Species: Aplysia californica
This enzyme has been characterized in extracts of ganglia from the marine mollusk Aplysia californica [Stein82]. Its cellular distribution in neuronal cell types was determined by activity assays. Activity was found in C2 cells and all other single nerve cell bodies tested. The results supported the hypothesis that γ-glutamylation by this enzyme functions in the inactivation of neuronally released histamine [Stein83].
The enzyme was primarily found in ganglia and nerve trunks of nerve tissue and in the connective tissue sheath surrounding the ganglion. Relatively low amounts of activity were found in aorta, heart, buccal muscle and hemolymph [Stein82].
|Cellular Component:||GO:0005829 - cytosol [Stein82]|
Enzymatic reaction of: γ-glutamylhistamine synthetase
Synonyms: γ-glutamylhistamine synthase, γ-GHA synthetase, L-glutamate:histamine ligase
EC Number: 22.214.171.124
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.
The reaction is physiologically favored in the direction shown.
The enzyme was assayed by measuring the incorporation of 14C histamine into 14C N-α-γ-L-glutamylhistamine and identification of the product by micro-column ion-exchange chromatography, high-voltage paper electrophoresis, thin-layer chromatography and HPLC [Stein82].
Inhibitors (Unknown Mechanism): octopamine [Stein82] , (R)-noradrenaline [Stein82] , dopamine [Stein82] , N-acetyl-serotonin [Stein82] , tyramine [Stein82] , 4-methylhistamine [Stein82] , 2-methylhistamine [Stein82] , 2-pyridylethylamine [Stein82] , butylamine [Stein82]
T(opt): 41 °C [Stein82]
pH(opt): 8 [Stein82]
Stein82: Stein C, Weinreich D (1982). "An in vitro characterization of gamma-glutamylhistamine synthetase: a novel enzyme catalyzing histamine metabolism in the central nervous system of the marine mollusk, Aplysia californica." J Neurochem 38(1);204-14. PMID: 6125565
Stein83: Stein C, Weinreich D (1983). "Metabolism of histamine in the CNS of Aplysia californica: cellular distribution of gamma-glutamylhistamine synthetase." Comp Biochem Physiol C 74(1);79-83. PMID: 6132775
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