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MetaCyc Transporter: Cyt b6f complex

Species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Subunit composition of Cyt b6f complex = [(PetC)(PetM)(PetN)(PetL)(PetG)(PetD)(PetB)(PetA)]2
         Cyt b6f monomer = (PetC)(PetM)(PetN)(PetL)(PetG)(PetD)(PetB)(PetA)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex iron-sulfur subunit = PetC (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 7 = PetM (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 8 = PetN (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 6 = PetL (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 5 = PetG (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 4 = PetD (summary available)
                 Cytochrome b6 = PetB (summary available)
                 apocytochrome f = PetA (summary available)

Summary:
Cytochrome b6f is a plastohydroquinone:plastocyanin oxidoreductase present in chloroplasts and plays a major role in the photosynthetic electron transport chain [Kuras07]. It contributes to the proton motive force via the Q-cycle [Malnoe11]. The Q-cycle is a chemic process for proton translocation from the chloroplast stroma into the lumen across the thylakoid membrane [Allen04]. Specifically it couples electron transfer with proton translocation to generate a transmembrane electrochemical H+ gradient [Stroebel03]. X-ray structure of cytochrome b6f has revealed the presence of an atypical heme [deLacroix09]. Furthermore, there is biochemical evidence to suggest that the cytochrome b6f complex contains within its folds a chlorophyll and β carotene molecule, though the function of these two pigments is not known [Pierre97][Zhang99c].

Citations: [Catherine09, Baniulis]

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

Credits:
Created 12-Jan-2010 by May P , MPI-MP
Revised 19-May-2011 by Weerasinghe D


Enzymatic reaction of: plastoquinol-plastocyanin reductase (Cyt b6f complex)

EC Number: 1.10.9.1

In Pathways: photosynthesis light reactions , hydrogen production VIII

Citations: [Baniulis]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex iron-sulfur subunit

Synonyms: PetC, Rieske iron-sulfur protein, Plastohydroquinone:plastocyanin oxidoreductase iron-sulfur protein

Gene: petC Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_193296 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast thylakoid membrane, chloroplast, chloroplast envelope

Molecular Weight: 21.52 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane
GO:0009941 - chloroplast envelope

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-58594N , GO:0009496 , Pride:P49728 , Protein Model Portal:P49728 , SMR:P49728 , String:P49728 , UniProt:A8J9Y1 , UniProt:P49728

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005805 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014349 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR014909 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR017941 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR10134 , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00355 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF08802 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00162 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51296

Summary:
PetC is one of the large subunits of the cytochrome b6-f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). Also called Rieske protein, it is a high potential [2Fe-2S] protein with one Rieske domain.

Citations: [Merchant07, Pierre95, Stroebel03, deVitry94]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 7

Synonyms: PetM, Cytochrome b6-f complex 4 kDa subunit, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit VII, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit petM

Gene: petM Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_147968 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Molecular Weight: 9.99 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0009535 - chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Gene Class: UNCLASSIFIED

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:Q42496 , SMR:Q42496 , String:Q42496 , UniProt:Q42496

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR012595 , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF08041

Summary:
PetM appears to be a nonessential component for cytochrome b6-f complex activity, but may instead be involved in cytochrome b6-f complex mediated regulatory processes [Schneider01].

Citations: [deVitry96, Ketchner96, Merchant07, Pierre95, Stroebel03]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 8

Synonyms: PetN, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit VIII, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit petN

Gene: petN Accession Number: CHLREDRAFT_177155 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast

Molecular Weight: 3.85 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: GO:0009512 , GO:0017004 , GO:0045158 , Protein Model Portal:P0C1D4 , SMR:P0C1D4 , String:3055.JGI177155 , UniProt:P0C1D4

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005497 , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF03742

Summary:
PetN is one the small subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI).


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 6

Synonyms: PetL, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit VI, Cytochrome b6-f complex subunit petL

Gene: petL Accession Number: CHRECP068 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 43 AAs

Molecular Weight: 4.87 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:P50369 , RefSeq:NP_958424.2 , SMR:P50369 , UniProt:P50369

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR007802 , PDB:PART-OF:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF05115

Summary:
PetL is one of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). PetL is important for photoautotrophic growth, efficient electron transfer and cytochrome b6f complex stability [Singhal99].

