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MetaCyc Enzyme: aldehyde dehydrogenase

Synonyms: YagTSR, PaoABC

Species: Escherichia coli K-12 substr. MG1655

Subunit composition of aldehyde dehydrogenase = [PaoA][PaoB][PaoC]
         aldehyde dehydrogenase, Fe-S subunit = PaoA (summary available)
         aldehyde dehydrogenase, FAD-binding subunit = PaoB (summary available)
         aldehyde dehydrogenase: molybdenum cofactor-binding subunit = PaoC (summary available)

Summary:
YagTSR is a periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase with a possible role in the detoxification of aldehydes. Purified YagTSR oxidises a broad spectrum of aldehydes with a preference for aromatic aldehydes such as vanillin and cinnemaldehyde [Neumann09]. Purines are not oxidised by YagTSR [Neumann09]. YagTSR binds the molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide (MCD) form of molybdenum cofactor and contains two (2Fe2S) clusters per protein trimer [Neumann09]. Purified YagTSR shows no activity with cytochrome c, NAD+ or oxygen as terminal electron acceptor however spinach ferredoxin was able to accept electrons from reduced YagTSR in vitro leading to the suggestion that ferredoxin may be the terminal electron acceptor in vivo [Neumann09].

YagTSR requires the presence of YagQ for activity. YagTSR expressed in the absence of YagQ is inactive and lacks molybdenum cofactor [Neumann09]. Based on its similarity to XbhC from Rhodobacter capsulatus [Neumann07] YagQ is predicted to be involved in molybdenum modification and insertion into YagTSR [Neumann09].

YagR is the molybdenum cofactor containing subunit; YagS is the FAD binding subunit and YagT is the iron binding subunit. Single deletion mutations in each of the yagT, yagS and yagR genes resulted in complete impairment of cell growth in the presence of cinnamaldehyde at pH 4.0 but not at pH values of 6-7 [Neumann09].

Locations: periplasm

Molecular Weight: 135.0 kD (experimental) [Neumann09]

Gene-Reaction Schematic

Gene-Reaction Schematic


GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentGO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process [Neumann09]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0016903 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors [Neumann09]
Cellular Component:
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [Neumann09]
Author statementGO:0042597 - periplasmic space [Neumann09]

Credits:
Created in EcoCyc 11-Jun-2009 by Mackie A, Macquarie University
Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International


Enzymatic reaction of: aldehyde dehydrogenase

Inferred from experiment

EC Number: 1.2.99.7

an aldehyde[periplasm] + FAD[periplasm] + H2O[periplasm] ⇄ a carboxylate[periplasm] + FADH2[periplasm]

The direction shown, i.e. which substrates are on the left and right sides, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

Reversibility of this reaction is unspecified.

Credits:
Imported from EcoCyc 30-Sep-2015 by Paley S, SRI International

Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: a [2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster [Neumann09], FAD [Neumann09], cytidylyl molybdenum cofactor [Neumann09]


Subunit of aldehyde dehydrogenase: aldehyde dehydrogenase, Fe-S subunit

Synonyms: YagT, PaoA

Gene: paoA Accession Numbers: G6157 (MetaCyc), b0286, ECK0285

Locations: periplasm

Sequence Length: 229 AAs

Molecular Weight: 24.343 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 21.0 kD (experimental) [Neumann09]


GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006144 - purine nucleobase metabolic process [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006166 - purine ribonucleoside salvage [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Rajagopala14, Arifuzzaman06, Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentGO:0016903 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors [Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0051537 - 2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a, Neumann09]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0009055 - electron carrier activity [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046872 - metal ion binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0051536 - iron-sulfur cluster binding [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Cellular Component:
Inferred from experimentGO:0042597 - periplasmic space [TullmanErcek07]
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space [TullmanErcek07]

MultiFun Terms: cell processesprotectiondetoxification

Unification Links: EcoliWiki:b0286, ModBase:P77165, Pride:P77165, Protein Model Portal:P77165, RefSeq:NP_414820, SMR:P77165, Swiss-Model:P77165, UniProt:P77165

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001041, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002888, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006058, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006311, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012675, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00111, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01799, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00197, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51085, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51318

Summary:
YagT is the iron binding subunit of YagTSR aldehyde dehydrogenase [Xi00, Neumann09]. A yagT single deletion mutant is unable to grow in the presence of cinnamaldehyde at pH 4.0 [Neumann09]. Yag T contains a twin arginine signal peptide for translocation to the periplasm [TullmanErcek07].


Subunit of aldehyde dehydrogenase: aldehyde dehydrogenase, FAD-binding subunit

Synonyms: YagS, PaoB

Gene: paoB Accession Numbers: G6156 (MetaCyc), b0285, ECK0284

Locations: periplasm

Sequence Length: 318 AAs

Molecular Weight: 33.858 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 33.9 kD (experimental) [Neumann09]


GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006144 - purine nucleobase metabolic process [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006166 - purine ribonucleoside salvage [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentGO:0016903 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors [Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentInferred by computational analysisGO:0050660 - flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GOA01a, Neumann09]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0003824 - catalytic activity [GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0004854 - xanthine dehydrogenase activity [GOA01]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016614 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors [GOA01a]
Cellular Component:
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space []
Author statementGO:0042597 - periplasmic space [Neumann09]

MultiFun Terms: cell processesprotectiondetoxification

Unification Links: EcoliWiki:b0285, ModBase:P77324, Pride:P77324, Protein Model Portal:P77324, RefSeq:NP_414819, SMR:P77324, UniProt:P77324

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002346, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005107, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016166, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016167, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016169, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00941, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03450, Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51387, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM01092

Summary:
YagS is predicted to be the FAD binding subunit of YagTSR aldehyde dehydrogenase [Neumann09].


