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MetaCyc Enzyme: photosystem II

Synonyms: PSII complex, PSII-LHCII supercomplex

Species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Subunit composition of photosystem II = [LHCBM9][LHCBM8][LHCBM7][LHCBM6][LHCBM5][LHCBM4][LHCBM3][LHCBM2][LHCBM1][LHCB5][LHCB4][(PSBQ)(PSBP1)(PSBO)][([(PsbK)(PsbC)([PsbT][PsbR][PsbM][PsbL][PsbJ][PsbH][(PsbB)([PsbA][(PsbE)(PsbD)])])][PSBW][PsbZ][PSBO])2]
         Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII = LHCBM9 (summary available)
         Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII = LHCBM8 (summary available)
         Major light-harvesting complex II protein m7 = LHCBM7 (summary available)
         Chloropyll a-b binding protein of LHCII type I = LHCBM6 (summary available)
         Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII = LHCBM5 (summary available)
         Chloropyll a-b binding protein of LHCII = LHCBM4 (summary available)
         Light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b binding protein LhcII-1.3 = LHCBM3 (summary available)
         Light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b binding protein LhcII-3 = LHCBM2 (summary available)
         Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII = LHCBM1 (summary available)
         CP26 = LHCB5 (summary available)
         Chlorophyll a-b binding protein CP29 = LHCB4 (summary available)
         OEC complex = (PSBQ)(PSBP1)(PSBO) (summary available)
                 Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3 = PSBQ (summary available)
                 Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 of photosystem II = PSBP1 (summary available)
                 Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 = PSBO (summary available)
         PS II core dimer = ([(PsbK)(PsbC)([PsbT][PsbR][PsbM][PsbL][PsbJ][PsbH][(PsbB)([PsbA][(PsbE)(PsbD)])])][PSBW][PsbZ][PSBO])2 (extended summary available)
                 PS II core monomer (complete) = ([PsbK][PsbC][(PsbT)(PsbR)(PsbM)(PsbL)(PsbJ)(PsbH)([PsbB][(PsbA)([PsbE][PsbD])])])(PSBW)(PsbZ)(PSBO)
                         PS II core monomer = (PsbK)(PsbC)([PsbT][PsbR][PsbM][PsbL][PsbJ][PsbH][(PsbB)([PsbA][(PsbE)(PsbD)])]) (summary available)
                                 Photosystem II reaction center protein K = PsbK (summary available)
                                 CP43 = PsbC (summary available)
                                 CP43-less PS II core monomer = (PsbT)(PsbR)(PsbM)(PsbL)(PsbJ)(PsbH)([PsbB][(PsbA)([PsbE][PsbD])]) (summary available)
                                         Photosystem II reaction center protein T = PsbT (summary available)
                                         10 kDa photosystem II polypeptide = PsbR (summary available)
                                         Photosystem II reaction center protein M = PsbM
                                         Photosystem II reaction center protein L = PsbL
                                         Photosystem II reaction center protein J = PsbJ (summary available)
                                         Photosystem II reaction center protein H = PsbH
                                         PS II RC - CP47 complex = (PsbB)([PsbA][(PsbE)(PsbD)]) (summary available)
                                                 Photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein = PsbB (summary available)
                                                 PS II RC = (PsbA)([PsbE][PsbD])
                                                         Photosystem Q(B) protein = PsbA (summary available)
                                                         cytb559-D2 complex = (PsbE)(PsbD) (summary available)
                                                                 cytochrome b-559 α-subunit = PsbE (summary available)
                                                                 Photosystem II D2 protein = PsbD (summary available)
                         Photosystem II reaction center W protein = PSBW
                         Photosystem II reaction center protein Z = PsbZ (summary available)
                         Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 = PSBO (summary available)

Summary:
The process of photosynthesis which is central to the presence of life on earth involves the interplay of several reactions. Chloroplasts are the pivotal organelles in this process and they are highly compartmentalized for this function which is mediated by three light dependet complexes. Photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), and the cytochrome b6f complex are the three light-dependent complexes, located in the thylakoid membranes, a detailed network of flattened vesicles [Uniacke07].

