicotinate 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens TN5." Eur J Biochem 260(1);120-6. PMID: 10091591

Nakazawa72: Nakazawa T, Hori K, Hayaishi O (1972). "Studies on monooxygenases. V. Manifestation of amino acid oxidase activity by L-lysine monooxygenase." J Biol Chem 247(11);3439-44. PMID: 4624115

Nawaz94: Nawaz MS, Khan AA, Seng JE, Leakey JE, Siitonen PH, Cerniglia CE (1994). "Purification and characterization of an amidase from an acrylamide-degrading Rhodococcus sp." Appl Environ Microbiol 60(9);3343-8. PMID: 7944367

Ng00: Ng KY, Kamimura K, Sugio T (2000). "Production of hydrogen sulfide from tetrathionate by the iron-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans NASF-1." J Biosci Bioeng 90(2);193-8. PMID: 16232841

Nishikimi79: Nishikimi M (1979). "L-Gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (rat and goat liver)." Methods Enzymol 62;24-30. PMID: 440104

Nishimoto96: Nishimoto T, Nakano M, Nakada T, Chaen H, Fukuda S, Sugimoto T, Kurimoto M, Tsujisaka Y (1996). "Purification and properties of a novel enzyme, trehalose synthase, from Pimelobacter sp. R48." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 60(4);640-4. PMID: 8829531

Nishimoto96a: Nishimoto, T., Nakada, T., Chaen, H., Fukuda, S., Sugimoto, T., Kurimoto, M., Tsujisaka, Y. (1996). "Purification and characterization of a thermostable trehalose synthase from Thermus aquaticus." Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 60(5):835-839.

Nishiya93: Nishiya, Y., Imanaka, T. (1993). "Cloning and sequencing of the sarcosine oxidase gene from Arthrobacter sp. TE1826." J. Ferment. bioeng. 75 (4):239-244.

Ogata98: Ogata J, Teramoto S, Yoshitama K (1998). "Isolation and Characterization of UDP-glucose: Cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase from the Flower Buds of Senecio x hybridus." J. Plant Res. 111:213-216.

Ohishi97: Ohishi, K., Yamagishi, M., Ohta, T., Motosugi, M., Izumida,H., Sano, H., Adachi, K., Miwa, T. (1997). "Purification and properties of two deacetylases produced by Vibrio alginolyticus H-8." Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 61(7):1113-1117.

Orii06: Orii C, Takenaka S, Murakami S, Aoki K (2006). "Metabolism of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoic acid by Bordetella sp. strain 10d: A different modified meta-cleavage pathway for 2-aminophenols." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(11);2653-61. PMID: 17090920

Park93: Park YS, Sweitzer TD, Dixon JE, Kent C (1993). "Expression, purification, and characterization of CTP:glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis." J Biol Chem 268(22);16648-54. PMID: 8393871

Patel80: Patel TR, Barnsley EA (1980). "Naphthalene metabolism by pseudomonads: purification and properties of 1,2-dihydroxynaphthalene oxygenase." J Bacteriol 143(2);668-73. PMID: 7204331

Payton82: Payton CW, Chang YF (1982). "delta1-piperideine-2-carboxylate reductase of Pseudomonas putida." J Bacteriol 149(3);864-71. PMID: 6801013

Qiu12a: Qiu J, Ma Y, Wen Y, Chen L, Wu L, Liu W (2012). "Functional Identification of Two Novel Genes from Pseudomonas sp. Strain HZN6 Involved in the Catabolism of Nicotine." Appl Environ Microbiol. PMID: 22267672

Raha90: Raha SK, Roy SK, Dey SK, Chakrabarty SL (1990). "Purification and properties of an L-asparaginase from Cylindrocarpon obtusisporum MB-10." Biochem Int 21(6);987-1000. PMID: 2080924

Rakwal00: Rakwal R, Agrawal GK, Yonekura M, Kodama O (2000). "Naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the flavanone phytoalexin sakuranetin from rice (Oryza sativa L.)." Plant Science 155(2);213-221. PMID: 10814825

Ray80a: Ray PH (1980). "Purification and characterization of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthetase from Escherichia coli." J Bacteriol 1980;141(2);635-44. PMID: 6988389

Reitz70: Reitz MS, Rodwell VW (1970). "Delta-aminovaleramidase of Pseudomonas putida." J Biol Chem 245(12);3091-6. PMID: 5432799

