Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
Metabolic Modeling Tutorial
discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
twitter

MetaCyc Enzyme: aldehyde dehydrogenase

Gene: ALD3 Accession Number: G-10424 (MetaCyc)

Synonyms: YMR169C

Species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Summary:
Two types of aldehyde dehydrogenase activities have been described biochemically in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the mitochondrial type, which uses both NAD+ and NADP+ as coenzymes, is activated by K+ and repressed during growth and glucose, and the cytosolic type, which is specific for NADP+, is activated by Mg2+, and is not repressed by glucose.

Following the sequencing of the genome, these two types were mapped to five different genes - three that encode cytosolic forms, and two that encode mytochondrial forms [NavarroAvino99].

The two tandem-repeated genes ALD2 and ALD3 encode two cytoplasmic stress-inducible isoforms of the enzyme. The expression of these isoforms is dependent on the general-stress transcription factors Msn2,4 but is independent of the HOG MAP kinase pathway. Both forms can use the cofactor NAD+ much more efficiently that NADP+, and are not activated by any cations.

While ALD3 is induced by a variety of stresses, including osmotic shock, heat shock, glucose exhaustion, oxidative stress and drugs, ALD2 is only induced by osmotic stress and glucose exhaustion [NavarroAvino99].

Gene Citations: [Miralles95]

Locations: cytosol

Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 55.385 kD (from nucleotide sequence)

Unification Links: Entrez-gene:855205 , Mint:MINT-2781729 , Protein Model Portal:P54114 , SMR:P54114 , String:4932.YMR169C , UniProt:P54114

Relationship Links: InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR015590 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016160 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016161 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016162 , InterPro:IN-FAMILY:IPR016163 , Pfam:IN-FAMILY:PF00171 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00070 , Prosite:IN-FAMILY:PS00687

Gene-Reaction Schematic: ?

Instance reaction of [3-aminopropanal + NAD(P)+ + H2O → β-alanine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+] (1.2.1.-):
i1: 3-aminopropanal + NAD+ + H2O = β-alanine + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.-)

Instance reactions of [an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+] (1.2.1.3):
i2: fluoroacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → fluoroacetate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.69)

i3: benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O ↔ benzoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.28)

i4: 4-methylbenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → 4-toluenecarboxylate + NADH + 2 H+ (no EC#)

i5: all-trans-retinal + NAD+ + H2O = all-trans-retinoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.36)

i6: acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → acetate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i7: octanal + NAD+ + H2O → octanoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i8: phytenal + NAD+ + H2O → phytenate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i9: (2E,6E)-farnesal + NAD+ + H2O → (2-trans-6-trans)-farnesoate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.3)

i10: salicylaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → salicylate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.65)

i11: (R)-lactaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → (R)-lactate + NADH + 2 H+ (no EC#)

i12: (S)-lactaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O → (S)-lactate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.22)

i13: methylglyoxal + NAD+ + H2O → pyruvate + NADH + 2 H+ (1.2.1.23)

GO Terms:

Cellular Component: GO:0005829 - cytosol [NavarroAvino99]

Credits:
Created 08-Jan-2008 by Caspi R , SRI International


Enzymatic reaction of: 3-aminopropanal:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase (aldehyde dehydrogenase)

EC Number: 1.2.1.-

3-aminopropanal + NAD(P)+ + H2O <=> β-alanine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: β-alanine biosynthesis IV


Enzymatic reaction of: aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (aldehyde dehydrogenase)

EC Number: 1.2.1.3

an aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O <=> a carboxylate + NADH + 2 H+

The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the Enzyme Commission system.

The reaction is favored in the direction shown.

In Pathways: methylglyoxal degradation V


References

Miralles95: Miralles VJ, Serrano R (1995). "A genomic locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with four genes up-regulated by osmotic stress." Mol Microbiol 17(4);653-62. PMID: 8801420

NavarroAvino99: Navarro-Avino JP, Prasad R, Miralles VJ, Benito RM, Serrano R (1999). "A proposal for nomenclature of aldehyde dehydrogenases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and characterization of the stress-inducible ALD2 and ALD3 genes." Yeast 15(10A);829-42. PMID: 10407263


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Sat Nov 22, 2014, BIOCYC14A.