Photosystem II is a water oxidizing multisubunit protein complex [Barber02]. A cluster of four manganese atoms bound to the lumenal surface of the complex catalyzes the water oxidizing reaction which is powered by solar energy. The Mn cluster is sequentially oxidized by P680 and a chlorophyll a molecule that acts as the primary electron donor, with pheophytin acting as the primary electron acceptor [Allakhverdiev11]. All these redox active components of PSII are bound to the two structurally related proteins known as D1 and D2. Associated with the D1/D2 heterodimer are two chlorophyll proteins CP43 and CP47 and at least three extrinsic proteins that protect and optimize the activity of the Mn cluster [Buchel99]. These proteins, cytochrome b559 and some other subunits make up the core complex [Hankamer01a].

Citations: [Jun09, Hankamer01]

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Credits:
Created 12-Jan-2010 by May P , MPI-MP
Revised 17-May-2011 by Weerasinghe D


Enzymatic reaction of: photosystem II

EC Number: 1.10.3.9

4 hν + 2 a plastoquinone + 2 H2O <=> 2 a plastoquinol + oxygen

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: photosynthesis light reactions , hydrogen production VIII


Subunit of photosystem II: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII

Synonyms: Major light-harvesting complex II protein m9

Gene: LHCBM9 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184479 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 27.07 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:Q8S3T9 , Protein Model Portal:Q8S3T9 , SMR:Q8S3T9 , UniProt:Q8S3T9

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
This cluster contains proteins similar to Lhcb1, 2 and 3, the main trimeric light-harvesting complex of PSII.

Citations: [Hankamer01]


Subunit of photosystem II: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII

Gene: LHCBM8 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_205752 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 27.03 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:A8J270 , Protein Model Portal:A8J270 , SMR:A8J270 , String:3055.JGI205752 , UniProt:A8J270

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
This cluster contains proteins similar to Lhcb1, 2 and 3, the main trimeric light-harvesting complex of PSII.

Citations: [Jones07]


Subunit of photosystem II: Major light-harvesting complex II protein m7

Gene: LHCBM7 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184071 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 27.95 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: Pride:Q8S3T8 , Protein Model Portal:Q8S3T8 , SMR:Q8S3T8 , UniProt:Q8S3T8

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
The Lhcb genes encode several light-harvesting proteins that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII [Teramoto01]. They are nuclear encoded and transported to the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has four types of major LHC (LHCII) proteins and two minor LHC proteins (CP29 and CP26).

Citations: [Elrad02]


Subunit of photosystem II: Chloropyll a-b binding protein of LHCII type I

Gene: LHCBM6 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184490 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 26.96 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:A8J287 , Protein Model Portal:A8J287 , SMR:A8J287 , String:3055.JGI184490 , UniProt:A8J287

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
LHCBM6 is a cluster that contains proteins similar to Lhcb1, 2 and 3, the main trimeric light-harvesting complex II. Lhcb3 affects the macrostructure of photosystem II and modulate the rate of state transitions.


MapMan: 1.1.1.1 PS.lightreaction.photosystem II.LHC-II


Subunit of photosystem II: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII

Synonyms: Light harvesting complex II protein

Gene: LHCBM5 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184775 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 28.68 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-48403N , Pride:Q9ZSJ4 , Protein Model Portal:Q9ZSJ4 , SMR:Q9ZSJ4 , String:3055.JGI184775 , UniProt:Q9ZSJ4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
The Lhcb genes encode several LHC proteins that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII [Teramoto01]. They are nuclear encoded and transported to the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has four types of major LHC (LHCII) proteins and two minor LHC proteins CP29 and CP26.

Citations: [Merchant07]


Subunit of photosystem II: Chloropyll a-b binding protein of LHCII

Gene: LHCBM4 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_191690 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 27.1 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: Pride:A8J264 , Protein Model Portal:A8J264 , SMR:A8J264 , UniProt:A8J264

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
The Lhcb gene encode LHC proteins that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII [Teramoto01]. They are nuclear encoded and transported to the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has four types of major LHC (LHCII) proteins and two minor LHC proteins CP29 and CP26.

Citations: [Merchant07]


Subunit of photosystem II: Light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b binding protein LhcII-1.3

Synonyms: Light-harvesting complex II chlorophyll a-b binding protein M3

Gene: LHCBM3 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_195162 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 27.38 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: Pride:Q93WL4 , Protein Model Portal:Q93WL4 , SMR:Q93WL4 , String:3055.JGI195162 , UniProt:Q93WL4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
The Lhcb genes encode light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding (LHC) proteins that capture and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII [Teramoto01]. They are nuclear encoded and transported to the chloroplast. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has four types of major LHCII proteins and two minor LHC proteins (CP29 and CP26).


