MetaCyc Compound: UDP

Synonyms: uridine-diphosphate, uridine-5'-diphosphate

Superclasses: a nucleic acid componenta nucleotidea nucleoside diphosphatea ribonucleoside diphosphatea pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate
a nucleic acid componenta nucleotidea pyrimidine nucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate
a nucleic acid componenta nucleotidea ribonucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate
a nucleic acid componenta nucleotidea ribonucleotidea ribonucleoside diphosphatea pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate
an organic heterocyclic compoundan organonitrogen heterocyclic compounda diazinea pyrimidinea pyrimidine nucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleotidea pyrimidine ribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate
an organic heterocyclic compoundan organonitrogen heterocyclic compounda diazinea pyrimidine

Chemical Formula: C9H11N2O12P2

Molecular Weight: 401.14 Daltons

Monoisotopic Molecular Weight: 404.002196945 Daltons

UDP compound structure

SMILES: C(OP(=O)([O-])OP(=O)([O-])[O-])C1(OC(C(O)C(O)1)N2(C=CC(=O)NC(=O)2))

InChI: InChI=1S/C9H14N2O12P2/c12-5-1-2-11(9(15)10-5)8-7(14)6(13)4(22-8)3-21-25(19,20)23-24(16,17)18/h1-2,4,6-8,13-14H,3H2,(H,19,20)(H,10,12,15)(H2,16,17,18)/p-3/t4-,6-,7-,8-/m1/s1


Unification Links: CAS:58-98-0, ChEBI:58223, ChemSpider:16739715, HMDB:HMDB00295, IAF1260:33518, KEGG:C00015, KNApSAcK:C00007313, MetaboLights:MTBLC58223, PubChem:20056717

Standard Gibbs Free Energy of Change Formation (ΔfG in kcal/mol): -504.6063Inferred by computational analysis [Latendresse13]

Reactions known to consume the compound:

pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I , pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis III :
dUDP + an oxidized thioredoxin + H2O ← UDP + a reduced thioredoxin

superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis (E. coli) :
dUDP + an oxidized thioredoxin + H2O ← UDP + a reduced thioredoxin
dUDP + an oxidized NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein + H2O ← UDP + a reduced NrdH glutaredoxin-like protein

UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis :

Not in pathways:
UDP + H2O → UMP + phosphate + H+

Not in pathways:
a pyrimidine ribonucleotide + H2O → D-ribose 5-phosphate + a pyrimidine base

Not in pathways:
a 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-diphosphate + an oxidized thioredoxin + H2O ← a ribonucleoside diphosphate + a reduced thioredoxin

Not in pathways:
ribonucleotiden + ribonucleotiden + ATP → ribonucleotidem+n + AMP + diphosphate

Not in pathways:
a nucleoside diphosphate + ATP → a nucleoside triphosphate + ADP

Not in pathways:
a nucleotide + H2O → a nucleoside + phosphate

Reactions known to produce the compound:

(+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside biosynthesis :
(+)-secoisolariciresinol + UDP-α-D-glucose → (+)-secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside + UDP + H+
(+)-secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside + UDP-α-D-glucose → (+)-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside + UDP + H+

2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation :
UDP-α-D-glucose + 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene → 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene-O-glucoside + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene → 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene-C3-glucoside + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene → 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene glucoside + UDP + 2 H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene → 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene-O-glucoside + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene → 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene glucoside + UDP + 2 H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene → 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene 3C-glucoside + UDP + H2O

3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile β-D-glucose biosynthesis :
(R)-3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile + UDP-α-D-glucose → 3,4-dihydroxymandelonitrile β-D-glucoside + UDP + H+

6'-deoxychalcone metabolism :
UDP-α-D-glucose + butein → butein 4'-β-D-glucoside + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + isoliquiritigenin → isoliquiritigenin 4'-glucoside + UDP + H+

A series fagopyritols biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-galactose + 1D-chiro-inositol → fagopyritol A1 + UDP + H+

abscisic acid glucose ester metabolism :
UDP-α-D-glucose + 2-cis-abscisate → β-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate + UDP

acetan biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucuronate + α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol → UDP + β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + H+
α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP-α-D-glucose → β-D-glucosyl-(1,6)-α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP + H+
β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP-α-D-glucose → α-D-glucosyl-(1,2)-β-D-glucuronate-(1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1,3)-β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP + H+
α-D-glucopyranosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP-α-D-glucose → β-D-glucosyl-(1,4)-α-D-glucosyl-diphosphoundecaprenol + UDP + H+

acylated cyanidin galactoside biosynthesis :
cyanidin + UDP-α-D-galactose → cyanidin-3-O-β-D-galactoside + UDP
UDP-α-D-xylose + cyanidin-3-O-β-D-galactoside → UDP + cyanidin 3-O-(β-D-xylosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactoside) + H+
cyanidin 3-O-(β-D-xylosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactoside) + UDP-α-D-glucose → cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucosyl-2-O-β-D-xylosyl-β-D-galactoside) + UDP + H+

afrormosin conjugates interconversion :
UDP-α-D-glucose + afrormosin → afrormosin-7-O-glucoside + UDP + H+

ajmaline and sarpagine biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucose + vomilenine → raucaffricine + UDP + H+

