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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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discounted EARLY registration ends Dec 31, 2014
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MetaCyc Taxon: Vertebrata

Synonyms: vertebrates, vertebrates, Vertebrata

Rank: no rank

Taxonomic lineage: cellular organisms , Eukaryota , Opisthokonta , Metazoa , Eumetazoa , Bilateria , Deuterostomia , Chordata , Craniata

Direct sub-taxa of Vertebrata : Cyclostomata , environmental samples , Gnathostomata

Unification Links: NCBI-Taxonomy:7742


Pathways present in Vertebrata or one of its sub-taxa (331).
These pathways were observed experimentally in this taxon or one of its sub-taxa:
1D-myo-inositol hexakisphosphate biosynthesis II (mammalian) ,
2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde degradation to glutaryl-CoA ,
[2Fe-2S] iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis ,
2-oxobutanoate degradation I ,
2-oxoglutarate decarboxylation to succinyl-CoA ,
2-oxoisovalerate decarboxylation to isobutanoyl-CoA ,
3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis ,
3-phosphoinositide degradation ,
4-aminobutyrate degradation ,
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification ,
4-hydroxybenzoate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) ,
4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate biosynthesis ,
5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide biosynthesis I ,
acetate conversion to acetyl-CoA ,
acetone degradation III (to propane-1,2-diol) ,
acetone degradation I (to methylglyoxal) ,
acetyl-CoA biosynthesis III (from citrate) ,
acyl carrier protein metabolism II (mammalian) ,
adenine and adenosine salvage I ,
adenine and adenosine salvage II ,
adenine and adenosine salvage III ,
adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis ,
adenosine nucleotides degradation II ,
adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis ,
aerobic respiration I (cytochrome c) ,
alanine biosynthesis II ,
alanine biosynthesis III ,
alanine degradation III ,
allopregnanolone biosynthesis ,
all-trans-decaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
α-tocopherol degradation ,
anandamide degradation ,
androgen biosynthesis ,
arginine degradation I (arginase pathway) ,
arsenate detoxification I (glutaredoxin) ,
ascorbate recycling (cytosolic) ,
asparagine biosynthesis I ,
asparagine degradation III (mammalian) ,
aspartate biosynthesis ,
aspartate degradation I ,
aspartate degradation II ,
aspirin-triggered lipoxin biosynthesis ,
aspirin triggered resolvin D biosynthesis ,
aspirin triggered resolvin E biosynthesis ,
β-alanine degradation I ,
bile acid biosynthesis, neutral pathway ,
bupropion degradation ,
C20 prostanoid biosynthesis ,
carbon disulfide oxidation II (aerobic) ,
cardiolipin biosynthesis II ,
carnosine biosynthesis ,
catecholamine biosynthesis ,
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I ,
ceramide de novo biosynthesis ,
cholesterol biosynthesis I ,
cholesterol biosynthesis III (via desmosterol) ,
cholesterol biosynthesis II (via 24,25-dihydrolanosterol) ,
choline degradation I ,
chondroitin and dermatan biosynthesis ,
chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis ,
chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (late stages) ,
chondroitin sulfate degradation (metazoa) ,
citrulline biosynthesis ,
citrulline-nitric oxide cycle ,
CMP-2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononate biosynthesis ,
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate biosynthesis I (eukaryotes) ,
CMP-N-glycoloylneuraminate biosynthesis ,
CMP phosphorylation ,
coenzyme A biosynthesis II (mammalian) ,
creatine biosynthesis ,
creatine-phosphate biosynthesis ,
cysteine biosynthesis/homocysteine degradation ,
cysteine biosynthesis III (mammalian) ,
dermatan sulfate biosynthesis ,
dermatan sulfate biosynthesis (late stages) ,
dermatan sulfate degradation (metazoa) ,
D-galactose degradation V (Leloir pathway) ,
D-glucuronate degradation I ,
diphthamide biosynthesis (eukaryotes) ,