Subunit of photosystem II: Light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b binding protein LhcII-3

Synonyms: Light-harvesting protein of photosystem II

Gene: LHCBM2 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184067 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 26.65 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:Q93WE0 , Protein Model Portal:Q93WE0 , SMR:Q93WE0 , UniProt:Q93WE0

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
LHCBM2 encodes a light-harvesting antenna protein for PSII. This gene was reported under the name of "LhcII-3" in [Teramoto01], and the sequence has been deposited in Genbank (AB051205). Also designated as LhcbM2 in [Minagawa04] and as Lhcbm2 in [Elrad04], respectively.


Subunit of photosystem II: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein of LHCII

Gene: LHCBM1 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_185533 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 28.46 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:A8JCU4 , Protein Model Portal:A8JCU4 , SMR:A8JCU4 , String:A8JCU4 , UniProt:A8JCU4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
During conditions of excess light, thermal dissipation of extraneous excitation energy within LHCII is an important photoprotective mechanism [Elrad02]. Mutational analysis of Lhcbm1 revealed that it plays a major role in thermal dissipation. It encodes a light-harvesting polypeptide present in the trimers of the photosystem II antennae [Elrad02].

Citations: [Teramoto01, Minagawa04]


Subunit of photosystem II: CP26

Synonyms: Minor chlorophyll a-b binding protein of photosystem II

Gene: LHCB5 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184397 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 30.71 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-48402N , Pride:Q9FEK6 , Protein Model Portal:Q9FEK6 , String:3055.JGI184397 , UniProt:Q9FEK6

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
CP26 is a light harvesting monomeric protein which can bind both chlorophylls and xanthophylls. It is located between the reaction center core and the outer antenna [Barber99]. This protein along with other minor chlorophyll-binding proteins forms a connecting module between LHCII and the PSII reaction center [Minagawa01a]. It was suggested to play a role in photoprotection as xanthophylls involved in dissipating excess excitation energy as heat (Qe quenching) bind to CP26 [DemingAdams90]. Indeed, CP26 can regulate the transduction of energy by mediating a rapid response to excess light energy throught the xanthophyll cycle [Minagawa01a].

Phylogenetically, CP26 diverged from LHCII before the LHCII polypeptides diverged to form Lhcb1, Lhcb2, and Lhcb3 in eukaryotes [Green96b].

Citations: [Merchant07]


Subunit of photosystem II: Chlorophyll a-b binding protein CP29

Gene: LHCB4 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_184810 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 29.93 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-48401N , Pride:Q93WD2 , Protein Model Portal:Q93WD2 , String:Q93WD2 , UniProt:Q93WD2

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001344 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR022796 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023329 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR21649 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00504

Summary:
The light-harvesting complex (LHC) functions as a peripheral antenna, capturing and delivering excitation energy to the photosystems with which it is associated. There are two state transitions where state I is induced by excess PSI light and state 2 is induced by excess photosystem II PSII light [Kargul05]. CP29 is a minor chlorophyll binding protein that facilitates state I to state 2 transitions. Reversible phosphorylation plays a role in the state transition process [Kargul05].

CP29 is repressed by high light intensity and down-regulated at lower light intensities by low temperature or limited carbon dioxide supply [Teramoto02].

Citations: [Turkina04, Teramoto01]


Subunit of photosystem II: OEC complex

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Summary:
The OEC (oxygen evolving complex) of higher plants PS II contains three extrinsic, nucleus-encoded subunits, PsbO, Q, and P. The OEC complex is attached to the luminal side of PS II and protects CaMn4 cluster bound to D1 and CP43 proteins [Ferreira04]. Contrary to the membrane-embedded PS II core polypeptides that are subject to rapid degradation when not assembled, a pool of free, assembly-competent OEC proteins has been shown to exist in the thylakoid lumen [Hashimoto97a].


Subunit of OEC complex: Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3

Gene: PSBQ Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_153656 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 21.82 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: Pride:P12852 , Protein Model Portal:P12852 , String:P12852 , UniProt:P12852

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR008797 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023222 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05757

Summary:
Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3 (OEE3) may play a role in the binding or concentrating of Ca2+ and Cl- [Mayfield87].