α-diglucosyldiacylglycerol biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucose + a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol → a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl(1->2)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-glucose + a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol → a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(α-D-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol + UDP + H+

amaranthin biosynthesis :
cyclo-dopa 5-O-glucoside + UDP-α-D-glucuronate → cyclo-dopa glucuronylglucoside + UDP + H+

Reactions known to both consume and produce the compound:

dhurrin biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucose + (S)-4-hydroxymandelonitrile ↔ UDP + dhurrin + H+

kaempferol diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific) :
UDP-α-D-galactose + kaempferol ↔ UDP + kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactoside + H+

N-glucosylnicotinate metabolism :
UDP-α-D-glucose + nicotinate ↔ N-glucosylnicotinate + UDP

peptidoglycan biosynthesis I (meso-diaminopimelate containing) :
undecaprenyldiphospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-2,6-diaminopimeloyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine ↔ ditrans,octacis-undecaprenyldiphospho-N-acetyl-(N-acetylglucosaminyl)muramoyl-L-alanyl-γ-D-glutamyl-meso-2,6-diaminopimeloyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine + UDP + H+

quercetin diglycoside biosynthesis (pollen-specific) :
quercetin + UDP-α-D-galactose ↔ quercetin 3-galactoside + UDP + H+

sucrose degradation II (sucrose synthase) :
UDP-α-D-glucose + β-D-fructofuranose ↔ sucrose + UDP + H+

trehalose biosynthesis VI :
an NDP-α-D-glucose + D-glucopyranose ↔ α,α-trehalose + a nucleoside diphosphate + H+

Not in pathways:
(ribonucleotides)(n) + phosphate ↔ (ribonucleotides)(n-1) + a nucleoside diphosphate

In Reactions of unknown directionality:

1,3-β-D-glucan biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucose + 1,3-β-D-glucan(n) = 1,3-β-D-glucan(n+1) + UDP

cellulose biosynthesis :
UDP-α-D-glucose + cellulose(n) = cellulose(n+1) + UDP

Not in pathways:
trans-zeatin + UDP-α-D-xylose = O-β-D-xylosylzeatin + UDP + H+
a β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = an N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,4-β-D-glucosylceramide + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-galactose + (1,6-β-D-galactosyl)n = (1,6-β-D-galactosyl)n+1 + UDP
UDP-α-D-galactose + β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine = α-D-galactosyl-(1,3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + UDP + H+
a dolichyl phosphate + UDP-α-D-xylose = dolichyl D-xylosyl phosphate + UDP
poly(ribitol phosphate) + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = (N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)-poly(ribitol phosphate) + UDP + H+
estradiol-17-α-3-D-glucuronoside + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = 17-α-(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)estradiol 3-D-glucuronoside + UDP + H+
β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,6-β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,4 β-D-glucosylceramide + UDP + H+
β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,4-β-D-glucosyceramide + UDP + H+
α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-D-mannose + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = α-D-mannosyl-(1→3)-[(N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl)-(1→2)]-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-α-D-mannosyl-(1→2)-D-mannose + UDP + H+
octyl α-D-glucopyranoside + UDP-α-D-galactofuranose = octyl β-1,6-D-galactofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside + UDP + H+
UDP-α-D-galactose + sucrose = UDP + loliose + H+
UDP-α-D-xylose + Glc-β-EGF-like domain = UDP + Xyl-α(1-3)-Glc-β-EGF-like domain
N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminide-[hyaluronan] + UDP-α-D-glucuronate = β-D-glucosyluronate-[hyaluronan] + UDP
UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + β-D-glucosyluronate-[hyaluronan] = N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminide-[hyaluronan] + UDP
UTP + H2O = UDP + phosphate + H+
UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + a fucosyl-protein = UDP + O-β-D-GlcNAc-fucosyl-protein
an N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,3-β-D-galactosyl-1,4-β-D-glucosylceramide + UDP-α-D-galactose = β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-(1→3)-β-D-galactosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucosyl-(1↔1)-ceramide + UDP + H+
(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-1,3-(β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,6)-β-D-mannosyl-R + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-(N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,2)-α-D-mannosyl-1,3-(β-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,6)-β-D-mannosyl-R + UDP + H+
N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,3-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,6)-β-D-mannosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,3-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,6)-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,4)-β-D-mannosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-R + UDP + H+
α-D-mannosyl-1,6-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,3)-β-D-mannosyl-[glycoprotein] + UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine = N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,6-(N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminyl-1,2-α-D-mannosyl-1,3)-β-D-mannosyl-[glycoprotein] + UDP + H+
UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + a [protein]-L-threonine = UDP + an N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-L-threonine-[glycoprotein] + H+
UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-glucosamine + a [protein]-L-serine = UDP + an N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminyl-L-serine-[glycoprotein] + H+