RodriguezAparic92: Rodriguez-Aparicio LB, Luengo JM, Gonzalez-Clemente C, Reglero A (1992). "Purification and characterization of the nuclear cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase from rat liver." J Biol Chem 267(13);9257-63. PMID: 1577759

Roh94: Roh JH, Suzuki H, Azakami H, Yamashita M, Murooka Y, Kumagai H (1994). "Purification, characterization, and crystallization of monoamine oxidase from Escherichia coli K-12." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(9);1652-6. PMID: 7765483

Sangwan90: Sangwan RS, Singh R (1990). "Characterization of amyloplastic phosphohexose isomerase from immature wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm." Indian J Biochem Biophys 27(1);23-7. PMID: 2341161

Sato71: Sato M, Hasegawa M (1971). "A transglucosylase in Daphne odora converting daphnin to daphnetin 8-glucoside*." Phytochemistry, 10: 2367 - 2372.

Sato72: Sato M, Hasegawa M (1972). "Transglucosylases in Cichorium intybus converting cichoriin to esculin." Phytochemistry 11: 3149-3156.

Schink79: Schink B, Schlegel HG (1979). "The membrane-bound hydrogenase of Alcaligenes eutrophus. I. Solubilization, purification, and biochemical properties." Biochim Biophys Acta 1979;567(2);315-24. PMID: 36155

Schmidt87: Schmidt H., Bode R., Birnbaum D. (1987). "Lysine degradation in Pichia guilliermondii: Characterization of a novel enzyme, L-lysine:pyruvate aminotransferase." J. Basic Microbiol. 27:595-601.

Schmitz94: Schmitz W, Fingerhut R, Conzelmann E (1994). "Purification and properties of an alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase from rat liver." Eur J Biochem 222(2);313-23. PMID: 8020470

Schneider70: Schneider Z, Larsen EG, Jacobson G, Johnson BC, Pawelkiewicz J (1970). "Purification and properties of glycerol dehydrase." J Biol Chem 245(13);3388-96. PMID: 4989992

Schneider79: Schneider K, Cammack R, Schlegel HG, Hall DO (1979). "The iron-sulphur centres of soluble hydrogenase from Alcaligenes eutrophus." Biochim Biophys Acta 1979;578(2);445-61. PMID: 226163

Schulz90: Schulz A, Taggeselle P, Tripier D, Bartsch K (1990). "Stereospecific production of the herbicide phosphinothricin (glufosinate) by transamination: isolation and characterization of a phosphinothricin-specific transaminase from Escherichia coli." Appl Environ Microbiol 1990;56(1);1-6. PMID: 2178550

Setyahadi97: Setyahadi S, Ueyama T, Arimoto T, Mori N, Kitamoto Y (1997). "Purification and properties of a new enzyme, D-carnitine dehydrogenase, from Agrobacterium sp. 525a." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 61(6);1055-8. PMID: 9214773

Shirokane95: Shirokane Y, Suzuki M (1995). "A novel enzyme, maltose 1-epimerase from Lactobacillus brevis IFO 3345." FEBS Lett 367(2);177-9. PMID: 7796915

Singh65a: Singh RM, Adams E (1965). "Enzymatic deamination of delta-1-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate to 2,5-dioxovalerate (alpha-ketoglutaric semialdehyde)." J Biol Chem 240(11);4344-51. PMID: 5845838

Sodek80: Sodek, Ladaslav, Lea, Peter, Miflin, Benjamin "Distribution and properties of a potassium-dependdent asparaginase isolated from developing seeds of Pisum sativa and other plants." Plant Physiology, 1980, 65:22-26.

Spiess96: Spiess E, Gorisch H (1996). "Purification and characterization of chlorobenzene cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase from Xanthobacter flavus 14p1." Arch Microbiol 1996;165(3);201-5. PMID: 8599538

Stich: Stich K, Halbwirth H, Wurst F, Forkmann G "UDP-glucose: flavonol 7-O-glucosyltransferase activity in flower extracts of Chrysanthemum segetum." Z Naturforsch C 52(3-4);153-8. PMID: 9167271

Suske97: Suske WA, Held M, Schmid A, Fleischmann T, Wubbolts MG, Kohler HP (1997). "Purification and characterization of 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase, a novel NADH-dependent, FAD-containing aromatic hydroxylase from Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1." J Biol Chem 272(39);24257-65. PMID: 9305879

