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MetaCyc Compound: Mg2+

Synonyms: magnesium, Mg+2, Mg++, magnesium ion

Superclasses: an iona cationan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation
an ionan inorganic ionan inorganic cationa divalent inorganic cation

Component of:
magnesium hydrogenphosphate
magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
magnesium sulfate

Chemical Formula: Mg

Molecular Weight: 24.305 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 23.9850419 Daltons

SMILES: [Mg++]

InChI: InChI=1S/Mg/q+2


Unification Links: ChEBI:18420, ChemSpider:865, DrugBank:DB01378, HMDB:HMDB00547, IAF1260:1787372, KEGG:C00305, PubChem:888

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -1.2482376Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

chlorophyllide a biosynthesis I (aerobic, light-dependent) , chlorophyllide a biosynthesis II (anaerobic) , chlorophyllide a biosynthesis III (aerobic, light independent) :
ATP + protoporphyrin IX + Mg2+ + H2O → Mg-protoporphyrin + ADP + phosphate + 3 H+

Reactions known to produce the compound:

chlorophyll a degradation I , chlorophyll a degradation III :
chlorophyllide a + 3 H+ → pheophorbide a + Mg2+

chlorophyll a degradation II :
chlorophyll a + 3 H+ → pheophytin a + Mg2+

In Transport reactions:
Mg2+[periplasm] + ATP + H2O → Mg2+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+,
Mg2+[extracellular space] + ATP + H2O → Mg2+[cytosol] + ADP + phosphate + H+