Enzymes activated by UDP, sorted by the type of activation, are:

Activator (Allosteric) of: pyruvate kinase [Singh98]

Enzymes inhibited by UDP, sorted by the type of inhibition, are:

Inhibitor (Competitive) of: N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase [Sharma82], β-1,2-xylosyltransferase [Bencur05], UDP-glucose:glycogenin 4-α-D-glucosyltransferase [Plesner74], UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03], UDP-D-glucose:delphinidin 3-O-glucosyl-5-O-caffeoylglucoside -O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [FukuchiMizutani03] Inhibitor (Uncompetitive) of: luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide 4'-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88a], luteolin-7-O-glucuronide 2''-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88a], luteolin 7-O-glucuronosyltransferase [Schulz88a] Inhibitor (Noncompetitive) of: UDPG:coniferyl alcohol glucosyltransferase [Schmid82] Inhibitor (Allosteric) of: flavonol 3-O-glycoside glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], quercetin 3-O-diglucoside 2"-glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], flavonol 3-O-glucoside glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], quercetin 3-O-glucoside 2"-glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Jourdan82], kaempferol 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens], quercetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens], myricetin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [Owens] Inhibitor (Mechanism unknown) of: UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate 2,6-diaminopimelate ligase [AboGhalia85], cytosyl-glucuronate synthase [Gould94], UDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase [Martinez12], UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase [Munoz99], oleanolate UDP-glucuronosyltransferase [Wojciechowski75], sucrose synthase [morellM85], UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase [Pattathil05], UDP-glucose:indole-3-acetate b-D-glucosyltransferase [Leznicki88], UDP-D-glucose/UDP-D-galactose 4-epimerase [Barber06], UDP-glucose:hesperitin-7-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [Durren99], UDP-D-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase [Gu04a], UDP-N-acetylglucosamine—dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase [Sharma82], UDP-D-xylose synthase [Baron72], UDP-D-apiose synthase [Baron72, Beam77], UDP-D-apiose synthase [Molhoj03], UDP-D-xylose synthase [Molhoj03], UDP-L-rhamnose: naringenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside-2''-O-β-L-rhamnosyltransferase [BarPeled91], UDP-glucose:naringenin 7-O-β-D-glucosyltransferase [Durren99], UDP-α-D-glucose:glycogenin α-D-glucosyltransferase [Cao93a], UDP-α-D-glucose:glucosyl-glycogenin α-D-glucosyltransferase [Cao93a]

This compound has been characterized as an alternative substrate of the following enzymes: pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase, pyruvate kinase, glucosyl-3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase, adenylate kinase, pyruvate kinase, polyphosphate kinase, pyruvate kinase, alkaline phosphatase, pyruvate kinase


AboGhalia85: Abo-Ghalia M, Michaud C, Blanot D, van Heijenoort J (1985). "Specificity of the uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate: meso-2,6-diaminopimelate synthetase from Escherichia coli." Eur J Biochem 1985;153(1);81-7. PMID: 3905407

Barber06: Barber C, Rosti J, Rawat A, Findlay K, Roberts K, Seifert GJ (2006). "Distinct properties of the five UDP-D-glucose/UDP-D-galactose 4-epimerase isoforms of arabidopsis thaliana." J Biol Chem. PMID: 16644739

Baron72: Baron D, Wellmann E, Grisebach H (1972). "Purification and properties of an enzyme from cell suspension cultures of parsley catalyzing the synthesis of UDP-apiose and UDP-D-xylose from UDP-D-glucuronic acid." Biochim Biophys Acta 258(1);310-8. PMID: 4333589

BarPeled91: Bar-Peled M, Lewinsohn E, Fluhr R, Gressel J (1991). "UDP-rhamnose:flavanone-7-O-glucoside-2''-O-rhamnosyltransferase. Purification and characterization of an enzyme catalyzing the production of bitter compounds in citrus." J Biol Chem 266(31);20953-9. PMID: 1939145

Beam77: Beam KG, Nestler EJ, Greengard P (1977). "Increased cyclic GMP levels associated with contraction in muscle fibres of the giant barnacle." Nature 267(5611);534-6. PMID: 195221