Citations: [Merchant07, Mayfield87a]


Subunit of OEC complex: Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 of photosystem II

Gene: PSBP1 Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_33411 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast stroma, chloroplast thylakoid lumen

Molecular Weight: 29.9 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 23.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane
GO:0009543 - chloroplast thylakoid lumen
GO:0009570 - chloroplast stroma

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: Pride:A8IYH9 , Protein Model Portal:A8IYH9 , String:3055.JGI33411 , UniProt:A8IYH9

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002683 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016123 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01789

Summary:
The oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2) and PSII core constitute the oxygen evolving complex. It has been shown that OEE2 is absolutely required for oxygen evolution at high levels [Mayfield87]. It binds to the lumenal side of the PSII complex.

Citations: [Merchant07]


Subunit of OEC complex: Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1

Gene: PSBO Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_130316 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast stroma, chloroplast thylakoid lumen, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 30.52 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 33.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane
GO:0009543 - chloroplast thylakoid lumen
GO:0009570 - chloroplast stroma

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: GO:0009654 , GO:0019898 , GO:0042549 , Pride:P12853 , Protein Model Portal:P12853 , String:P12853 , UniProt:P12853

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002628 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011250 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01716

Summary:
The psbO gene encodes an extrinsic oxygen evolving complex protein which stabilizes the manganese cluster in PSII [Nield00].
Ortholog to Arabidopsis gene AT5G66570 (PSBO-1).


Subunit of photosystem II: PS II core dimer

Locations: chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

Summary:
The PSII complex is composed of over 25 different proteins [Nield00]. The core of this multisubunit complex is composed of the D1 and D2 proteins which make up the reaction center [Barber02]. The manganese cluster, which catalyzes the oxidation of water, may be ligated to the lumenal side of the D1 protein [Nield00][Nixon94].

The chlorophyll a binding proteins CP47 and CP43 that transfer excitation energy to the reaction center surround the D1 and D2 proteins [Nield00]. Both proteins have six transmembrane helices.

Higher plants and green algae have an additional outer light-harvesting system composed of proteins that bind both chlorophyll a and b, of which there are six types (Lhcb proteins). The majority of the light-harvesting systems are made up of Lhcb13 and are known as light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) which is organized as trimers. The other chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins, Lhcb4, Lhcb5, and Lhcb6, also known as CP29, CP26, and CP24, respectively, bind less chlorophyll b than LHCII and are thought to exist as monomers [Teramoto01].


Subunit of PS II core dimer: PS II core monomer (complete)

Locations: chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast


Subunit of PS II core monomer (complete): PS II core monomer

Locations: chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

Summary:
The subsequent assembly steps involve the association of the core antenna protein CP43 and the LMM subunit PsbK [Rokka05]. PsbK is tightly bound to CP43, and the assembly of PsbK was shown to occur only in presence of CP43 [Sugimoto03].


Subunit of PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein K

Synonyms: PsbK

Gene: psbK Accession Number: CHRECP004 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Sequence Length: 46 AAs

Molecular Weight: 5.06 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: KEGG:ChreCp004 , Protein Model Portal:P18263 , RefSeq:NP_958361.1 , SMR:P18263 , UniProt:P18263

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003687 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02533 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD004458

Summary:
This protein is a component of the reaction center of photosystem II.

Citations: [Silk90, Maul02, deVitry91]


Subunit of PS II core monomer: CP43

Synonyms: PsbC, ChreCp066

Gene: psbC Accession Number: CHRECP066 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 461 AAs

Molecular Weight: 44.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P10898 , Protein Model Portal:P10898 , RefSeq:NP_958422.1 , SMR:P10898 , UniProt:P10898

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000932 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005869 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00421

Summary:
Photosystem II 44 kDa protein. One of the components of the core antenna complex of photosystem II. It binds chlorophyll and helps catalyze the primary light-induced photochemical processes of photosystem II. PSII consists of a core antenna complex that captures photons, and an electron transfer chain that converts photonic excitation into a charge separation. PSII forms dimeric complexes.

Citations: [Rochaix89, Nozaki00, Maul02]


Subunit of PS II core monomer: CP43-less PS II core monomer

Locations: chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

Summary:
After the assembly of CP47, the low-molecular mass (LMM) subunits PsbH, L, M, T, R, and J associate with the growing PS II complex [Rokka05]. The LMM subunits are thought to stabilize the D1/D2/Cytb559/CP47 subassembly of PS II. The subunits PsbL, M, and T are located in the monomer-monomer interphase and therefore are also crucial for the dimerization of PS II [Loll05], whereas PsbR and PsbJ have been shown to be essential for the stable assembly of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC).