Enzymes activated by Mg2+, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: alkaline phosphatase aminopeptidase [Nakata79], succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [deCarvalho11], N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipas [Wang06], inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate 5-phosphatase [Downes82], isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase [Hahn96], α-ribazole-phosphate phosphatase [Woodson06], dimethylallyltranstransferase [Chen93a], ω,E,E-farnesyl diphosphate synthase [Chen93a], ω,E,E,E-geranyl-geranyl diphosphate synthase [Chen93a], 2-phospho-L-lactate guanylyltransferase [Grochowski08], pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay98], phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase [Patel04], unsaturated CDP-archaeol synthase [Morii00], geranylgeranylglycerol-phosphate geranylgeranyltransferase, phosphoglycerol geranylgeranyltransferase [Chen93b], phosphorylase kinase [Farrar91], phosphorylase kinase [Farrar91], mannosylfructose-phosphate phosphatase [Torres07], mannosylfructose-phosphate synthase [Torres07], pseudouridine kinase [Preumont08], trehalose synthase [Qu04], acyl phosphate synthase [Lu06], geosmin synthase [Jiang06], germacradienol synthase [Cane03], 6-carboxyhexanoate--CoA ligase [Ploux92], halimadienyl-diphosphate synthase [Nakano05], terpentetriene synthase [Hamano02], terpentedienyl-diphosphate synthase, 3-demethylubiquinone-9 3-O-methyltransferase [Houser77], ent-pimara-9(11),15-diene synthase [Ikeda07], N-acetylhexosamine kinase [Nishimoto07], CTP-dependent riboflavin kinase [Ammelburg07], heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase [Sagami85], α-D-glucose-1-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Thorson94], L-sorbosone dehydrogenase [Hoshino91], 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase [Loscher94], aldehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase [NavarroAvino99], β-methyl-D-malate hydro-lyase (2-methylmaleate-forming) [Drevland07], malyl coenzyme A lyase [Hacking74], 2-methylisocitrate lyase [Grimek03], malonyl-CoA reductase [Alber06], malonate semialdehyde:NADP+ oxidoreductase (malonate semialdehyde-forming) [Hugler02], β-methylmalyl CoA lyase [Herter02], L-malyl CoA lyase [Herter02], acetyl CoA carboxylase [Chuakrut03], GDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-mannose-4-aminotransferase [Albermann01], allophanate hydrolase [Whitney70], urea carboxylase [Whitney70], 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase [Takikawa86], dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase [Klaus05], glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase [Costa07], phosphoglucomutase [Accorsi89], GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo93], GDP-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo93], mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate synthase [Empadinhas01], mannosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase [Empadinhas01], mannosylglycerate synthase [Martins99], 5-methyl-2-oxo-3-hexene-1,6-dioate decarboxylase [He00], 2-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase [Zeyer88], adenosylcobinamide-phosphate synthase [Blanche95], pyruvic oxime dioxygenase [Ono96], polyphosphate-dependent glucokinase [Tanaka03], glycerol-3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Park93], glutathione synthetase [Nakagawa93], ammonia-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase [Pierson80], pyruvate carboxylase [Mukhopadhyay00], ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, argininosuccinate synthase [Raushel83], trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase [Klutts03], 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [vanderOost02], 5-oxo-L-prolinase [Williamson82], 5-oxo-L-prolinase [Seddon85], N-methylhydantoin amidohydrolase [Ogawa95], propionate-CoA ligase [Horswill99], dihydroxyacetone kinase [Daniel95], pyruvate kinase [Schramm00], glucose dehydrogenase [Bonete96], 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [vanderOost02], inositol monopohsphatase [Chen98], inositol monophosphatase [Chen99], α-phosphoglucomutase [Qian94], β-phosphoglucomutase [Belocopitow74], glucokinase [Hansen03], ADP-glucose trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Paschoalin89], D-carnitine dehydrogenase [Setyahadi97], poly(glycerol-phosphate) α-glucosyltransferase [Glaser64], phenylacetate-CoA ligase [ElSaid00], F420-0-glutamyl ligase [Li03], F420-1:γ-glutamyl ligase [Li03], γ-F420-2:α-L-glutamate ligase [Li03a], cob(I)yrinic acid a,c-diamide adenosyltransferase, LPPG:Fo 2-phospho-L-lactate transferase [Graupner02], UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine--D-glutamate ligase [Walsh99], diethylphosphate phosphodiesterase [Tehara03], acetate kinase [Sagers61], pyruvate kinase [Abbe83], methylglyoxal oxidase [Rhee87], D-xylose isomerase [Kawai94], N-acetylmannosamine kinase [Banerjee69], enolase [Kaufmann92], citryl-CoA synthetase [Aoshima04], 2-oxoglutarate carboxylase [Aoshima06] Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: glutaminase B [Prusiner76], D-mannonate oxidoreductase [Portalier72], ribose-phosphate diphosphokinase [HoveJensen86, Willemoes97], adenylate kinase [Tan09], 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase [Comment 1], acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase [Vallari82, Comment 2], GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase [Sturla97], inorganic triphosphatase [Kohn12], dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase [Chen09, Henrich93], EF-P-lysine lysyltransferase [Ambrogelly10], tRNA(m5U54)methyltransferase [Ny88], cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase [Lacey10], Rep helicase [Kornberg78], pyridoxamine-phosphate transaminase [BEECHEY57], polyphosphate kinase [Ahn90, Haeusler92, Comment 3], GDP-glucose trehalose-6-phosphate synthase [Elbein68], GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase [Shinabarger91], phosphomannose isomerase [Shinabarger91], isovitexin 7-O-xyloside 2"-O-arabinosyltransferase [Heinsbroek79], isovitexin 2"-O-arabinosyltransferase [Heinsbroek79], lactose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], disulfoglucosamine-6-sulfatase [Dietrich69], N-sulfoglucosamine sulfohydrolase [Dietrich69], phosphate acetyltransferase [Bock99], D-xylose dehydrogenase [Johnsen04], SAM: anol-O-methyltransferase [Kemmerer96], gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Jay85], 8-hydroxykaempferol 8-O-methyltransferase [Jay85], ferrichrome synthetase [Siegmund91], cytosyl-glucuronate synthase [Gould94], benzodiazepinedione prenyltransferase [Yin09], caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeoylglucose 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], caffeate 3-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-methyl ester 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], gossypetin 8-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], laricitrin 5'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], myricetin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], patuletin 