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MetaCyc Compound: pyruvate

Synonyms: alpha-ketopropionic acid, BTS, α-ketopropionic acid, acetylformic acid, pyroracemic acid, 2-oxopropanoic acid, pyruvic acid, 2-oxopropanoate, 2-oxo-propionic acid

Superclasses: an acid all carboxy acids a carboxylate a 2-oxo acid a 2-oxo carboxylate
an acid all carboxy acids a carboxylate a 2-oxo carboxylate

Component of: sodium pyruvate

Chemical Formula: C3H3O3

Molecular Weight: 87.055 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 88.0160439947 Daltons

pyruvate compound structure

SMILES: CC(=O)C(=O)[O-]

InChI: InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)/p-1

InChIKey: InChIKey=LCTONWCANYUPML-UHFFFAOYSA-M

Unification Links: CAS:127-17-3 , ChEBI:15361 , ChemSpider:96901 , HMDB:HMDB00243 , IAF1260:33546 , KEGG:C00022 , KNApSAcK:C00001200 , MetaboLights:MTBLC15361 , PubChem:107735 , UMBBD-Compounds:c0159

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -82.398705 Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

7-(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)-wyosine biosynthesis , methylwyosine biosynthesis :
N1-methylguanine37 in tRNAPhe + pyruvate + S-adenosyl-L-methionine → 4-demethylwyosine37 in tRNAPhe + L-methionine + 5'-deoxyadenosine + CO2 + H2O

acetaldehyde biosynthesis I , acetaldehyde biosynthesis II , chitin degradation to ethanol , long chain fatty acid ester synthesis for microdiesel production , pyruvate fermentation to acetate VIII , pyruvate fermentation to ethanol II :
pyruvate + H+ → acetaldehyde + CO2

acetoin biosynthesis III :
pyruvate + acetaldehyde + H+ → acetoin + CO2
pyruvate + H+ → acetaldehyde + CO2

ammonia oxidation III :
pyruvate + hydroxylamine → pyruvic oxime + H2O

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type , C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type , C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type , L-glutamine biosynthesis III :
pyruvate + ATP + phosphate → phosphoenolpyruvate + AMP + diphosphate + H+

ephedrine biosynthesis :
benzoate + pyruvate → 1-phenylpropane-1,2-dione + CO2

gluconeogenesis I , glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate) , glycolysis II (from fructose 6-phosphate) , reductive TCA cycle I :
pyruvate + ATP + H2O → phosphoenolpyruvate + AMP + phosphate + 2 H+

gluconeogenesis II (Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum) , gluconeogenesis III , incomplete reductive TCA cycle , itaconate biosynthesis , Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum biosynthetic metabolism :
pyruvate + hydrogen carbonate + ATP → oxaloacetate + ADP + phosphate + H+

heterolactic fermentation , L-alanine degradation II (to D-lactate) , mixed acid fermentation , superpathway of fermentation (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) , superpathway of glucose and xylose degradation , vancomycin resistance I :
(R)-lactate + NAD+pyruvate + NADH + H+

L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) , L-isoleucine biosynthesis III , L-isoleucine biosynthesis IV :
pyruvate + 2-oxobutanoate + H+ → (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate + CO2

L-isoleucine biosynthesis II :
acetyl-CoA + pyruvate + H2O → (R)-citramalate + coenzyme A + H+
pyruvate + 2-oxobutanoate + H+ → (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate + CO2

L-lysine biosynthesis I , L-lysine biosynthesis II , L-lysine biosynthesis III , L-lysine biosynthesis VI :
pyruvate + L-aspartate-semialdehyde → (2S,4S)-4-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate + H2O + H+

lupanine biosynthesis :
3 cadaverine + 4 pyruvate → 17-oxosparteine + 4 L-alanine + H+ + 3 H2O

methylerythritol phosphate pathway I , methylerythritol phosphate pathway II , pyridoxal 5'-phosphate biosynthesis I , thiazole biosynthesis I (E. coli) , thiazole biosynthesis II (Bacillus) :
pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H+ → 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate + CO2

prodigiosin biosynthesis :
pyruvate + trans-2-octenal + H+ → (S)-3-acetyloctanal + CO2

pyruvate fermentation to opines :
strombine + NAD+ + H2O ← pyruvate + glycine + NADH + H+
tauropine + NAD+ + H2O ← pyruvate + taurine + NADH + H+
β-alanopine + NAD+ + H2O ← pyruvate + β-alanine + NADH + H+
alanopine + NAD+ + H2O ← pyruvate + L-alanine + NADH + H+
D-octopine + NAD+ + H2O ← L-arginine + pyruvate + NADH + H+

pyruvate oxidation pathway , pyruvate to cytochrome bd terminal oxidase electron transfer , pyruvate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transfer :
pyruvate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane] + H2O → CO2 + acetate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