Bencur05: Bencur P, Steinkellner H, Svoboda B, Mucha J, Strasser R, Kolarich D, Hann S, Kollensperger G, Glossl J, Altmann F, Mach L (2005). "Arabidopsis thaliana beta1,2-xylosyltransferase: an unusual glycosyltransferase with the potential to act at multiple stages of the plant N-glycosylation pathway." Biochem J 388(Pt 2);515-25. PMID: 15686448

Cao93a: Cao Y, Mahrenholz AM, DePaoli-Roach AA, Roach PJ (1993). "Characterization of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogenin. Tyrosine 194 is essential for function." J Biol Chem 268(20);14687-93. PMID: 8325847

Durren99: Durren RL, McIntosh CA (1999). "Flavanone-7-O-glucosyltransferase activity from Petunia hybrida.." Phytochemistry 52(5);793-8. PMID: 10626374

FukuchiMizutani03: Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Okuhara H, Fukui Y, Nakao M, Katsumoto Y, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Kusumi T, Hase T, Tanaka Y (2003). "Biochemical and molecular characterization of a novel UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase, a key enzyme for blue anthocyanin biosynthesis, from gentian." Plant Physiol 132(3);1652-63. PMID: 12857844

Gould94: Gould SJ, Guo J (1994). "Cytosylglucuronic acid synthase (cytosine: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) from Streptomyces griseochromogenes, the first prokaryotic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase." J Bacteriol 176(5);1282-6. PMID: 8113166

Gu04a: Gu X, Bar-Peled M (2004). "The biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid in plants. Functional cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis UDP-D-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase." Plant Physiol 136(4);4256-64. PMID: 15563616

Jourdan82: Jourdan PS, Mansell RL (1982). "Isolation and partial characterization of three glucosyl transferases involved in the biosynthesis of flavonol triglucosides in Pisum sativum L." Arch Biochem Biophys 213(2);434-43. PMID: 6462109

Latendresse13: Latendresse M. (2013). "Computing Gibbs Free Energy of Compounds and Reactions in MetaCyc."

Leznicki88: Leznicki AJ, Bandurski RS (1988). "Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme." Plant Physiol 88;1481-5. PMID: 11537439

Martinez12: Martinez V, Ingwers M, Smith J, Glushka J, Yang T, Bar-Peled M (2012). "Biosynthesis of UDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose and UDP-rhamnose in pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe grisea and Botryotinia fuckeliana." J Biol Chem 287(2);879-92. PMID: 22102281

Molhoj03: Molhoj M, Verma R, Reiter WD (2003). "The biosynthesis of the branched-chain sugar d-apiose in plants: functional cloning and characterization of a UDP-d-apiose/UDP-d-xylose synthase from Arabidopsis." Plant J 35(6);693-703. PMID: 12969423

morellM85: morell M., Copeland L. "Sucrose synthase of Soybean nodules." Plant Physiol. (1985) 78:149-154.

Munoz99: Munoz R, Lopez R, de Frutos M, Garcia E (1999). "First molecular characterization of a uridine diphosphate galacturonate 4-epimerase: an enzyme required for capsular biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae type 1." Mol Microbiol 31(2);703-13. PMID: 10027985

Owens: Owens DK, McIntosh CA "Identification, recombinant expression, and biochemical characterization of a flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase clone from Citrus paradisi." Phytochemistry 70(11-12);1382-91. PMID: 19733370

Pattathil05: Pattathil S, Harper AD, Bar-Peled M (2005). "Biosynthesis of UDP-xylose: characterization of membrane-bound AtUxs2." Planta 221(4);538-48. PMID: 15655675

Plesner74: Plesner L, Plesner IW, Esmann V (1974). "Kinetic mechanism of glycogen synthase D from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes." J Biol Chem 249(4);1119-25. PMID: 4205314

Schmid82: Schmid G, Grisebach H (1982). "Enzymic synthesis of lignin precursors. Purification and properties of UDP glucose: coniferyl-alcohol glucosyltransferase from cambial sap of spruce (Picea abies L.)." Eur J Biochem 123(2);363-70. PMID: 6210530

Schulz88a: Schulz, M, Weissenböck, G (1988). "Three specific UDP-glucuronate-flavone-glucuronosyl-transferases from primary leaves of Secale cereale." Phytochemistry 27:1261-1267.

Sharma82: Sharma CB, Lehle L, Tanner W (1982). "Solubilization and characterization of the initial enzymes of the dolichol pathway from yeast." Eur J Biochem 126(2);319-25. PMID: 6215245

Singh98: Singh DK, Malhotra SP, Singh R (1998). "Purification and characterizaton of plastidic pyruvate kinase from developing seeds of Brassica campestris L." Indian J Biochem Biophys 35(6);346-52. PMID: 10412228

Wojciechowski75: Wojciechowski, ZdzisImageaw A. (1975). "Biosynthesis of oleanolic acid glycosides by subcellular fractions of Calendula officinalis seedlings." Phytochemistry. 14:1749-1753.

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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