3'-O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetagetin 6O-methyltransferase [Ibdah03], quercetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], gossypetin 7-O-glucosyltransferase [Stich], 4,6,8-trihydroxydibenzodiazepinone farnesyltransferase [Bonitz13], cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], delphinidin 3-O-glucoside 6"-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], cellobiose 2-epimerase [Taguchi08], luteolin-7-O-glucuronide 2''-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88], luteolin 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88], synephrine dehydratase [Manne86], oleoyl-CoA:lysophosphatidate acyltransferase [Brown], acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase [Sorger02], mycinamicin III 3''-O-methyltransferase [Li09], cap1 methyltransferase [Belanger10], mRNA guanylyltransferase [Itoh84], thiamine diphosphate kinase [Voskoboyev87], ecdysone 22-kinase [Sonobe06], ginsenoside Rf 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside Rh1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside Rg2 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside Re 6-O-rhamnosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside Rg1 6-O-glucosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside R1 6-O-xylosidase [Wang11b], protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside with two glycosyl residues at position 6 6-glycosidase [Wang11b], ginsenoside Rb1 20-O-glucosidase [Yu09], ginsenoside Rb3 20-O-xylosidase [Yu09], ginsenoside Rc 20-O arabinosidase [Yu09], ginsenoside Rb2 20-O arabinosidase [Yu09], protopanaxadiol ginsenoside 20-O-diglycoside glycosidase [Yu09], 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dimethylallyl transferase [Steffensky98], NADH kinase [Shi05], NAD(+) kinase [Shi05], NADH kinase [Kawai01], NAD(+) kinase [Kawai01], saturated archaetidylinositol phosphate synthase [Morii09], hexanoyl-CoA synthetase [Stout12], 4-coumarate:CoA ligase [Gaid12], cinnamate:CoA ligase [Gaid12], kaempferide 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3GT2) [Ishikura94], kaempferide 3-O-glucosyltransferase (F3GT1) [Ishikura94], D-fructose-6-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12a], phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Tran10], phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase [Veljanovski06], rhamnose 4'-O-methyltransferase [Kim10d], rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase [Kim10d], rhamnose 2'-O-methyltransferase [Kim10d], spinosyn rhamnosyltransferase [Chen09a], UDPG:ginsenoside Rd glucosyltransferase [Yue05], phosphatidate kinase [Wissing94], phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate lipase C [Melin92], phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate phospholipase C [Melin92], PI(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], PI(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], PI(4,5)P2phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase [Zhong04], D-xylulose-5-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [Wang12], chitotriose synthase [Keyhani96], 3-phosphonopyruvate hydrolase [Kulakova03], cholinephosphotransferase [Hjelmstad91], glycerol-2-phosphate cytidylyltransfrase [Wang10b], CDP reductase [Roshick00], CDP reductase [Jordan97], 7-methylxanthine demethylase [Gluck88], peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase [Barrett05], 4-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase [Unsold05], diadenosine 5',5'''-hexaphosphate hydrolase [Safrany99], bis(diphospho)inositol tetrakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Safrany98], 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate phosphohydrolase [Safrany98], diadenosine 5',5'''-pentaphosphate hydrolase [Safrany99], phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase [Minagawa01], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase [Minagawa01], myo-inositol-3-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92], myo-inositol-1-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92], myo-inositol-4-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92], myo-inositol-5-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92], myo-inositol-6-phosphate monophosphatase [McAllister92], phosphatidylinositol synthase [Antonsson94], phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase [Arcaro98], unsaturated archaetidylinositol phosphate synthase [Morii09], carboxyphosphonoenolpyruvate phosphonomutase [Hidaka90], 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate-9-phosphate synthase [Angata99], L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase [Laing04], iminodiacetate dehydrogenase [Uetz93], vitexin β-glucosyltransferase [Heinsbroek80], streptomycin 6-kinase [Sugiyama83], 3-hydroxymethylcephem O-carbamoyltransferase [Brewer80], phosphoserine phosphatase [Knox69], tetrahydropteroyl-γ-polyglutamate:L-glutamate γ-ligase (ADP-forming) [Shane80], glucuronokinase [Neufeld59], N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate:L-glutamate γ-ligase (ADP-forming) [Shane80], feruloyl-CoA:tyramine N-(hydroxycinnamoyl)transferase [Hohlfeld95], gluconate dehydratase [Lamble04], acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75], dolichyl-phosphate mannose synthase [Haselbeck82], glucuronokinase [Gillard78], enolase [Miernyk84], chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol β-mannosyltransferase [Sharma82], methenyl-H4MPT cyclohydrolase [DiMarco86], ethanolamine N-methyltransferase [Prudhomme92], ATP:2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropteridine 6-diphosphotransferase [Rebeille97], UDP-D-glucose pyrophosphorylase [Kotake04], UDP-L-arabinose pyrophosphorylase [Kotake04], UDP-D-glucuronate pyrophosphorylase [Roberts71], mandelate racemase [WeilMalherbe66], UDP-N-acetylglucosamine—dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase [Sharma82], N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Sharma82], (2-amino-4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl-diphosphate:4-aminobenzoate 2-amino-4-hydroxydihydropteridine-6-methenyltransferase [Rebeille97], galactokinase [Dey83], enolase [Miernyk84], amorpha-4,11-diene synthase [Mercke00], amorpha-4,11-diene synthase [Chang00], 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase [Rohdich00a], 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase [Rohdich00], inosine-5'-phosphate nucleotidase [Bideon75], 5'-AMP nucleotidase [Bideon75], 5'-GMP-nucleotidase [Petritsch77], acyl-CoA hydrolase (medium chain) [Alexson88], quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (decarboxylating) [Mann74], acyl-CoA hydrolase (short chain) [Alexson88], cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline dehydrogenase [Yoneya61], D-galactonate dehydratase [Szumilo81], arabinose kinase [Neufeld60], UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase [Szumilo96], pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside-6''-O-rhamnosyltransferase [Kamsteeg80], catechol O-methyltransferase [Rivett82], molybdopterin molybdotransferase [Llamas06], 2-ketogluconokinase [NARROD56]