Not in pathways:
D-lysopine + NADP+ + H2O ← pyruvate + L-lysine + NADPH + H+
pyruvate + an oxidized flavodoxin + coenzyme A + H+ → acetyl-CoA + CO2 + a reduced flavodoxin

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(R)-cysteate degradation , sulfolactate degradation I :
(2R)-3-sulfolactate → pyruvate + bisulfite

(Z)-phenylmethanethial S-oxide biosynthesis , alliin metabolism , ethiin metabolism , methiin metabolism , propanethial S-oxide biosynthesis :
2-aminoprop-2-enoate + H+ + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium

1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis I , 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate biosynthesis II (plants) :
2-succinyl-5-enolpyruvyl-6-hydroxy-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate → (1R,6R)-6-hydroxy-2-succinylcyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-carboxylate + pyruvate

2,3-dihydroxybenzoate biosynthesis :
isochorismate + H2O → pyruvate + (2S,3S)-2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzoate

2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation :
2,4-dihydroxy-5-methyl-6-oxohexa-2,4-dienoate + H2O → methylmalonate semialdehyde + pyruvate + H+

2-chloroacrylate degradation I , D-lactate to cytochrome bo oxidase electron transport , methylglyoxal degradation I , methylglyoxal degradation II :
(R)-lactate + an ubiquinone[inner membrane]pyruvate + an ubiquinol[inner membrane]

2-chloroacrylate degradation II :
2-chloro-2-hydroxypropanoate → pyruvate + chloride + H+

4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis II (microbes) , tetrahydromethanopterin biosynthesis , ubiquinol-8 biosynthesis (eukaryotic) :
chorismate → 4-hydroxybenzoate + pyruvate

4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation :
2-keto-4-hydroxypimelate → succinate semialdehyde + pyruvate

5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucuronate degradation , D-fructuronate degradation , D-glucosaminate degradation , Entner-Doudoroff pathway I , Entner-Doudoroff pathway III (semi-phosphorylative) :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 6-phosphate → D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + pyruvate

5-nitroanthranilate degradation , gentisate degradation I :
3-fumarylpyruvate + H2O → fumarate + pyruvate + H+

ammonia oxidation III :
pyruvic oxime + oxygen → pyruvate + nitrite + H+

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) , C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type , chitin degradation to ethanol , L-carnitine degradation III :
(S)-malate + NAD+pyruvate + CO2 + NADH

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NADP-ME type , C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type :
(S)-malate + NADP+ → CO2 + pyruvate + NADPH

coenzyme M biosynthesis I , coenzyme M biosynthesis II :
sulfoethylcysteine + H2O → ammonium + coenzyme M + pyruvate

D-malate degradation :
(R)-malate + NAD+pyruvate + CO2 + NADH

D-serine degradation , glycine betaine degradation I , L-cysteine degradation II , L-serine degradation , L-tryptophan degradation II (via pyruvate) , purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic) :
2-iminopropanoate + H+ + H2O → pyruvate + ammonium

ergothioneine biosynthesis I (bacteria) , ergothioneine biosynthesis II (fungi) :
hercynylcysteine S-oxide + an unknown reduced electron acceptor → ergothioneine + pyruvate + ammonium + an unknown oxidized electron acceptor

gentisate degradation II :
maleylpyruvate + H2O → maleate + pyruvate + H+

gliotoxin biosynthesis :
3-benzyl-3,6 -bis(cysteinyl)- 6-(hydroxymethyl)-diketopiperazine + 2 H2O → 3-benzyl-3,6 -dithio-6-(hydroxymethyl)-diketopiperazine + 2 ammonia + 2 pyruvate + 2 H+

gluconeogenesis I :
(S)-malate + NADP+ → CO2 + pyruvate + NADPH
(S)-malate + NAD+pyruvate + CO2 + NADH

glutathione-mediated detoxification I , glutathione-mediated detoxification II :
an L-cysteine-S-conjugate + H2O → a thiol + pyruvate + ammonium

glycerol degradation V :
dihydroxyacetone + phosphoenolpyruvate → glycerone phosphate + pyruvate

glyoxylate assimilation , itaconate degradation :
(3S)-citramalyl-CoA → pyruvate + acetyl-CoA

