This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
Synonyms: DMS degradation, dimethylsulfide degradation III (oxidation)
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Inorganic Nutrients Metabolism → Sulfur Compounds Metabolism → Dimethylsulfide Degradation|
Expected Taxonomic Range: Bacteria
dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a major contributor to the total sulfur emissions to the atmosphere from land and the ocean. In marine, estuarine, and salt marsh systems, the main source of DMS is the degradation of dimethylsulfoniopropanoate (DMSP), an osmolyte of many marine algae and certain plants [Otte04]. DMSP is readily degraded in a variety of biological systems, including bacterial cultures, salt marsh sediments, and seawater samples containing algae and zooplankton [Kiene88]. There are two main routes for DMSP degradation, leading to formation of either dimethyl sulfide or 3-(methylthio)propanoate. Other sources for DMS include the reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide and the degradation of sulfur-containing amino acids.
dimethyl sulfide, which is very volatile, is exchanged freely between the ocean and the atmosphere, and is considered the main natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere. Once in the troposphere, DMS is oxidized to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which attract water and promote cloud formation and thus influence the climate [Charlson87]. However, up to 90% of the DMS in the ocean is degraded biologically [Kiene90].
DMS is toxic, and attempts to isolate in pure culture DMS-degrading organisms that can use it as the sole carbon and energy source have been often unsuccessful due to this toxicity. However, several organisms capable of degerading DMS have been isolated over the years. Aerobic bacterial DMS oxidation has been demonstrated in organisms from a few taxonomic domains, including Thiobacillus sp. strain MS1 [Sivela80], Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m [Kanagawa82, Kanagawa86, Kanagawa89, Tanji89, Gould92], Thiobacillus thioparus T5 [Visscher91, Visscher93], Hyphomicrobium sp. S [DeBont81], Hyphomicrobium sp. EG [Suylen86, Suylen86a, Suylen87, Smith88] and Methylophaga thiooxydans[De97, Schafer07]. Anaerobic degradation of DMS has been documented by methanogens [Tallant01] (see methanogenesis from dimethylsulfide) and by sulfate-reducing bacteria [Tanimoto94].
About This Pathway
Some purple phototrophic bacteria, such as the non sulfur bacterium Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and the sulfur bacterium Thiocapsa roseopersicina M11, can grow photoautotrophically with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) as the sole electron donor [Zeyer87, Jonkers99].
During this process, dimethylsulfide dehydrogenase catalyzes the oxidation of DMS to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the periplasm, transferring the electrons to an oxidized cytochrome c2, which transfers them to the bacteriochlorophyll special pair (P870+) of the photochemical reaction center (RC) [McDevitt02]. The enzyme has been purified from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum and found to be a heterotrimeric complex [Hanlon96, McDevitt02]. The large subunit, which belongs to the DMSO reductase family, binds a guanylyl molybdenum cofactor cofator.
De97: De Zwart J, Sluis J, Kuenen JG (1997). "Competition for Dimethyl Sulfide and Hydrogen Sulfide by Methylophaga sulfidovorans and Thiobacillus thioparus T5 in Continuous Cultures." Appl Environ Microbiol 63(8);3318-3322. PMID: 16535680
DeBont81: DeBont J. A. M., Dijken J. P. van, Harder W. (1981). "Dimethyl sulphoxide and dimethyl sulphide as a carbon, sulphur and energy source for growth of Hyphomicrobium S." J. Gen. Microbiol. 127: 315-323.