D-myo-inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate biosynthesis ,
D-myo-inositol (1,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate biosynthesis ,
D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate biosynthesis ,
D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate degradation ,
D-myo-inositol (3,4,5,6)-tetrakisphosphate biosynthesis ,
D-myo-inositol-5-phosphate metabolism ,
dopamine degradation ,
D-serine degradation ,
eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (metazoa) ,
epoxysqualene biosynthesis ,
estradiol biosynthesis II ,
estradiol biosynthesis I (via estrone) ,
ethanol degradation II ,
ethanol degradation IV ,
eumelanin biosynthesis ,
fatty acid α-oxidation II ,
fatty acid α-oxidation III ,
fatty acid β-oxidation I ,
fatty acid β-oxidation III (unsaturated, odd number) ,
fatty acid β-oxidation VI (peroxisome) ,
fatty acid biosynthesis initiation II ,
flavin biosynthesis IV (mammalian) ,
formaldehyde oxidation II (glutathione-dependent) ,
fructose 2,6-bisphosphate biosynthesis ,
GABA shunt ,
γ-glutamyl cycle ,
γ-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals) ,
GDP-glucose biosynthesis ,
GDP-glucose biosynthesis II ,
GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis I (from GDP-D-mannose) ,
GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis II (from L-fucose) ,
GDP-mannose biosynthesis ,
geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
glucocorticoid biosynthesis ,
gluconeogenesis III ,
glutamate and glutamine biosynthesis ,
glutamate biosynthesis II ,
glutamate degradation X ,
glutamate removal from folates ,
glutamine biosynthesis I ,
glutamine degradation I ,
glutaryl-CoA degradation ,
glutathione-mediated detoxification I ,
glutathione redox reactions I ,
glutathione redox reactions II ,
glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle ,
glycine betaine degradation I ,
glycine betaine degradation II (mammalian) ,
glycine biosynthesis II ,
glycine cleavage ,
glycoaminoglycan-protein linkage region biosynthesis ,
glycogen biosynthesis II (from UDP-D-Glucose) ,
glycogen degradation III ,
glycogenolysis II ,
glycolysis VI (metazoan) ,
guanine and guanosine salvage ,
guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I ,
guanosine nucleotides degradation III ,
guanosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis ,
heme biosynthesis I (aerobic) ,
heme degradation ,
heparan sulfate biosynthesis ,
heparan sulfate biosynthesis (late stages) ,
histamine biosynthesis ,
histamine degradation ,
histidine degradation III ,
histidine degradation V ,
histidine degradation VI ,
homocarnosine biosynthesis ,
homolactic fermentation ,
hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis II (mammalian) ,
hypusine biosynthesis ,
inosine-5'-phosphate biosynthesis II ,
inositol pyrophosphates biosynthesis ,
isoleucine degradation I ,
ketogenesis ,
ketolysis ,
lanosterol biosynthesis ,
L-ascorbate biosynthesis IV ,
L-carnitine biosynthesis ,
L-cysteine degradation I ,
L-cysteine degradation III ,
L-dopachrome biosynthesis ,
L-dopa degradation ,
leucine degradation I ,
leukotriene biosynthesis ,
lipoxin biosynthesis ,
L-serine degradation ,
lysine degradation II (mammalian) ,
lysine degradation II (pipecolate pathway) ,
mannosyl-glycoprotein N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases ,
melatonin degradation I ,
melatonin degradation II ,
melatonin degradation III ,
methionine degradation I (to homocysteine) ,
methionine salvage cycle III (animals) ,
methionine salvage from homocysteine ,
methylglyoxal degradation I ,
methylglyoxal degradation III ,
methylglyoxal degradation VI ,
methylglyoxal degradation VII ,
methylglyoxal degradation VIII ,
mevalonate pathway I ,
mineralocorticoid biosynthesis ,
mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle ,
molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis ,
morphine biosynthesis ,
mRNA capping I ,
mRNA capping II ,
mucin core 1 and core 2 O-glycosylation ,
mucin core 3 and core 4 O-glycosylation ,
myo-inositol biosynthesis ,
NAD biosynthesis from 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde ,
NAD biosynthesis II (from tryptophan) ,
NADH repair ,
NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation II (mammalian) ,
NAD salvage pathway III ,
nicotine degradation III ,
nicotine degradation IV ,
nonaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis I ,
noradrenaline and adrenaline degradation ,
oleate biosynthesis II (animals and fungi) ,
ornithine de novo biosynthesis ,
oxidative ethanol degradation III ,
oxidized GTP and dGTP detoxification ,
palmitate biosynthesis I (animals and fungi) ,
pentose phosphate pathway (oxidative branch) II ,
phenylalanine degradation I (aerobic) ,
phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain) ,
phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis I ,
phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis V ,
phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis III ,
phosphatidylserine biosynthesis I ,
phosphatidylserine biosynthesis II ,
phytol degradation ,
pregnenolone biosynthesis ,
progesterone biosynthesis ,
proline biosynthesis I ,
proline degradation ,
propionyl CoA degradation ,
protein citrullination ,
protein O-[N-acetyl]-glucosylation ,
protein ubiquitination ,
PRPP biosynthesis I ,
purine deoxyribonucleosides degradation ,
purine deoxyribonucleosides salvage ,
purine nucleotides degradation II (aerobic) ,
purine ribonucleosides degradation ,
putrescine biosynthesis I ,
putrescine biosynthesis III ,
putrescine degradation III ,
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage I ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides degradation ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleosides salvage ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide phosphorylation ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides biosynthesis from CTP ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis I ,
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides dephosphorylation ,
pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradation ,
pyrimidine ribonucleosides salvage I ,
pyruvate decarboxylation to acetyl CoA ,
pyruvate fermentation to lactate ,
Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt ,
reactive oxygen species degradation (mammalian) ,
resolvin D biosynthesis ,
retinoate biosynthesis I ,
retinoate biosynthesis II ,
retinol biosynthesis ,
S-adenosyl-L-methionine cycle II ,
selenocysteine biosynthesis II (archaea and eukaryotes) ,
serine biosynthesis ,
serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis ,
serotonin degradation ,
S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine degradation II ,
S-methyl-5-thio-α-D-ribose 1-phosphate degradation ,
spermidine biosynthesis I ,
spermine and spermidine degradation I ,
spermine biosynthesis ,
sphingolipid biosynthesis (mammals) ,
sphingomyelin metabolism ,
sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate metabolism ,
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis II ,
stearate biosynthesis I (animals) ,
sucrose degradation V (sucrose α-glucosidase) ,
sulfate activation for sulfonation ,
sulfite oxidation IV ,
superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I ,
superpathway of cholesterol biosynthesis ,
superpathway of citrulline metabolism ,
superpathway of D-myo-inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate metabolism ,
superpathway of geranylgeranyldiphosphate biosynthesis I (via mevalonate) ,
superpathway of guanosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I ,
superpathway of heme biosynthesis from glycine ,
superpathway of lysine degradation ,
superpathway of melatonin degradation ,
superpathway of methionine salvage and degradation ,
superpathway of polyamine biosynthesis II ,
superpathway of purine nucleotide salvage ,
superpathway of purine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis I ,
superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside salvage ,
superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis ,
superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleosides degradation ,
superpathway of pyrimidine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis ,
superpathway of serine and glycine biosynthesis I ,
superpathway of sialic acids and CMP-sialic acids biosynthesis ,