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

(R)-acetoin biosynthesis I , (R)-acetoin biosynthesis II , (S)-acetoin biosynthesis , L-valine biosynthesis , pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol (engineered) :
2 pyruvate + H+ ↔ (S)-2-acetolactate + CO2

1-butanol autotrophic biosynthesis :
pyruvate + ATP ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H+
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation I , 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradation II :
pyruvate + (2-aminoethyl)phosphonate ↔ L-alanine + phosphonoacetaldehyde

2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , 4-hydroxy-2(1H)-quinolone biosynthesis , acridone alkaloid biosynthesis , L-tryptophan biosynthesis :
chorismate + L-glutamine ↔ anthranilate + L-glutamate + pyruvate + H+

2-methylcitrate cycle I , 2-methylcitrate cycle II :
(2R,3S)-2-methylisocitrate ↔ succinate + pyruvate

2-oxopentenoate degradation :
4-hydroxy-2-oxopentanoate ↔ acetaldehyde + pyruvate

3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose degradation , D-galactonate degradation , L-glucose degradation :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-galactonate 6-phosphate ↔ D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + pyruvate

4-aminobenzoate biosynthesis :
4-amino-4-deoxychorismate ↔ 4-aminobenzoate + pyruvate + H+

4-aminobutyrate degradation IV , L-glutamate degradation IV :
4-aminobutanoate + pyruvate ↔ succinate semialdehyde + L-alanine

4-nitrotoluene degradation II , androstenedione degradation :
(S)-4-hydroxy-2-oxohexanoate ↔ pyruvate + propanal

acetyl-CoA biosynthesis II (NADP-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase) :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NADP+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADPH

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol) :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
pyruvate + ATP ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H+

anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, mitochondrial) , pyruvate fermentation to acetate II , pyruvate fermentation to acetate V , superpathway of glycolysis, pyruvate dehydrogenase, TCA, and glyoxylate bypass :
pyruvate + coenzyme A + NAD+ ↔ acetyl-CoA + CO2 + NADH

β-alanine biosynthesis II , β-alanine degradation II :
3-oxopropanoate + L-alanine ↔ β-alanine + pyruvate

Bifidobacterium shunt :
(S)-lactate + NAD+pyruvate + NADH + H+
pyruvate + ATP ↔ phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP + H+

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type :
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate
2-oxoglutarate + L-alanine ↔ L-glutamate + pyruvate

D-galactarate degradation I , D-glucarate degradation I :
5-dehydro-4-deoxy-D-glucarate ↔ pyruvate + tartronate semialdehyde

D-galacturonate degradation III :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-L-galactonate ↔ L-glyceraldehyde + pyruvate

Entner-Doudoroff pathway II (non-phosphorylative) :
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate ↔ D-glyceraldehyde + pyruvate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