Subunit of aldehyde dehydrogenase: aldehyde dehydrogenase: molybdenum cofactor-binding subunit

Synonyms: YagR, PaoC

Gene: paoC Accession Numbers: G6155 (MetaCyc), b0284, ECK0283

Locations: cytosol, periplasm

Sequence Length: 732 AAs

Molecular Weight: 78.088 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 75.1 kD (experimental) [Neumann09]


GO Terms:
Biological Process:
Inferred from experimentGO:0006974 - cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [Khil02]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006144 - purine nucleobase metabolic process [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0006166 - purine ribonucleoside salvage [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0009115 - xanthine catabolic process [Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0055114 - oxidation-reduction process [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Molecular Function:
Inferred from experimentGO:0005515 - protein binding [Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentGO:0016903 - oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors [Neumann09]
Inferred from experimentGO:0030151 - molybdenum ion binding [Neumann09]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0004854 - xanthine dehydrogenase activity [GOA01, Gaudet10]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0016491 - oxidoreductase activity [UniProtGOA11a, GOA01a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0046872 - metal ion binding [UniProtGOA11a]
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0050660 - flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [Gaudet10]
Cellular Component:
Inferred by computational analysisGO:0005829 - cytosol [Gaudet10]
GO:0030288 - outer membrane-bounded periplasmic space []
Author statementGO:0042597 - periplasmic space [Neumann09]

MultiFun Terms: cell processesprotectiondetoxification

Unification Links: EcoliWiki:b0284, ModBase:P77489, Pride:P77489, Protein Model Portal:P77489, RefSeq:NP_414818, SMR:P77489, UniProt:P77489

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000674, InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008274, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01315, Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02738, Smart:IN-FAMILY:SM01008

Summary:
YagR is the molybdenum cofactor containing subunit of YagTSR aldehyde dehydrogenase [Neumann09]. A yagR single deletion mutant is unable to grow in the presence of cinnamaldehyde at pH 4.0 [Neumann09].


References

Arifuzzaman06: Arifuzzaman M, Maeda M, Itoh A, Nishikata K, Takita C, Saito R, Ara T, Nakahigashi K, Huang HC, Hirai A, Tsuzuki K, Nakamura S, Altaf-Ul-Amin M, Oshima T, Baba T, Yamamoto N, Kawamura T, Ioka-Nakamichi T, Kitagawa M, Tomita M, Kanaya S, Wada C, Mori H (2006). "Large-scale identification of protein-protein interaction of Escherichia coli K-12." Genome Res 16(5);686-91. PMID: 16606699

Gaudet10: Gaudet P, Livstone M, Thomas P (2010). "Annotation inferences using phylogenetic trees." PMID: 19578431

GOA01: GOA, MGI (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation based on Enzyme Commission mapping." Genomics 74;121-128.

GOA01a: GOA, DDB, FB, MGI, ZFIN (2001). "Gene Ontology annotation through association of InterPro records with GO terms."

Khil02: Khil PP, Camerini-Otero RD (2002). "Over 1000 genes are involved in the DNA damage response of Escherichia coli." Mol Microbiol 44(1);89-105. PMID: 11967071

Neumann07: Neumann M, Stocklein W, Walburger A, Magalon A, Leimkuhler S (2007). "Identification of a Rhodobacter capsulatus L-cysteine desulfurase that sulfurates the molybdenum cofactor when bound to XdhC and before its insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase." Biochemistry 46(33);9586-95. PMID: 17649978

Neumann09: Neumann M, Mittelstadt G, Iobbi-Nivol C, Saggu M, Lendzian F, Hildebrandt P, Leimkuhler S (2009). "A periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase represents the first molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor containing molybdo-flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli." FEBS J 276(10);2762-74. PMID: 19368556

Park06: Park YJ, Yoo CB, Choi SY, Lee HB (2006). "Purifications and characterizations of a ferredoxin and its related 2-oxoacid:ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P1." J Biochem Mol Biol 39(1);46-54. PMID: 16466637

Rajagopala14: Rajagopala SV, Sikorski P, Kumar A, Mosca R, Vlasblom J, Arnold R, Franca-Koh J, Pakala SB, Phanse S, Ceol A, Hauser R, Siszler G, Wuchty S, Emili A, Babu M, Aloy P, Pieper R, Uetz P (2014). "The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli." Nat Biotechnol 32(3);285-90. PMID: 24561554

TullmanErcek07: Tullman-Ercek D, DeLisa MP, Kawarasaki Y, Iranpour P, Ribnicky B, Palmer T, Georgiou G (2007). "Export pathway selectivity of Escherichia coli twin arginine translocation signal peptides." J Biol Chem 282(11);8309-16. PMID: 17218314

UniProtGOA11a: UniProt-GOA (2011). "Gene Ontology annotation based on manual assignment of UniProtKB keywords in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries."

Xi00: Xi H, Schneider BL, Reitzer L (2000). "Purine catabolism in Escherichia coli and function of xanthine dehydrogenase in purine salvage." J Bacteriol 182(19);5332-41. PMID: 10986234


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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