Enzymes inhibited by Mg2+, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [Hochstadt78, Comment 4], L-lysine monooxygenase [Nakazawa72] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: glutaminase [Brown08], glutaminase [Brown08], dihydrofolate reductase [Baccanari75], acetoacetyl-[acp] reductase [Price04], imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase [Klem93], lipopolysaccharide glucosyltransferase [Qian14], UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-glucosamine N-acyltransferase [Bartling08], RNase I endoribonuclease [Raziuddin79, Loskot78], RNase I endoribonuclease [Raziuddin79], D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase [Amanuma80], 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine-forming methyltransferase [Hagervall87], 5-aminomethyl-2-thiouridine synthase [Hagervall87], ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase [Eliasson92, Comment 5], Na+ / K+:H+ antiporter ChaA [Ivey93], uroporphyrinogen III cosynthetase [Stevens68], UDP-D-xylose synthase [Molhoj03], UDP-D-apiose synthase [Molhoj03], homogalacturonan methyltransferase [Goubet99], GTP cyclohydrolase [Weisberg86], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], lyso-phosphatidylethanolaminelipase [Merkel05], omega-hydroxypalmitate O-feruloyl transferase [Rautengarten12], thiobenzoate-S-methyltransferase [Zhao12], 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene 1,2-dioxygenase [Takenaka03], 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase [Orii06], NAD+-dependent L-rhamnofuranose 1-dehydrogenase [Rigo76], oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase [Quayle63], phosphatidate phosphatase [Wu96], phenylacetyl-coenzyme A:glycine N-acyltransferase [Nandi79], ε-N-trimethyllysine hydroxylase [Sachan80], 27-O-demethyl-rifamycin SV methyltransferase [Xu03], N-acetylpuromycin N-acetylhydrolase [Lacalle93], histidinol dehydrogenase [Nagai91], L-lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase [Hutzler75], benzoyl-coenzyme A:benzyl alcohol benzoyltransferase [DAuria02], lysine N6-acetyltransferase [Bode93], D-lactate dehydrogenase [Schweiger84], hydrogenase [Schink79], noradrenaline N-methyltransferase [Connett70], δ-aminovaleramidase [Reitz70], L-3-aminobutyryl coenzyme A deaminase [Jeng74], glutamate synthase [Schreier84], α-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-1D-myo-inositol:raffinose galactosyltransferase [Gaudreault81] Inhibitor (Other types) of: D-sorbitol dehydrogenase [Yamaguchi94]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: methionine adenosyltransferase, acyl carrier protein phosphodiesterase, holo-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase, molybdenum cofactor cytidylyltransferase, dihydroneopterin triphosphate 2'-epimerase, glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase, N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, nicotinate-mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, NAD+ synthetase, NH3-dependent, quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (decarboxylating), NMN adenylyltransferase, L-rhamnulose kinase, adenylylsulfate kinase, α-dehydro-β-deoxy-D-glucarate aldolase, asparagine synthetase, L-aspartate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming), L-aspartate:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming), propanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), 2-methylisocitrate lyase, anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase, UDP-N-acetylmuramate:L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate ligase, UDP-N-acetylmuramate:L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminoheptanedioate-D-alanine ligase, glutamate-putrescine ligase, anthranilate synthase, guanosine-5'-triphosphate, 3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase, glyoxylate carboligase, malate synthase G, D-ribulokinase, L-fuculokinase, α-D-glucose-1-phosphatase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose dehydrogenase, ribokinase, 1-phosphofructokinase, NAD kinase, glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, thymidylate synthase, dTMP kinase, acetylglutamate kinase, arginine decarboxylase, biosynthetic, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, aspartate ammonia-lyase, UDP-N-acetylmuramate-alanine ligase, UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase, L-xylulose kinase, 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, inosine kinase, guanosine kinase, acetyl-CoA synthetase (AMP-forming), adenylosuccinate synthetase, adenylate kinase, shikimate kinase, glycerol kinase, thiamine monophosphate kinase, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase, 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methylerythritol kinase, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase, phosphatidylglycerophosphatase, phosphatidylglycerophosphatase, acetate kinase, CMP kinase, 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase, (E)-heptaprenyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate octaprenyltranstransferase, isochorismate synthase, isochorismate synthase, o-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase, o-succinylbenzoate synthase, 2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate synthase, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate octaprenyltransferase, dihydropteroate synthase, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase, phosphoserine phosphatase, thymidine