Not in pathways:
acetone + pyruvic oxime = acetone-oxime + pyruvate
N5-(L-1-carboxyethyl)-L-ornithine + NADP+ + H2O = pyruvate + L-ornithine + NADPH + H+
(2S)-2-{[1-(R)-carboxyethyl]amino}pentanoate + NAD+ + H2O = pyruvate + L-norvaline + NADH + H+
acetylenedicarboxylate + H+ + H2O = CO2 + pyruvate
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-glucarate = pyruvate + tartronate semialdehyde
3-phosphonopyruvate + H2O = pyruvate + phosphate + H+
(R)-4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate = 2 pyruvate
a 3-acylpyruvate + H2O = a carboxylate + pyruvate + H+
(3E)-4-(2-carboxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-enoate + H2O = 2-formylbenzoate + pyruvate
maleylpyruvate + H2O = fumarate + pyruvate + H+
(R)-lactate + an unknown oxidized electron acceptor = pyruvate + an unknown reduced electron acceptor
(S)-lactate + oxaloacetate = pyruvate + (S)-malate
(R)-lactate + 2 an oxidized cytochrome c-553 = pyruvate + 2 a reduced cytochrome c-553 + 2 H+
(S)-2-acetolactate + thiamin diphosphate = 2-(α-hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate + pyruvate
4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoglutarate = 2 pyruvate
(4S)-4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate = glyoxylate + pyruvate
2,4-dihydroxyhept-2-enedioate = succinate semialdehyde + pyruvate
3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate = aldehydo-D-arabinose + pyruvate
L-serine O-sulfate + H2O = ammonium + sulfate + pyruvate + H+
S-(4-methylthiobutylhydroximoyl)-L-cysteine + H2O = 4-methylthiobutylhydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium
S-(indolylmethylthiohydroximoyl)-L-cysteine + H2O = indolylmethylthiohydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium + H+
S-5-methylthiopentylhydroximoyl-L-cysteine + H2O = 5-methylthiopentylhydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium
S-6-methylthiohexylhydroximoyl-L-cysteine + H2O = 6-methylthiohexylhydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium
S-7-methylthioheptylhydroximoyl-L-cysteine + H2O = 7-methylthioheptylhydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium
S-8-methylthiooctylhydroximoyl-L-cysteine + H2O = 8-methylthiooctylhydroximate + pyruvate + ammonium

In Transport reactions:
pyruvate[periplasmic space]pyruvate[cytosol] ,
pyruvate[cytosol]pyruvate[periplasmic space]

In Redox half-reactions:
acetate[in] + CO2[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane]pyruvate[in] + H2O[in] ,
pyruvate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → D-alanine[in] + H2O[in] ,
pyruvate[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → (S)-lactate[in] ,
pyruvate[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → (R)-lactate[in] ,
a 2-oxo carboxylate[in] + ammonium[in] + 2 H+[in] + 2 e-[membrane] → a D-amino acid[in] + H2O[in]

Enzymes activated by pyruvate, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: D-lactate dehydrogenase [Tarmy68a] , ubiquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase [Kumar92a, Crichton05]

Activator (Mechanism unknown) of: phosphate acetyltransferase [Suzuki69, CamposBermudez10] , phosphate acetyltransferase [Bologna10] , cysteine sulfinate desulfinase [Mihara00, Comment 1] , isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphatase [Nimmo84, Miller00b, Comment 2]

Enzymes inhibited by pyruvate, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: proline dehydrogenase [Scarpulla78] , N-acetylneuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84] , N-acetyl-β-neuraminate lyase [Aisaka91, Uchida84] , 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase , Δ1-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate deaminase [Watanabe12] , L-alanine:5-ketooctanal aminotransferase A , indolepyruvate decarboxylase [Koga92] , acetylpyruvate hydrolase [Davey75] , R(+)-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate:NADP+ oxidoreductase [Hausler91] , (R+)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)lactate:NADP+ oxidoreductase [Hausler91] , 4-hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate aldolase [Anderson85]

Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [Powers76, Comment 3] , 3-phosphoshikimate-1-carboxyvinyltransferase [Huynh92] , malate synthase G [Anstrom03] , threonine dehydratase [Park79] , phosphate acetyltransferase [CamposBermudez10] , isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase [Nimmo84, Miller00b] , D-octopine synthase [Schrimsher84] , isopenicillin N synthase [Castro88] , 2,4-diaminopentanoate dehydrogenase [Tsuda70]

This compound has been characterized as a cofactor or prosthetic group of the following enzymes: adenosylmethionine decarboxylase , phosphatidylserine decarboxylase , D-proline reductase

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: diamine transaminase , dTDP-4-amino-2,3,4,6-tetradeoxy-D-glucose:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase , L-tryptophan:phenylpyruvate aminotransferas , putrescine aminotransferase , arginine-α-ketoglutarate transaminase , L-phenylalanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase , histidine-2-oxooglutarate aminotransferase , L-triiodothyronine aminotransferase , homotaurine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase


References

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Anderson85: Anderson M, Scholtz JM, Schuster SM (1985). "Rat liver 4-hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate aldolase: purification and kinetic characterization." Arch Biochem Biophys 236(1);82-97. PMID: 3966804