Citations: [Takahashi96, Maul02, Pierre95, Zito02, Stroebel03]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 5

Synonyms: PetG, Cytochrome b6f complex subunit V, Cytochrome b6f complex subunit petG

Gene: petG Accession Number: CHRECP045 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 37 AAs

Molecular Weight: 3.98 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Protein Model Portal:Q08362 , RefSeq:NP_958401.1 , SMR:Q08362 , UniProt:Q08362

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR003683 , PDB:PART-OF:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF02529

Summary:
Pet G is one of the small subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). It may be required for either the stability or assembly of the cytochrome b6f complex.

Citations: [Fong92a, Berthold95, Maul02, Pierre95, Stroebel03]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6f complex subunit 4

Synonyms: PetD, 17 kDa polypeptide

Gene: petD Accession Number: CHRECP002 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 160 AAs

Molecular Weight: 17.44 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: Pride:P23230 , Protein Model Portal:P23230 , RefSeq:NP_958359.1 , SMR:P23230 , UniProt:P23230

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005798 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005870 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016175 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR19271:SF0 , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00032 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51003

Summary:
PetD is one of the four large subunits of the cytochrome b6-f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI).

Citations: [Buschlen91, Yu91, Sakamoto93a, Maul02, Stroebel03, Kramzar06, Pierre95]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: Cytochrome b6

Synonyms: PetB

Gene: petB Accession Number: CHRECP008 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 215 AAs

Molecular Weight: 24.16 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-58593N , Pride:Q00471 , Protein Model Portal:Q00471 , RefSeq:NP_958365.1 , SMR:Q00471 , UniProt:Q00471

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR005797 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016174 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016175 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR023530 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR027387 , Panther:IN-FAMILY:PTHR19271:SF0 , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF13631 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51002

Summary:
PetB is one the large subunits of the cytochrome b6-f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). It binds 2 heme groups.

Citations: [deVitry04, Stroebel03, Maul02, Zito97, Pierre95, Buschlen91, Huang92a]


Subunit of Cyt b6f monomer: apocytochrome f

Synonyms: PetA

Gene: petA Accession Number: CHRECP001 (MetaCyc)

Locations: chloroplast, chloroplast thylakoid membrane

Sequence Length: 317 AAs

Molecular Weight: 34.29 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0009507 - chloroplast
GO:0042651 - thylakoid membrane

MultiFun Terms: metabolism energy production/transport

Unification Links: DIP:DIP-48404N , Pride:P23577 , Protein Model Portal:P23577 , RefSeq:NP_958358.1 , SMR:P23577 , UniProt:P23577

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR002325 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR011054 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR024058 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR024094 , PDB:Structure:1CFM , PDB:Structure:1E2V , PDB:Structure:1E2W , PDB:Structure:1E2Z , PDB:Structure:1EWH , PDB:Structure:1Q90 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF01333 , Prints:IN-FAMILY:PR00610 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS51010

Summary:
PetA is one the large subunits of the cytochrome b6-f complex, which mediates electron transfer between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI). It covalently binds one heme group.

Citations: [Maul02, Sainz00, Chi00, Pierre95, Buschlen91, Bertsch91]


References

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Baniulis: Baniulis D, Yamashita E, Zhang H, Hasan SS, Cramer WA "Structure-function of the cytochrome b6f complex." Photochem Photobiol 84(6);1349-58. PMID: 19067956

Berthold95: Berthold DA, Schmidt CL, Malkin R (1995). "The deletion of petG in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupts the cytochrome bf complex." J Biol Chem 270(49);29293-8. PMID: 7493961

Bertsch91: Bertsch J, Malkin R (1991). "Nucleotide sequence of the petA (cytochrome f) gene from the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Plant Mol Biol 17(1);131-3. PMID: 1868213

Buschlen91: Buschlen S, Choquet Y, Kuras R, Wollman FA (1991). "Nucleotide sequences of the continuous and separated petA, petB and petD chloroplast genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii." FEBS Lett 284(2);257-62. PMID: 2060646

Catherine09: Catherine de Vitry, Richard Kuras (2009). "The Cytochrome b6f Complex." Chapter 17. In: The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook. Second Edition.

Chi00: Chi YI, Huang LS, Zhang Z, Fernandez-Velasco JG, Berry EA (2000). "X-ray structure of a truncated form of cytochrome f from chlamydomonas reinhardtii." Biochemistry 39(26);7689-701. PMID: 10869174

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Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
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