Suzuki01b: Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukui Y, Nakamura N, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi MA, Kusumi T, Nishino T (2001). "Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6"'-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization." J Biol Chem 276(52);49013-9. PMID: 11598135

Suzuki04a: Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T (2004). "Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases." Plant J 38(6);994-1003. PMID: 15165190

Szumilo81: Szumilo T (1981). "Purification and properties of D-galactonate dehydratase from Mycobacterium butyricum." Biochim Biophys Acta 661(2);240-6. PMID: 7295736

Tachiki80: Tachiki T, Kohno H, Sugiyama K, Matsubara T, Tochikura T (1980). "Purification, properties and formation of arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase in Arthrobacter simplex." Biochim Biophys Acta 615(1);79-84. PMID: 7426667

Takahashi87: Takahashi K, Avissar N, Whitin J, Cohen H (1987). "Purification and characterization of human plasma glutathione peroxidase: a selenoglycoprotein distinct from the known cellular enzyme." Arch Biochem Biophys 256(2);677-86. PMID: 3619451

Takenaka00: Takenaka S, Murakami S, Kim YJ, Aoki K (2000). "Complete nucleotide sequence and functional analysis of the genes for 2-aminophenol metabolism from Pseudomonas sp. AP-3." Arch Microbiol 174(4);265-72. PMID: 11081795

Takenaka02: Takenaka S, Asami T, Orii C, Murakami S, Aoki K (2002). "A novel meta-cleavage dioxygenase that cleaves a carboxyl-group-substituted 2-aminophenol. Purification and characterization of 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzoate 2,3-dioxygenase from Bordetella sp. strain 10d." Eur J Biochem 269(23);5871-7. PMID: 12444975

Takenaka03: Takenaka S, Okugawa S, Kadowaki M, Murakami S, Aoki K (2003). "The metabolic pathway of 4-aminophenol in Burkholderia sp. strain AK-5 differs from that of aniline and aniline with C-4 substituents." Appl Environ Microbiol 69(9);5410-3. PMID: 12957929

Takenaka11: Takenaka S, Koshiya J, Okugawa S, Takata A, Murakami S, Aoki K (2011). "Fe-superoxide dismutase and 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone reductase preclude the auto-oxidation step in 4-aminophenol metabolism by Burkholderia sp. strain AK-5." Biodegradation 22(1);1-11. PMID: 20480210

Takenaka97: Takenaka S, Murakami S, Shinke R, Hatakeyama K, Yukawa H, Aoki K (1997). "Novel genes encoding 2-aminophenol 1,6-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas species AP-3 growing on 2-aminophenol and catalytic properties of the purified enzyme." J Biol Chem 272(23);14727-32. PMID: 9169437

Takusagawa01: Takusagawa Y, Otagiri M, Ui S, Ohtsuki T, Mimura A, Ohkuma M, Kudo T (2001). "Purification and characterization of L-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase of Brevibacterium saccharolyticum C-1012 expressed in Escherichia coli." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(8);1876-8. PMID: 11577733

Tanaka00: Tanaka H, Hashiba H, Kok J, Mierau I (2000). "Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum-biochemical and genetic characterization." Appl Environ Microbiol 66(6);2502-12. PMID: 10831430

Tang09: Tang H, Wang L, Meng X, Ma L, Wang S, He X, Wu G, Xu P (2009). "Novel nicotine oxidoreductase-encoding gene involved in nicotine degradation by Pseudomonas putida strain S16." Appl Environ Microbiol 75(3);772-8. PMID: 19060159

Taura96: Taura F, Morimoto S, Shoyama Y (1996). "Purification and characterization of cannabidiolic-acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.. Biochemical analysis of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the oxidocyclization of cannabigerolic acid to cannabidiolic acid." J Biol Chem 271(29);17411-6. PMID: 8663284

Taylor74: Taylor SS, Rigby PW, Hartley BS (1974). "Ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella aerogenes. Purification and subunit structure." Biochem J 141(3);693-700. PMID: 4618776

Toyama78: Toyama S, Misono H, Soda K (1978). "Properties of taurine: alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase of Achromobacter superficialis. Inactivation and reactivation of enzyme." Biochim Biophys Acta 523(1);75-81. PMID: 629994