superpathway of steroid hormone biosynthesis ,
taurine biosynthesis ,
TCA cycle III (animals) ,
terminal O-glycans residues modification ,
tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis I ,
tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis II ,
tetrahydrofolate salvage from 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate ,
tetrapyrrole biosynthesis II (from glycine) ,
the visual cycle I (vertebrates) ,
thiosulfate disproportionation III (rhodanese) ,
threonine degradation ,
threonine degradation II ,
thymine degradation ,
thyroid hormone biosynthesis ,
thyroid hormone metabolism II (via conjugation and/or degradation) ,
thyroid hormone metabolism I (via deiodination) ,
thyronamine and iodothyronamine metabolism ,
trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline degradation I ,
trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
tryptophan degradation III (eukaryotic) ,
tryptophan degradation to 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde ,
tryptophan degradation XI (mammalian, via kynurenine) ,
tryptophan degradation X (mammalian, via tryptamine) ,
tyrosine biosynthesis IV ,
tyrosine degradation I ,
ubiquinol-10 biosynthesis (eukaryotic) ,
ubiquinol-9 biosynthesis (eukaryotic) ,
UDP-α-D-glucuronate biosynthesis (from UDP-glucose) ,
UDP-D-galactose biosynthesis ,
UDP-D-xylose biosynthesis ,
UDP-glucose biosynthesis ,
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine biosynthesis I ,
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis II ,
UMP biosynthesis ,
uracil degradation I (reductive) ,
urate biosynthesis/inosine 5'-phosphate degradation ,
urate degradation to allantoin I ,
urea cycle ,
UTP and CTP de novo biosynthesis ,
UTP and CTP dephosphorylation I ,
UTP and CTP dephosphorylation II ,
valine degradation I ,
very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis I ,
very long chain fatty acid biosynthesis II ,
vitamin D3 biosynthesis ,
xylitol degradation ,
zymosterol biosynthesis

Additional pathways which may be present in Vertebrata and all its sub-taxa (150)
These pathways were inferred using their expected taxonomic range:
(1,4)-β-xylan degradation ,
2-aminoethylphosphonate biosynthesis ,
2-methylbutyrate biosynthesis ,
acetate formation from acetyl-CoA II ,
acyl-ACP thioesterase pathway ,
acyl-CoA hydrolysis ,
adenine and adenosine salvage II ,
adenosine 5'-phosphoramidate biosynthesis ,
allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate II (ammonia producing) ,
allantoin degradation to ureidoglycolate I (urea producing) ,
all-trans-farnesol biosynthesis ,
all trans undecaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
anthranilate degradation IV (aerobic) ,
arginine degradation V (arginine deiminase pathway) ,
arginine degradation X (arginine monooxygenase pathway) ,
asparagine biosynthesis II ,
asparagine degradation I ,
beta-carboline biosynthesis ,
bisabolene biosynthesis ,
carotenoid cleavage ,
cellulose biosynthesis ,
ceramide degradation ,
chitin degradation II ,
chitin degradation to ethanol ,
chlorogenic acid degradation ,
chrysophanol biosynthesis ,
cis-calamenene related sesquiterpenoids biosynthesis ,
citrulline degradation ,
coenzyme A biosynthesis I ,
costunolide biosynthesis ,
dammara-20,24-diene biosynthesis ,
diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine biosynthesis ,
dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation I (cleavage) ,
dimethyl sulfoxide degradation ,
D-mannose degradation ,
docosahexanoate biosynthesis I ,
docosahexanoate biosynthesis II ,
dolichol and dolichyl phosphate biosynthesis ,
dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide biosynthesis ,
eicosapentaenoate biosynthesis III (fungi) ,
ent -kaurene biosynthesis II ,
Entner-Doudoroff pathway I ,
fatty acid activation ,
fatty acid beta-oxidation V (unsaturated, odd number, di-isomerase-dependent) ,
fatty acid biosynthesis initiation I ,
folate polyglutamylation ,
folate transformations I ,
geodin biosynthesis ,
geranyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
glucose and glucose-1-phosphate degradation ,
glutamate biosynthesis III ,