Anstrom03: Anstrom DM, Kallio K, Remington SJ (2003). "Structure of the Escherichia coli malate synthase G:pyruvate:acetyl-coenzyme A abortive ternary complex at 1.95 A resolution." Protein Sci 12(9);1822-32. PMID: 12930982

Bologna10: Bologna FP, Campos-Bermudez VA, Saavedra DD, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2010). "Characterization of Escherichia coli EutD: a phosphotransacetylase of the ethanolamine operon." J Microbiol 48(5);629-36. PMID: 21046341

CamposBermudez10: Campos-Bermudez VA, Bologna FP, Andreo CS, Drincovich MF (2010). "Functional dissection of Escherichia coli phosphotransacetylase structural domains and analysis of key compounds involved in activity regulation." FEBS J 277(8);1957-66. PMID: 20236319

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Crichton05: Crichton PG, Affourtit C, Albury MS, Carre JE, Moore AL (2005). "Constitutive activity of Sauromatum guttatum alternative oxidase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe implicates residues in addition to conserved cysteines in alpha-keto acid activation." FEBS Lett 579(2);331-6. PMID: 15642340

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Huynh92: Huynh QK (1992). "Inactivation of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase by its substrate analogue pyruvate in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 185(1);317-22. PMID: 1599467

Koga92: Koga J, Adachi T, Hidaka H (1992). "Purification and characterization of indolepyruvate decarboxylase. A novel enzyme for indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in Enterobacter cloacae." J Biol Chem 267(22);15823-8. PMID: 1639814

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Mihara00: Mihara H, Kurihara T, Yoshimura T, Esaki N (2000). "Kinetic and mutational studies of three NifS homologs from Escherichia coli: mechanistic difference between L-cysteine desulfurase and L-selenocysteine lyase reactions." J Biochem (Tokyo) 127(4);559-67. PMID: 10739946

Miller00b: Miller SP, Chen R, Karschnia EJ, Romfo C, Dean A, LaPorte DC (2000). "Locations of the regulatory sites for isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase." J Biol Chem 275(2);833-9. PMID: 10625615

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Powers76: Powers SG, Snell EE (1976). "Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase. II. Physical, catalytic, and regulatory properties." J Biol Chem 1976;251(12);3786-93. PMID: 6463

Scarpulla78: Scarpulla RC, Soffer RL (1978). "Membrane-bound proline dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli. Solubilization, purification, and characterization." J Biol Chem 1978;253(17);5997-6001. PMID: 355248

Schrimsher84: Schrimsher JL, Taylor KB (1984). "Octopine dehydrogenase from Pecten maximus: steady-state mechanism." Biochemistry 23(7);1348-53. PMID: 6722094

Suzuki69: Suzuki T (1969). "Phosphotransacetylase of Escherichia coli B, activation by pyruvate and inhibition by NADH and certain nucleotides." Biochim Biophys Acta 1969;191(3);559-69. PMID: 4312205

Tarmy68a: Tarmy EM, Kaplan NO (1968). "Kinetics of Escherichia coli B D-lactate dehydrogenase and evidence for pyruvate-controlled change in conformation." J Biol Chem 1968;243(10);2587-96. PMID: 4297266

Tsuda70: Tsuda Y, Friedmann HC (1970). "Ornithine metabolism by Clostridium sticklandii. Oxidation of ornithine to 2-amino-4-ketopentanoic acid via 2,4-diaminopentanoic acid; participation of B12 coenzyme, pyridoxal phosphate, and pyridine nucleotide." J Biol Chem 1970;245(22);5914-26. PMID: 4394942

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Watanabe12: Watanabe S, Morimoto D, Fukumori F, Shinomiya H, Nishiwaki H, Kawano-Kawada M, Sasai Y, Tozawa Y, Watanabe Y (2012). "Identification and characterization of D-hydroxyproline dehydrogenase and Delta1-pyrroline-4-hydroxy-2-carboxylate deaminase involved in novel L-hydroxyproline metabolism of bacteria: metabolic convergent evolution." J Biol Chem 287(39);32674-88. PMID: 22833679


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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 19.0 on Tue Mar 31, 2015, biocyc13.