Trijbels66: Trijbels F, Vogels GD (1966). "Allantoicase and ureidoglycolase in Pseudomonas and Penicillium species." Biochim Biophys Acta 118(2);387-95. PMID: 4960174

Tsuge82: Tsuge H, Kuroda Y, Iwamoto A, Ohashi K (1982). "Partial purification and property of pyridoxine (pyridoxamine)-5'-phosphate oxidase isozymes from wheat seedlings." Arch Biochem Biophys 217(2);479-84. PMID: 7138019

Umemoto08: Umemoto Y, Onishi R, Araki T (2008). "Cloning of a novel gene encoding beta-1,3-xylosidase from a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain XY-214, and characterization of the gene product." Appl Environ Microbiol 74(1);305-8. PMID: 17993567

Umemura94: Umemura I, Yanagiya K, Komatsubara S, Sato T, Tosa T (1994). "Purification and some properties of alanine aminotransferase from Candida maltosa." Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(2);283-7. PMID: 7764540

Uotila74: Uotila L, Koivusalo M (1974). "Purification and properties of S-formylglutathione hydrolase from human liver." J Biol Chem 249(23);7664-72. PMID: 4436331

Upmeier88a: Upmeier B, Gross W, Koster S, Barz W (1988). "Purification and properties of S-adenosyl-L-methionine:nicotinic acid-N-methyltransferase from cell suspension cultures of Glycine max L." Arch Biochem Biophys 262(2);445-54. PMID: 3364975

Van00: Van Der Werf MJ (2000). "Purification and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 involved in three different monocyclic monoterpene degradation pathways." Biochem J 347 Pt 3;693-701. PMID: 10769172

Vogt93: Vogt T, Aebershold R, Ellis B (1993). "Purification and characterization of sinapine synthase from seeds of Brassica napus." Arch Biochem Biophys 300(2);622-8. PMID: 8382030

Weber94: Weber E., Tonder K., Reinbothe C., Unverhau K., Weide H., Aurich H. (1994). "L-Lysine α-oxidase from Trichoderma viride i4. Purification and characterization." J. Basic Microbiol. 34:265-276.

Wiese00: Wiese A, Pietzsch M, Syldatk C, Mattes R, Altenbuchner J (2000). "Hydantoin racemase from Arthrobacter aurescens DSM 3747: heterologous expression, purification and characterization." J Biotechnol 80(3);217-30. PMID: 10949312

Wiesmeyer60: Wiesmeyer H, Cohn M (1960). "The characterization of the pathway of maltose utilization by Escherichia coli: II. General properties and mechanism of action of amylomaltase." Biochim Biophys Acta 39:427-439.

Winzer97: Winzer K, Lorenz K, Durre P (1997). "Acetate kinase from Clostridium acetobutylicum: a highly specific enzyme that is actively transcribed during acidogenesis and solventogenesis." Microbiology 1997;143 ( Pt 10);3279-86. PMID: 9353928

Wu06: Wu PC, Liu YH, Wang ZY, Zhang XY, Li H, Liang WQ, Luo N, Hu JM, Lu JQ, Luan TG, Cao LX (2006). "Molecular cloning, purification, and biochemical characterization of a novel pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterase from Klebsiella sp. strain ZD112." J Agric Food Chem 54(3);836-42. PMID: 16448191

Xu12a: Xu FF, Imlay JA (2012). "Silver(I), mercury(II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) target exposed enzymic iron-sulfur clusters when they toxify Escherichia coli." Appl Environ Microbiol 78(10);3614-21. PMID: 22344668

Yoshida70: Yoshida A, Freese E (1970). "L-Alanine dehydrogenase (Bacillus subtilis)." Methods in Enzymology 17:176-181.

Yoshimoto91: Yoshimoto T, Higashi H, Kanatani A, Lin XS, Nagai H, Oyama H, Kurazono K, Tsuru D (1991). "Cloning and sequencing of the 7 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene from Escherichia coli HB101 and characterization of the expressed enzyme." J Bacteriol 1991;173(7);2173-9. PMID: 2007545

Yue05: Yue, C-J, Zhong, J-J (2005). "Purification and characterization of UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase from suspended cells of Panax notoginseng." Process Biochemistry 40, 3742-3748.


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Nov 23, 2014, BIOCYC13B.