glutamate degradation I ,
glutamate degradation IX (via 4-aminobutyrate) ,
glutathione biosynthesis ,
glutathionylspermidine biosynthesis ,
glycerol degradation V ,
glycine biosynthesis I ,
glycine biosynthesis III ,
glycogen degradation I ,
glycolysis I (from glucose 6-phosphate) ,
glycolysis II (from fructose 6-phosphate) ,
glyoxylate cycle ,
guanine and guanosine salvage II ,
heptaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
hexaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
homospermidine biosynthesis ,
isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine) ,
isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered) ,
itaconate degradation ,
laminaribiose degradation ,
L-cysteine degradation II ,
L-glutamine biosynthesis II (tRNA-dependent) ,
linalool biosynthesis I ,
linalool biosynthesis II ,
lipoate biosynthesis and incorporation I ,
lipoate salvage I ,
L-Nδ-acetylornithine biosynthesis ,
melibiose degradation ,
methylglyoxal degradation II ,
methylhalides biosynthesis (plants) ,
methyl ketone biosynthesis ,
monoacylglycerol metabolism (yeast) ,
N10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis ,
N-acetylglucosamine degradation I ,
N-acetylglucosamine degradation II ,
NAD biosynthesis I (from aspartate) ,
NADH to cytochrome bd oxidase electron transfer I ,
NAD phosphorylation and dephosphorylation I ,
neurosporaxanthin biosynthesis ,
octanoyl-ACP biosynthesis (mitochondria, yeast) ,
octaprenyl diphosphate biosynthesis ,
palmitoleate biosynthesis II ,
pentose phosphate pathway ,
pentose phosphate pathway (non-oxidative branch) ,
pentose phosphate pathway (oxidative branch) I ,
phenylethanol biosynthesis ,
phenylethylamine degradation I ,
phosphate acquisition ,
phosphatidylcholine resynthesis via glycerophosphocholine ,
phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis II (non-plastidic) ,
phosphatidylglycerol biosynthesis I (plastidic) ,
phospholipases ,
phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidate, yeast) ,
phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylcholine, yeast) ,
phospholipid remodeling (phosphatidylethanolamine, yeast) ,
plumbagin biosynthesis ,
polyisoprenoid biosynthesis (E. coli) ,
polyvinyl alcohol degradation ,
proline biosynthesis II (from arginine) ,
pseudouridine degradation ,
pyruvate fermentation to acetate V ,
pyruvate fermentation to acetate VII ,
pyruvate fermentation to butanol II ,
pyruvate fermentation to hexanol ,
pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol (engineered) ,
raspberry ketone biosynthesis ,
resveratrol degradation ,
ricinine degradation ,
sciadonate biosynthesis ,
sedoheptulose bisphosphate bypass ,
selinene biosynthesis ,
serine racemization ,
sterol:steryl ester interconversion (yeast) ,
superoxide radicals degradation ,
superpathway of adenosine nucleotides de novo biosynthesis II ,
superpathway of alliin degradation ,
superpathway of asparagine biosynthesis ,
superpathway of dimethylsulfoniopropionate degradation ,
superpathway of fatty acid biosynthesis initiation (E. coli) ,
superpathway of glycolysis and Entner-Doudoroff ,
superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds ,
superpathway of leucine, valine, and isoleucine biosynthesis ,
superpathway of NAD biosynthesis in eukaryotes ,
superpathway phosphatidate biosynthesis (yeast) ,
taxadiene biosynthesis (engineered) ,
terminal olefins biosynthesis I ,
terminal olefins biosynthesis II ,
thiamin triphosphate metabolism ,
thio-molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis ,
thioredoxin pathway ,
triacylglycerol biosynthesis ,
triacylglycerol degradation ,
tRNA charging ,
tRNA methylation (yeast) ,
tRNA splicing ,
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine biosynthesis I ,
valencene and 7-epi-α-selinene biosynthesis ,
valine biosynthesis ,
wybutosine biosynthesis ,
xanthine and xanthosine salvage


Report Errors or Provide Feedback
Please cite the following article in publications resulting from the use of MetaCyc: Caspi et al, Nucleic Acids Research 42:D459-D471 2014
Page generated by SRI International Pathway Tools version 18.5 on Thu Nov 27, 2014, biocyc12.