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein T

Synonyms: PsbT, PSII-T

Gene: psbT Accession Number: CHRECP031 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

Sequence Length: 31 AAs

Molecular Weight: 3.63 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Gene Class: UNCLASSIFIED

Unification Links: KEGG:ChreCp031 , Protein Model Portal:P37256 , RefSeq:NP_958387.1 , UniProt:P37256

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001743 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01405 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD004453

Summary:
Photosystem II protein T is essential for maintaining photosynthetic activity under adverse growth conditions and plays a role in the dimerization of PSII [Iwai04].

Citations: [Monod92, Maul02, Monod94]


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: 10 kDa photosystem II polypeptide

Gene: PsbR Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_98021 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 13.04 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: GO:0042651 , KEGG:CHLREDRAFT_98021 , Pride:A8HXG5 , Protein Model Portal:A8HXG5 , String:3055.JGI98021 , UniProt:A8HXG5

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006814 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF04725

Summary:
Chloroplast encoded PsbR protein provides additional ions for the water-oxidizing PSII complex [Allahverdiyeva07]. PsbR is also required for the stable assembly of the oxygen-evolving complex protein PsbP which also involves chloroplast-encoded PSII subunit PsbJ [Suorsa06].


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein M

Synonyms: PsbM

Gene: psbM Accession Number: CHRECP026 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

Sequence Length: 34 AAs

Molecular Weight: 3.76 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:P92277 , RefSeq:NP_958382.1 , SMR:P92277 , UniProt:P92277

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007826 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05151

Citations: [Higgs98a, Maul02]


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein L

Synonyms: PsbL, PSII 5 kDa protein

Gene: psbL Accession Number: CHRECP044 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 38 AAs

Molecular Weight: 4.42 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 5.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:P32974 , RefSeq:NP_958400.2 , SMR:P32974 , UniProt:P32974

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003372 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02419 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD005113

Citations: [Fong92a, Maul02]


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein J

Synonyms: PsbJ

Gene: psbJ Accession Number: CHRECP063 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 50 AAs

Molecular Weight: 4.29 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:O19930 , RefSeq:NP_958419.1 , SMR:O19930 , UniProt:O19930

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002682 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01788

Summary:

Citations: [Maul02]


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: Photosystem II reaction center protein H

Synonyms: PsbH, Photosystem II 10 kDa phosphoprotein

Gene: psbH Accession Number: CHRECP029 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 88 AAs

Molecular Weight: 9.4 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 10.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:P22666 , RefSeq:NP_958385.1 , SMR:P22666 , UniProt:P22666

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR001056 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00737 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD003584

Citations: [Johnson93, Maul02]


Subunit of CP43-less PS II core monomer: PS II RC - CP47 complex

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid lumen, chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0031977 - thylakoid lumen

Summary:
The presence of D1 is a prerequisite for the high-level translation of the core antenna subunit CP47. The biogenesis of PS II thus involves a CES (Control of Epistasy of Synthesis) [Wollman99, Minai06] cascade where translation of D1 is dependent on the presence of D2 and the translation of CP47, in turn, is dependent on the presence of D1 [Minai06].


Subunit of PS II RC - CP47 complex: Photosystem II CP47 chlorophyll apoprotein

Synonyms: PsbB, PSII 47 kDa protein, Protein CP-47

Gene: psbB Accession Number: CHRECP032 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 508 AAs

Molecular Weight: 56.1 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 47.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P37255 , Protein Model Portal:P37255 , RefSeq:NP_958388.1 , SMR:P37255 , UniProt:P37255

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000932 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR017486 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00421

Summary:
CP47 is core antenna chlorophyll binding subunit of PSII [Sobotka05]. It is made only when D1 has successfully assembled with D2. Its recruitment to form the PSII core complex facilitates the further binding of the oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE) proteins [Minai06]. CP47 is a crucial component for proper PSII function [Monod92].

