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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Enzyme: aldehyde dehydrogenase

Gene: ALD2 Accession Number: G-10423 (MetaCyc)

Synonyms: YMR170C

Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Summary:
Two types of aldehyde dehydrogenase activities have been described biochemically in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the mitochondrial type, which uses both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes, is activated by K+ and repressed during growth and glucose, and the cytosolic type, which is specific for NADP+, is activated by Mg2+, and is not repressed by glucose.

Following the sequencing of the genome, these two types were mapped to five different genes - three that encode cytosolic forms, and two that encode mytochondrial forms [NavarroAvino99].

The two tandem-repeated genes ALD2 and ALD3 encode two cytoplasmic stress-inducible isoforms of the enzyme. The expression of these isoforms is dependent on the general-stress transcription factors Msn2,4 but is independent of the HOG MAP kinase pathway. Both forms can use the cofactor NAD+ much more efficiently that NADP+, and are not activated by any cations.

While ALD3 is induced by a variety of stresses, including osmotic shock, heat shock, glucose exhaustion, oxidative stress and drugs, ALD2 is only induced by osmotic stress and glucose exhaustion [NavarroAvino99].

Gene Citations: [Miralles95]

Locations: cytosol

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 55.188 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: Entrez-gene:855206 , Mint:MINT-2781711 , Protein Model Portal:P47771 , SMR:P47771 , String:4932.YMR170C , UniProt:P47771

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR015590 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016160 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016161 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016162 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016163 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00171 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00070 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00687

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Instance reaction of [3-aminopropanal + NAD(P)+ + H2O → β-alanine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+] (1.2.1.-):
i1: 3-aminopropanal + NAD+ + H2O = β-alanine + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.-)

Instance reactions of [an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+] (1.2.1.3):
i2: fluoroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → fluoroacetate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.69)

i3: benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ↔ benzoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.28)

i4: 4-methylbenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → 4-toluenecarboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (no EC#)

i5: all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O = all-trans-retinoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.36)

i6: acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → acetate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i7: octanal + NAD+ + H2O → octanoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i8: phytenal + NAD+ + H2O → phytenate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i9: (2E,6E)-farnesal + NAD+ + H2O → (2-trans-6-trans)-farnesoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i10: salicylaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → salicylate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.65)

i11: (R)-lactaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → (R)-lactate + NADH + 2 H+ (no EC#)

i12: (S)-lactaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → (S)-lactate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.22)

i13: methylglyoxal + NAD+ + H2O → pyruvate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.23)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol [NavarroAvino99]

Credits:
Created 08-Jan-2008 by Caspi R , SRI International


Enzymatic reaction of: 3-aminopropanal:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (aldehyde dehydrogenase)

EC Number: 1.2.1.-

3-aminopropanal + NAD(P)+ + H2O <=> β-alanine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: β-alanine biosynthesis IV


Enzymatic reaction of: aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (aldehyde dehydrogenase)

EC Number: 1.2.1.3

an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O <=> a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: methylglyoxal degradation V


References

Miralles95: Miralles VJ, Serrano R (1995). "A genomic locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with four genes up-regulated by osmotic stress." Mol Microbiol 17(4);653-62. PMID: 8801420

NavarroAvino99: Navarro-Avino JP, Prasad R, Miralles VJ, Benito RM, Serrano R (1999). "A proposal for nomenclature of aldehyde dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the stress-inducible ALD2 and ALD3 genes." Yeast 15(10A);829-42. PMID: 10407263


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sun Dec 21, 2014, biocyc14.