Hanlon96: Hanlon SP, Toh TH, Solomon PS, Holt RA, McEwan AG (1996). "Dimethylsulfide:acceptor oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter sulfidophilus. The purified enzyme contains b-type haem and a pterin molybdenum cofactor." Eur J Biochem 239(2);391-6. PMID: 8706745
Jonkers99: Jonkers HM, Jansen M, Van der Maarel MJ , Van Gemerden H (1999). "Aerobic turnover of dimethyl sulfide by the anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium thiocapsa roseopersicina." Arch Microbiol 172(3);150-6. PMID: 10460885
Kanagawa89: Kanagawa T, Mikami E (1989). "Removal of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide from contaminated air by Thiobacillus thioparus TK-m." Appl Environ Microbiol 55(3);555-8. PMID: 2930168
McDevitt02: McDevitt CA, Hugenholtz P, Hanson GR, McEwan AG (2002). "Molecular analysis of dimethyl sulphide dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum sulfidophilum: its place in the dimethyl sulphoxide reductase family of microbial molybdopterin-containing enzymes." Mol Microbiol 44(6);1575-87. PMID: 12067345
Schafer07: Schafer H (2007). "Isolation of Methylophaga spp. from marine dimethylsulfide-degrading enrichment cultures and identification of polypeptides induced during growth on dimethylsulfide." Appl Environ Microbiol 73(8);2580-91. PMID: 17322322
Smith88: Smith NA, Kelly DP (1988). "Isolation and physiological characteris-tization of authotrophic sulphur bacteria oxidizing dimethyldisulphide as sole source of energy." J. General Microbiol., 134: 1407 - 1417.
Suylen86: Suylen GM, Kuenen JG (1986). "Chemostat enrichment and isolation of Hyphomicrobium EG. A dimethyl-sulphide oxidizing methylotroph and reevaluation of Thiobacillus MS1." Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 52(4);281-93. PMID: 3767349
Suylen86a: Suylen, G. M. H., Stefess,G. C., Kuenen,J. G. (1986). "Chemolithotrophic potential of a Hyphomicrobium species, capable of growth on methylated sulphur compounds." Arch Microbiol 146:192 - 198.
Suylen87: Suylen GMH, Large PJ, van Dijken JP, Kuenen JG (1987). "Methyl-mercaptan oxidase, a key enzyme in the metabolism of methylated sulphur compounds by Hyphomicrobium EG." J. Gen. Microbiol., 133: 2989- 2997.
Tallant01: Tallant TC, Paul L, Krzycki JA (2001). "The MtsA subunit of the methylthiol:coenzyme M methyltransferase of Methanosarcina barkeri catalyses both half-reactions of corrinoid-dependent dimethylsulfide: coenzyme M methyl transfer." J Biol Chem 276(6);4485-93. PMID: 11073950
Tanimoto94: Tanimoto Y, Bak F (1994). "Anaerobic degradation of methylmercaptan and dimethyl sulfide by newly isolated thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria." Appl Environ Microbiol 60(7);2450-5. PMID: 8074524
Tanji89: Tanji, Y., Kanagawa, T., Mikami, E. (1989). "Removal of dimethyl sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and hydrogen sulphide by immobilized Thioba-cillus thioparus TK-m." J. Ferment. Bioeng. 67(4): 280 - 285.
Visscher91: Visscher PT, Quist P, van Gemerden H (1991). "Methylated sulfur compounds in microbial mats: in situ concentrations and metabolism by a colorless sulfur bacterium." Appl Environ Microbiol 57(6);1758-63. PMID: 1872604
Zeyer87: Zeyer J, Eicher P, Wakeham SG, Schwarzenbach RP (1987). "Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfide to Dimethyl Sulfoxide by Phototrophic Purple Bacteria." Appl Environ Microbiol 53(9);2026-2032. PMID: 16347425
Howard06: Howard EC, Henriksen JR, Buchan A, Reisch CR, Burgmann H, Welsh R, Ye W, Gonzalez JM, Mace K, Joye SB, Kiene RP, Whitman WB, Moran MA (2006). "Bacterial taxa that limit sulfur flux from the ocean." Science 314(5799);649-52. PMID: 17068264
MurakamiNitta02: Murakami-Nitta T, Kurimura H, Kirimura K, Kino K, Usami S (2002). "Continuous degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide to sulfate ion by Hyphomicrobium denitrificans WU-K217." J Biosci Bioeng 94(1);52-6. PMID: 16233269
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