|Gene:||pep1||Accession Number: G-41 (MetaCyc)|
Synonyms: pepczm1, C4Ppc1, PEPC, C4PEPC
Species: Zea mays
Subunit composition of
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase = [Pep1]4
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase = Pep1
There are at least three isozymes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in maize, the C3 form (involved in C3 photosynthesis, Calvin cycle), the C4 form (involved in C4 photosynthesis, described here), and the root form. The C4 PEPC is located in the cytosol of mesophyll cells of leaves and is encoded by the maize pep1 gene. The C4 PEPC is reversibly regulated by phosphorylation. It is phosphorylated during the day time to become a more active form and dephosphorylated during the night to a less active form.
pep1 (MaizeDB), or pepczm1 (GenBank) encodes the C4 form PEPC.
Molecular Weight of Polypeptide: 100 kD (experimental)
|Cellular Component:||GO:0005737 - cytoplasm|
Enzymatic reaction of: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase
EC Number: 18.104.22.168
The reaction direction shown, that is, A + B ↔ C + D versus C + D ↔ A + B, is in accordance with the direction in which it was curated.
This reaction is reversible.
The phosphoenolpyruvate-Mg complex is the preferred substrate of the C4 PEPC.
Cofactors or Prosthetic Groups: Mg2+
Matsumura99: Matsumura H, Nagata T, Terada M, Shirakata S, Inoue T, Yoshinaga T, Ueno Y, Saze H, Izui K, Kai Y (1999). "Crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize." Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 1999;55(11);1937-8. PMID: 10531501
RodriguezSotres90: Rodriguez-Sotres R, Munoz-Clares RA (1990). "Kinetic evidence of the existence of a regulatory phosphoenolpyruvate binding site in maize leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase." Arch Biochem Biophys 1990;276(1);180-90. PMID: 2297221
Taniguchi00: Taniguchi M, Izawa K, Ku MS, Lin JH, Saito H, Ishida Y, Ohta S, Komari T, Matsuoka M, Sugiyama T (2000). "Binding of cell type-specific nuclear proteins to the 5'-flanking region of maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene confers its differential transcription in mesophyll cells." Plant Mol Biol 2000;44(4);543-57. PMID: 11197328
Ueno00: Ueno Y, Imanari E, Emura J, Yoshizawa-Kumagaye K, Nakajima K, Inami K, Shiba T, Sakakibara H, Sugiyama T, Izui K (2000). "Immunological analysis of the phosphorylation state of maize C4-form phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with specific antibodies raised against a synthetic phosphorylated peptide." Plant J 2000;21(1);17-26. PMID: 10652147
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