kinase, CTP synthase, ribonuclease, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, transketolase, dethiobiotin synthetase, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, arginyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, valyl-tRNA synthetase, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, histidyl-tRNA synthetase, methionyl-tRNA synthetase, methionyl-tRNA synthetase, isocitrate lyase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, molybdopterin adenylyltransferase, thiamine phosphate synthase, phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase, phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase, 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, acetolactate synthase, acetohydroxybutanoate synthase, acetohydroxybutanoate synthase, acetolactate synthase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP), malate dehydrogenase, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, dTDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, histidinol-phosphatase, imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase, amidophosphoribosyl transferase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamide synthetase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamide cyclo-ligase, phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase, undecaprenyl-phosphate α-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, pyridoxal kinase, UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate cytidylyltransferase, D,D-heptose 1,7-bisphosphate phosphatase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, folylpoly-γ-glutamate synthetase, pantothenate synthetase, 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing), 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase, pantothenate kinase, biotin-[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase, lipopolysaccharide core heptose (I) kinase, UDP-D-glucose:(glucosyl)LPS α-1,3-glucosyltransferase, tetraacyldisaccharide 4'-kinase, 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphofructokinase, fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, short chain acyl-CoA synthetase, glutamate-cysteine ligase, glutathione synthetase, 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase, galactokinase, selenide, water dikinase, L-serine:tRNASer ligase (AMP-forming), γ-glutamyl kinase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, geranyl diphosphate synthase, di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenyl diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate undecaprenylcistransferase, RNase T exonuclease, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, GDP-glucose glucosyl hydrolase, GDP-mannose mannosyl hydrolase, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, diacylglycerol kinase, FMN phosphatase, 5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribitylamino)uracil phosphatase, FMN phosphatase, 5-amino-6-(5-phospho-D-ribitylamino)uracil phosphatase, mannokinase, phosphoglycolate phosphatase, ribonuclease, 3' → 5' ssDNA exonuclease, inorganic triphosphatase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, tRNA m1G37 methyltransferase, adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphorylase, β-phosphoglucomutase, tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, heme O synthase, GDP-mannose hydrolase, D-glucarate dehydratase, exopolyphosphatase, endonuclease I, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose kinase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-rhamnonate aldolase, citryl-ACP lyase, lipoyl-adenylate--protein ligase, glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase, PII-UMP deuridylylation, [protein-PII] uridylyltransferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphatase, acyl-ACP synthetase, 2-acylglycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase, ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, guanylate kinase, fructose-1-phosphatase, molybdenum cofactor guanylyltransferase, bis(molybdenum cofactor) guanylyltransferase, xanthosine-5'-phosphate:L-glutamine amido-ligase (AMP-forming), adenylate cyclase, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, oxidized nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase, CTP:2,3,4-saturated L-phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, pyridoxal phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, c-di-GMP-specific, c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, UTP pyrophosphatase, dTTP pyrophosphatase, gyrase, lactose galactohydrolase, RNase BN exoribonuclease, deoxyguanosine triphosphate triphosphohydrolase, DNA endonuclease, thiamin kinase, RNase D exonuclease, DNA primase, ATP-dependent DNA helicase, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:L-methionyl-tRNAfMet N-formyltransferase, tRNA(i6A37) synthase, 16S rRNA m62A1518,m62A1519 dimethyltransferase, sugar-phosphatase, sugar phosphatase, sugar phosphatase, pyridoxal phosphatase, phosphosugar phosphatase, inositol monophosphatase, glycerol-2-phosphatase, pyrophosphohydrolase, dihydroneopterin triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase, 8-oxo-dGTP diphosphatase, 6-phosphogluconate phosphatase, 16S rRNA m2G1207 methyltransferase, pyruvate oxidase, McrBC restriction endonuclease, guanosine-5'-phosphate phosphohydrolase, inosine-5'-phosphate phosphohydrolase, D-malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), 3'-nucleotidase, 