This view shows enzymes only for those organisms listed below, in the list of taxa known to possess the pathway. If an enzyme name is shown in bold, there is experimental evidence for this enzymatic activity.
|Superclasses:||Degradation/Utilization/Assimilation → Amino Acids Degradation → Proteinogenic Amino Acids Degradation → L-alanine Degradation|
Some taxa known to possess this pathway include : [Clostridium] propionicum
Some anaerobic bacteria can ferment amino acids. [Clostridium] propionicum can ferment L-alanine as shown in this pathway and the associated pathway link. The amino group of L-alanine is transferred to 2-oxoglutarate, resulting in the formation of pyruvate and L-glutamate. 2-oxoglutarate is regenerated by NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase, producing ammonia.
For information about the full pathway, see L-alanine fermentation to propanoate and acetate.
Superpathways: L-alanine fermentation to propanoate and acetate
Unification Links: KEGG:MAP00640
Hetzel03: Hetzel M, Brock M, Selmer T, Pierik AJ, Golding BT, Buckel W (2003). "Acryloyl-CoA reductase from Clostridium propionicum. An enzyme complex of propionyl-CoA dehydrogenase and electron-transferring flavoprotein." Eur J Biochem 270(5);902-10. PMID: 12603323
Selmer02: Selmer T, Willanzheimer A, Hetzel M (2002). "Propionate CoA-transferase from Clostridium propionicum. Cloning of gene and identification of glutamate 324 at the active site." Eur J Biochem 269(1);372-80. PMID: 11784332
Bonete96: Bonete MJ, Perez-Pomares F, Ferrer J, Camacho ML (1996). "NAD-glutamate dehydrogenase from Halobacterium halobium: inhibition and activation by TCA intermediates and amino acids." Biochim Biophys Acta 1996;1289(1);14-24. PMID: 8605224
Bugg91: Bugg TD, Wright GD, Dutka-Malen S, Arthur M, Courvalin P, Walsh CT (1991). "Molecular basis for vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium BM4147: biosynthesis of a depsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor by vancomycin resistance proteins VanH and VanA." Biochemistry 30(43);10408-15. PMID: 1931965
Chae11: Chae, Lee (2011). "The functional annotation of protein sequences was performed by the in-house Ensemble Enzyme Prediction Pipeline (E2P2, version 1.0). E2P2 systematically integrates results from three molecular function annotation algorithms using an ensemble classification scheme. For a given genome, all protein sequences are submitted as individual queries against the base-level annotation methods. The individual methods rely on homology transfer to annotate protein sequences, using single sequence (BLAST, E-value cutoff <= 1e-30, subset of SwissProt 15.3) and multiple sequence (Priam, November 2010; CatFam, version 2.0, 1% FDR profile library) models of enzymatic functions. The base-level predictions are then integrated into a final set of annotations using an average weighted integration algorithm, where the weight of each prediction from each individual method was determined via a 0.632 bootstrap process over 1000 rounds of testing. The training and testing data for E2P2 and the BLAST reference database were drawn from protein sequences with experimental support of existence, compiled from SwissProt release 15.3."
Dartois95: Dartois V, Phalip V, Schmitt P, Divies C (1995). "Purification, properties and DNA sequence of the D-lactate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris." Res Microbiol 146(4);291-302. PMID: 7569323
Felbeck80: Felbeck H, Grieshaber MK (1980). "Investigations on some enzymes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of amino acids of Arenicola marina L." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Comparative Biochemistry 66(2);205-213.
Furukawa14: Furukawa N, Miyanaga A, Togawa M, Nakajima M, Taguchi H (2014). "Diverse allosteric and catalytic functions of tetrameric d-lactate dehydrogenases from three Gram-negative bacteria." AMB Express 4;76. PMID: 25401076
Ishiguro91: Ishiguro M, Takio K, Suzuki M, Oyama R, Matsuzawa T, Titani K (1991). "Complete amino acid sequence of human liver cytosolic alanine aminotransferase (GPT) determined by a combination of conventional and mass spectral methods." Biochemistry 30(43);10451-7. PMID: 1931970
Liepman03: Liepman AH, Olsen LJ (2003). "Alanine aminotransferase homologs catalyze the glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase reaction in peroxisomes of Arabidopsis." Plant Physiol 131(1);215-27. PMID: 12529529
MeloOliveira96: Melo-Oliveira R, Oliveira IC, Coruzzi GM (1996). "Arabidopsis mutant analysis and gene regulation define a nonredundant role for glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen assimilation." Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(10);4718-23. PMID: 8643469
Miller91: Miller SM, Magasanik B (1991). "Role of the complex upstream region of the GDH2 gene in nitrogen regulation of the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Mol Cell Biol 11(12);6229-47. PMID: 1682801
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