Citations: [BerryLowe92, Maul02]


Subunit of PS II RC - CP47 complex: PS II RC


Component enzyme of PS II RC : Photosystem Q(B) protein

Synonyms: PsbA, Photosystem II protein D1, 32 kDa thylakoid membrane protein

Gene: psbA Accession Number: CHRECP057 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast thylakoid lumen

Molecular Weight: 39.04 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 32.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0031977 - thylakoid lumen
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P07753 , Protein Model Portal:P07753 , RefSeq:NP_958413.1 , SMR:P07753 , UniProt:P07753

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000484 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005867 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00124 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00256 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00244

Catalyzes:
4 hν + 2 a plastoquinone + 2 H2O ↔ 2 a plastoquinol + oxygen

Summary:
The chloroplast encoded psbA gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii expresses a 352 amino acid herbicide binding protein D1, that forms a heterodimer with psbB [Erickson84]. D1 is one of the two reaction center proteins of PSII. It provides ligands for the Mn-cluster of the oxygen evolving complex. Herbicides such as atrazine bind to D1 and block electron transport [Przibilla91]. Together, the psbA/B heterodimer binds P680, the primary electron donor of PSII. They share a non-heme iron and each subunit binds additional chlorophylls and pheophytin.

Citations: [Maul02, Erickson89a]


Subunit of PS II RC: cytb559-D2 complex

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Summary:
Cyt b559 interacts with the D2 protein to form an initial complex that further serves as a receptor for the co-translational assembly of the D1 protein [Komenda04].


Subunit of cytb559-D2 complex: cytochrome b-559 α-subunit

Synonyms: PsbE, PSII reaction center subunit V

Gene: psbE Accession Number: CHRECP040 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 82 AAs

Molecular Weight: 9.3 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P48268 , Protein Model Portal:P48268 , RefSeq:NP_958396.1 , SMR:P48268 , UniProt:P48268

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006216 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR006217 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013081 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR013082 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00283 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00284 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00537

Summary:
The apoproteins of cytochrome b559 which is tightly associated with the reaction center of PSII, are encoded by the psbE and psbF genes [Mor95]. This b-type cytochrome is composed of an α and β subunit heterodimer which each carry a histidine residue. The heme cofactor is coordinated between these residues [Pakrasi91].

Citations: [Alizadeh94, Maul02]


Subunit of cytb559-D2 complex: Photosystem II D2 protein

Synonyms: PsbD, Photosystem Q(A) protein

Gene: psbD Accession Number: CHRECP064 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 352 AAs

Molecular Weight: 39.44 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P06007 , Protein Model Portal:P06007 , RefSeq:NP_958420.1 , SMR:P06007 , UniProt:P06007

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR000484 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005868 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00124 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00256 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00244

Summary:
Studies from PsbD mutants in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has revealed the importance of the chloroplast D2 protein in the activity of photosystem II. The main role of the D2 protein appears to be mediating the stabilization of the PSII complex [Erickson86]. However, it also plays a role in the regulation of D1 protein, as its absence has consequences on the expression of D1 [Erickson86].

Citations: [Maul02]


Subunit of PS II core monomer (complete): Photosystem II reaction center W protein

Synonyms: PSII 6.1 kDa protein

Gene: PSBW Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_155150 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 12.14 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:Q9SPI9 , UniProt:Q9SPI9

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR009806 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF07123


Subunit of PS II core monomer (complete): Photosystem II reaction center protein Z

Synonyms: PsbZ

Gene: psbZ Accession Number: CHRECP027 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast

Sequence Length: 62 AAs

Molecular Weight: 6.56 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: KEGG:ChreCp027 , Protein Model Portal:P92276 , RefSeq:NP_958383.1 , UniProt:P92276

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002644 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01737 , ProDom:IN-FAMILY:PD004770

Summary:
The chloroplast encoded ycf9 gene product PsbZ controls the interaction of the PSII core with the light-harvesting antenna [Swiatek01]. The absence of ycf9 causes increased light sensitivity and growth defects [Swiatek01].

Citations: [Higgs98a, Maul02]


Subunit of PS II core monomer (complete): Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1

Gene: PSBO Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_130316 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast stroma, chloroplast thylakoid lumen, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 30.52 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Molecular Weight: 33.0 kD (experimental)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane
GO:0009543 - chloroplast thylakoid lumen
GO:0009570 - chloroplast stroma

MultiFun Terms: metabolism

Unification Links: GO:0009654 , GO:0019898 , GO:0042549 , Pride:P12853 , Protein Model Portal:P12853 , String:P12853 , UniProt:P12853

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002628 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011250 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01716

Summary:
The psbO gene encodes an extrinsic oxygen evolving complex protein which stabilizes the manganese cluster in PSII [Nield00].
Ortholog to Arabidopsis gene AT5G66570 (PSBO-1).


References

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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