5'-nucleotidase, Rnase, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase, ITPase, XTPase, L-1-glycerophophorylethanolamine phosphodiesterase, glycerophosphoserine phosphodiesterase, glycerophosphoglycerol phosphodiesterase, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, acid phosphatase / phosphotransferase, cellulose synthase, enolase, polynucleotide phosphorylase, ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase, DNA ligase, DNA ligase, RNase R, xanthosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, deoxyinosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase, nucleoside di- and triphosphate hydrolase, pyridoxal phosphatase, glutathionylspermidine synthetase, L-rhamnonate dehydratase, lysyl-tRNA synthetase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-adenylate:[EntB] 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate transferase, L-seryl-adenylate synthase, ribonuclease, homoserine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, ATP synthase, transport of a lipopolysaccharide, geranyl diphosphate synthase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, geranylfarnesyl diphosphate synthase, stellata-2,6,19-triene synthase, (4-{4-[2-(γ-L-glutamylamino)ethyl]phenoxymethyl}furan-2-yl)methanamine synthase, [5-(aminomethyl)furan-3-yl]methyl phosphate kinase, inosine 5'-phosphate 5' nucleotidase, ophiobolin F synthase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate prenyltransferase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, indolactam V geranyltransferase, phosphoglucomutase, α-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase, multiradiene synthase, monoglucosyldiacylglycerol synthase, β,β,β-trigalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase, β,β-digalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase, β-monogalactosyldiacylglycerol galactosyltransferase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine–dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, CDP-archaeol synthase, phosphomannomutase, phosphoglucomutase, galactarate dehydratase (D-threo-forming), (+)-δ-cadinene synthase, (+)-δ-cadinene synthase, UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase, bacimethrin diphosphokinase, D-glucarolactone cycloisomerase, D-galactarolactone cycloisomerase, (R)-2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylbutanoate isomeroreductase, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, 2,4,6-octatrienoyl-2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone synthetase, 5-aminolevulinate-CoA ligase, leachianone G 2"-dimethylallyltransferase, biotin--[acetyl-CoA carboxylase] synthetase, naringenin 8-dimethylallyltransferase, 7-O-acetyl-N-acetylneuraminate synthase, L-α-amino acid ligase, L-α-amino acid ligase, L-α-amino acid ligase, L-α-amino acid ligase, 3-geranylgeranylindole synthase, cyclooctat-9-en-7-ol synthase, β-phosphoglucomutase, guanidinoacetate kinase, taurocyamine kinase, taurocyamine kinase, lombricine kinase, N-glutaminylanilide synthase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, lactenocin O-methyltransferase, macrocin O-methyltransferase, demethyllactenocin O-methyltransferase, demethylmacrocin O-methyltransferase, mycinamicin VI 2''-O-methyltransferase, anthranilate-CoA ligase, 2-methyl-4-hydroxyquinoline farnesyltransferase, L-2-aminoadipate--LysW ligase, oxaloacetate decarboxylase, NAD+-dependent malate dehydrogenase, eriodictyol 4'-O-methyltransferase, eriodictyol 3'-O-methyltransferase, quercetin 3'-O-methyltransferase, luteolin 3'-O-methyltransferase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, 4-coumarate--CoA ligase, 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, diacetyl reductase [(S)-acetoin forming], pyruvate kinase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, mRNA 5′-triphosphate phosphatase, sucrose-phosphate phosphatase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase, sucrose phosphate synthase, pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase, phosphocholine phosphatase, ethanolamine phosphate phosphatase, decarbamoylnovobiocin carbamoyltranferase, 8-demethylnovobiocate synthase, dTDP-4-dehydro-5-methyl-L-rhamnose 4-ketoreductase, 8-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone methyltransferase, 7,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone methyltransferase, cirsiliol 3'-O-methyltransferase, luteolin 3'-O-methyltransferase, 7,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone methyltransferase, 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA ligase, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, flavin transferase, 6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphokinase, dihydroneopterin aldolase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase, 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase, phosphoribosylglycinamidine synthetase, GMP kinase, dGMP kinase, AMP kinase, dGTP phosphohydrolase, 8-oxo-dGTP phosphohydrolase, dTTP phosphohydrolase, dUTP phosphohydrolase, dCTP phosphohydrolase, dATP phosphohydrolase, GTP phosphohydrolase, nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase, CTP phosphohydrolase, ATP phosphohydrolase, UTP phosphohydrolase, dCMP deaminase, dCTP deaminase, 2'-deoxyadenosine kinase, 2'-deoxyguanosine kinase, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, 2'-deoxycytidine kinase, 2'-deoxyadenosine kinase, 2'-deoxycytidine kinase, 2'-deoxyadenosine kinase (ATP), 2'-deoxyguanosine kinase (ATP), dUTP diphosphatase, deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase, inosine diphosphate phosphatase, deoxyinosine diphosphate phosphatase, 8-oxo-guanine diphosphate phosphatase, 8-oxo-deoxyguanine diphosphate phosphatase, 8-oxo-deoxyadenine diphosphate phosphatase, CMP-legionaminic acid synthase, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA lyase, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-branched 2,3,4-saturated fatty acyl-CoA lyase, 2-methylisoborneol synthase, geranyl diphosphate 2-C-methyltransferase, methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase, germacrene A synthase, germacrene A synthase, potchoulol synthase, patchoulol synthase, β-farnesene synthase, (E)-β-farnesene synthase, chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase, 4-coumarate-CoA ligase, N,N'-diacetylbacillosaminyl-diphospho-undecaprenol α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, N,N'-diacetylbacilliosaminyl-1-phosphate transferase, [BtrI acyl-carrier protein]--L-glutamate ligase, 4-amino butanoyl-[BtrI acyl-carrier protein]--L-glutamate ligase, UDP-GlcNAc:ribostamycin N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neamine phosphoribosyltransferase, 2-oxopent-4-enoate hydratase, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, chitin synthase, (-)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA lyase, 4-hydroxybenzoate-nonaprenyl transferase, 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase, glucosamine kinase, pentalenene synthase, hydroxyethylthiazole kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate mutase, phosphoenolpyruvate mutase, tRNAHis guanylyltransferase, tRNAHis adenylyltransferase, tRNAHis guanylyltransferase, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, choline kinase, trans-α-bergamotene synthase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent dTDP-N-monodesmethyl-D-forosamine 4-N-methyltransferase,, sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase, isochorismate synthase, homoserine kinase, UDP phosphatase, UDP phosphatase, CTP triphosphatase, CDP-diacylglycerol:myo-inositol phosphatidyltransferase, CTP:ethanolaminephosphate cytidylyltransferase, CTP:ethanolaminephosphate cytidylyltransferase, aristolochene synthase, trichodiene synthase, nitrogenase, nitrogenase, nitrogenase, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase, dimethylsulfide monooxygenase, phosphoglucomutase, cyclodextrinase, cyclodextrin glucanotransferase, malate synthase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-rhamnoate aldolase, tRNA-queuosine β-mannosyltransferase, oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase, oxalyl-CoA decarboxylase, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate aldolase, glucosylglycerate synthase, acetophenone carboxylase, (3S)-(E)-nerolidol synthase, α-gurjunene synthase, (-)-γ-cadinene synthase, shikimate kinase, shikimate kinase, epicedrol synthase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-acyl carrier protein transferase, (S)-β-macrocarpene synthase, farnesyl diphosphate phosphatase, L-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate aldolase, 5-chloro-5-deoxy-D-ribose 1-dehydrogenase, octadecanyl-[acp] reductase, guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, acylating sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase, adenosine kinase, sulfoacetate-CoA ligase, α-ketoglutaryl-diaminobutyryl-citryl-ethanolamine synthetase, diaminobutyryl-citryl-ethanolamino-α-ketoglutarate synthetase, α-ketoglutaryl-diaminobutyryl-citryl-ethanolamine:α-ketoglutarate ligase, diaminobutyryl-citryl-ethanolamino-α-ketoglutarate:α-ketoglutarate ligase, O-citryl-ethanolamine:diaminobutyrate ligase, citrate:ethanolamine ligase, citrate:serine ligase, dTMP kinase, dTDP kinase, dUTPase, pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructkinase, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate tri-trans,poly-cis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate synthase, (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate mono-trans,poly-cis-dodecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, E,Z-farnesyl diphosphate synthase, geranylgeranyl-diphosphate hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase, methanol:N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline oxidoreductase, methanol dehydrogenase, D-glucarate dehydratase, 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate kinase, glucuronokinase, 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase, 3-dehydroshikimate dehydratase, 1-guanidino-1-deoxy-scyllo-inositol 4-phosphate phosphatase, ω,E,E-farnesyl diphosphate synthase, 5-phospho-α-D-ribose-1-diphosphate:decaprenyl-phosphate 5-phosphoribosyltransferase, decaprenyl-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-pyrophosphate:dTDP-α-L-rhamnose rhamnosyltransferase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, mono-trans-poly-cis-nonaprenyl-cis-transferase, IMP 5'-nucleotidase, AMP 5'-nucleotidase, oxaloacetate β-decarboxylase, N-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-L-glutamate synthetase, L-dopa O-methyltransferase, O-phosphoseryl-tRNA[Ser]Sec kinase, N-citryl-spermidine:spermidine ligase, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-citryl-spermidine:spermidine ligase, D-proline reductase, ω,E,E-farnesyl diphosphate synthase, dimethylallyltransferase, isoprene synthase, elisabethatriene synthase, 4-chlorobenzoate:coenzyme A ligase, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase, γ-glutamylhistamine synthetase, homoserine kinase, isopentenyl-diphosphate δ-isomerase, 5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl 5'-monophosphate synthetase, 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase, riboflavin synthase, GTP cyclohydrolase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase, creatine kinase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase, cytidine 5'-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminate synthetase, N-acetylneuraminate-9-phosphate phosphatase, N-acetylneuraminate-9-phosphate phosphatase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate synthase, long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase, (25R)-3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholestanoyl-CoA ligase, D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-ornithyl-L-leucyl-[NRPS-pcp] synthetase, D-phenylalanyl-[NRPS-pcp] synthetase, 1-(3-amino-5-hydroxyphenyl)ethan-1-one -[PKS-acp] synthase, kanosamine 6-kinase, dTDP-L-dihydrostreptose:streatidine-6-phosphate dihydrostreptosyltransferase, ATP:inosamime phosphotransferase, N6,N6,O-tridemethylpuromycin synthetase, 3'-amino-3'-deoxyAMP monophosphatase, 3'-amino-3'-deoxyATP pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD-dependent ATP dehydrogenase, glutamyl-tRNAGln amidotransferase, 31-O-demethyl-FK506 methyltransferase, epi-isozizaene synthase, C-geranial synthase, cis-1,4-polyisoprene:isopentenyl-diphosphate cis-1,4-isoprenetransferase, isochorismate synthase, carbapenam synthetase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, 4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase, 4-hydroxybenzoate geranyltransferase, N2-(2-carboxyethyl)arginine synthase, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (R)-linalool synthase, δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthetase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, acetone carboxylase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, chlorophyllide a divinyl reductase, α-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase, adenosyl-cobalamin-5'-phosphate synthase, D-arabinonate dehydratase, L-arabonate dehydratase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase, dihydroxyacetone synthase, glutamine synthetase, glutamine synthetase, asparagine synthetase, fructokinase, pyruvate kinase, succinyl-CoA synthetase, geraniol synthase, linalool synthase, 2-hydroxyhepta-2,4-dienedioate hydratase, 5-carboxymethyl-2-oxo-hex-3-ene-1,7-dioate decarboxylase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase, molybdopterin adenylyltransferase, dimethylallyl diphosphate:umbelliferone dimethylallyltransferase, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate phosphatase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate oxidase, malate synthase, isocitrate lyase, 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, 2-oxobutanoate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate dehydratase, 2,3-dihydroxy-3-methylvalerate hydro-lyase, 2-aceto-2-hydroxy-butanoate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing), 2,3-dihydroxy-isovalerate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (isomerizing), pyruvate:pyruvate acetaldehydetransferase (decarboxylating), sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase, ATP-citrate lyase, enolase, benzoate-CoA ligase, adenosyl-cobyric acid synthase, D-tagatose-6-phosphate kinase, enolase, benzoate-CoA ligase, 4-carboxy-4-hydroxy-2-oxoadipate aldolase, adenylosuccinate synthetase, benzoyl-CoA reductase, 4-oxalocitramalate aldolase, hexulose-6-phosphate synthase, pyruvate kinase, 3-hydroxybenzoate-Coenzyme A ligase, indolepyruvate decarboxylase, hexulose-6-phosphate synthase, methionine adenosyltransferase, sulfate adenylyltransferase, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase, hydrogenobyrinate a,c-diamide synthase, nitrogenase, acetate kinase, 6-carboxyhexanoate-CoA ligase, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, arginine specific, 2-hydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthio-phosphopentene phosphatase, D-ribulokinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, dethiobiotin synthetase, 3-methylaspartase, citramalate lyase, citramalyl-CoA lyase, UDP-galactose:MGDG galactosyltransferase, shikimate kinase, 2,3-diketo-5-methylthio-1-phosphopentane enolase, cholate-CoA ligase, nitrogenase, (2R)-phospho-3-sulfolactate synthase, 2-phospho-3-sulfolactate phosphohydrolase, lactyl-CoA dehydratase, 4-oxalocitramalate aldolase, cobaltochelatase, adenosyl-cobalamin synthase, phosphoribosylamidoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthetase, nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, (3S)-3-methyl-2-oxopentanoate carboxy-lyase, keto-isocaproate decarboxylase, ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase, ADP-dependent glucokinase, inosine kinase, guanosine kinase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, sorbitol-6-phosphate phosphatase, O-succinylbenzoate-CoA ligase, GDP-L-fucose pyrophosphorylase, L-arginine decarboxyoxidase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: malate dehydrogenase, phenylhydantoinase, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-requiring, pyridoxal kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase


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